Mechatronics

Mechatronics

Principles and Applications

First published on May 25, 2005

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  • Author: Godfrey Onwubolu
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780750663793
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080492902

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Description

Mechatronics is a core subject for engineers, combining elements of mechanical and electronic engineering into the development of computer-controlled mechanical devices such as DVD players or anti-lock braking systems. This book is the most comprehensive text available for both mechanical and electrical engineering students and will enable them to engage fully with all stages of mechatronic system design. It offers broader and more integrated coverage than other books in the field with practical examples, case studies and exercises throughout and an Instructor's Manual. A further key feature of the book is its integrated coverage of programming the PIC microcontroller, and the use of MATLAB and Simulink programming and modelling, along with code files for downloading from the accompanying website.

Key Features

* Integrated coverage of PIC microcontroller programming, MATLAB and Simulink modelling
* Fully developed student exercises, detailed practical examples
* Accompanying website with Instructor's Manual, downloadable code and image bank

Readership

Undergraduate and postgraduate students in mechanical and electrical engineering and on dedicated mechatronics courses; Also engineering design and technology; IT and computing; aeronautical engineering; control, systems and robotics; manufacturing and product design.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    Acknowledgements
    Chapter 1: Introduction to Mechatronics
    1.1 Historical perspective
    1.2 Mechatronics system
    1.3 Mechatronics key elements
    1.3.1 Electronics
    1.3.2 Digital control
    1.3.3 Sensors and actuators
    1.3.4 Information technology
    1.4 Some examples of mechatronics systems
    Summary
    References

    Chapter 2: Electrical Components and Circuits
    2.1 Introduction
    2.1.1 External Energy Sources
    2.1.2 Ground
    2.2 Electrical Components
    2.2.1 Resistor
    2.2.2 Capacitor
    2.2.3 Inductor
    2.3 Resistive Elements
    2.3.1 Node Voltage Method
    2.3.1.1 Node Voltage Analysis Method
    2.3.2 Mesh Current Method
    2.3.2.1 Mesh Current Analysis Method
    2.3.3 The Principle of Superposition
    2.3.4 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits
    2.4 Sinusoidal Sources and Complex Impedance
    2.4.1 Resistive Impedance
    2.4.2 Capacitive Impedance
    2.4.3 Inductive Impedance
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 3: Semiconductor Electronic Devices
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Covalent Bonds and Doping Materials
    3.3 The PN Junction and the Diode Effect
    3.4 The Zener Diode
    3.5 Power Supplies
    3.6 Transistor Circuits
    3.6.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors
    3.6.1.1 Transistor Operation
    3.6.1.2 Basis Circuit Configurations
    3.6.1.3 BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis
    3.6.1.4 Practical BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis
    3.6.1.5 Small Signal Models of the BJT
    3.6.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (MOS) Transistors
    3.6.2.1 Enhanced Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
    3.6.2.2 Depletion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
    3.6.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs)
    3.6.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Small Signal Models
    3.6.5 Transistors Gates and Switching Circuits
    3.6.5.1 Diode Gates
    3.6.5.2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Gates
    3.6.5.3 Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) Gates
    3.6.5.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Gates
    3.6.6 Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (CMOS) Transistor Gates
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 4: Digital Electronics
    4.1 Number Systems
    4.2 Combinational Logic Design using Truth Table
    4.3 Karnaugh Maps and Logic Design
    4.4 Combinational Logic Modules
    4.4.1 Half Adders
    4.4.2 Full Adders
    4.4.3 Multiplexers
    4.4.4 Decoders
    4.4.5 Read and Write Memory
    4.5 Timing Diagrams
    4.6 Sequential Logic Modules
    4.6.1 SR Flip-flops
    4.6.2 SR Flip-flops
    4.6.3 D Flip-flops
    4.6.4 JK Flip-flop
    4.6.5 Master/Slave or Pulse Trigger
    4.6.6 Edge Triggering
    4.7 Sequential Logic Design
    4.8 Applications of Flip-flops
    4.8.1 Data Registers
    4.8.2 Counters
    4.8.3 Schmitt Trigger
    4.8.4 NE555 Timer
    4.8.5 Astable Multivibrator
    4.8.6 Mono-stable Multivibrator (One-Shot)
    4.8.7 Serial and Parallel Interfaces
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 5: Analog Electronics
    5.1 Amplifiers
    5.2 The Ideal Operational Amplifier Model
    5.3 Inverting Amplifier
    5.4 Non-inverting Amplifier
    5.5 Unity-Gain Buffer
    5.6 Summer
    5.7 Difference Amplifier
    5.8 Instrumentation Amplifier
    5.9 Integrator Amplifier
    5.10 Differentiator Amplifier
    5.11 Comparator
    5.12 Sample and Hold Amplifier
    5.13 Active Filters
    5.13.1 Low-pass Active Filters
    5.13.2 High-pass Active Filters
    5.13.3 Active Band-pass Filters
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 6: Microcomputers and Micro-controllers
    6.1 Microprocessors and Microcomputers
    6.2 Micro-controllers
    6.3 PIC16F84 Micro-controller Architecture
    6.3.1 Features of PIC16F84/16F87
    6.3.2 The PIC16F84 Architecture
    6.3.3 Memory Organization of PIC16F84/16F87
    6.3.4 Special Features of the PIC16F84/16F87
    6.4 Programming a PIC using Assembly Language
    6.5 Programming a PIC using C Language
    6.5.1 Initializing Ports
    6.5.2 Programming PIC using CC5X
    6.5.3 Practical problems for CC5X programming
    6.6 Interfacing Common PIC Peripherals: PIC Millennium Board
    6.6.1 Numeric Keyboard
    6.6.2 LCD Display
    6.7 PIC 16F877 microcontroller
    6.8 Interfacing to the PIC
    6.8.1 Data Output from the PIC
    6.8.2 Data Input to the PIC
    6.9 Communicating with PIC during programming
    6.9.1 Compiling with CCS: PIC compiler
    6.9.2 Boot loader for communicating with PIC
    6.9.3 Tera Term for serial communication
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 7: Data Acquisition
    7.1 Data Acquisition Systems
    7.2 Sampling and aliasing
    7.2.1 Sampling
    7.2.2 Aliasing
    7.3 Quantization
    7.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Hardware
    7.4.1 Binary Weighted Ladder DAC
    7.4.2 Resistor Ladder DAC
    7.5 Analog -to-Digital Conversion Hardware
    7.5.1 Parallel-Encoding (Flash) ADC
    7.5.2 Successive-Approximation ADC
    7.5.3 Dual Slope ADC
    7.6 System Integration in Data Acquisition Systems
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 8: Sensors
    8.1 Distance Sensors
    8.1.1 Potentiometer
    8.1.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer
    8.1.3 Digital Optical Encoder
    8.1.3.1 Absolute Encoder
    8.1.3.2 Incremental Encoder
    8.2 Movement Sensors
    8.2.1 Velocity Sensors
    8.2.1.1 Doppler Effect
    8.2.2 Acceleration Sensors
    8.2.2.1 Spring Mass Accelerometers
    8.2.2.2 Piezoelectric Accelerometers
    8.2.2.3 Piezoresistive Accelerometers
    8.2.2.4 Variable Resistance Accelerometers
    8.3 Proximity Sensors
    8.3.1 Inductive Proximity Sensors
    8.3.2 Capacitive Proximity Sensors
    8.3.3 Photoelectric Proximity Sensors
    8.4 Stress and Strain Measurement
    8.4.1 Resistance Strain Gauges
    8.4.1.1 Wheatstone Bridge for Measuring Resistance Changes
    8.4.2 Capacitance Strain Gauges
    8.4.3 Photoelectric Strain Gauges
    8.4.4 Semiconductor Strain Gauges
    8.5 Force Measurement Transducers
    8.5.1 Optoelectric Force Sensors
    8.5.2 Time of Flight Sensors
    8.5.3 Binary Force Sensors
    8.6 Temperature Measurement Transducers
    8.6.1 Liquid Expansion Thermometer
    8.6.2 Bimetallic Strip Thermometer
    8.6.3 Gas Thermometer
    8.6.4 Resistance Temperature Detector
    8.6.5 Thermocouple
    8.6.6 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuit Thermal Sensor
    8.6.6.1 Diode Thermometer
    8.6.6.2 Thermistors
    8.7 Pressure Transducer
    8.6.1 Pressure Gradient Flow Transducers
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 9: Electrical Actuator Systems
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Moving-iron Transducers
    9.3 Solenoids
    9.4 Relays
    9.5 Electric Motors
    9.6 Direct-Current Motors
    9.6.1 Fundamentals of DC motors
    9.6.2 Separately excited motors
    9.6.3 Shunt motors
    9.6.4 Series motors
    9.6.5 Control of DC motors
    9.6.6 Speed control of shunt or separately excited motors
    9.6.7 Controlling speed by adding resistance
    9.6.8 Controlling speed by adjusting armature voltage
    9.6.9 Controlling speed by adjusting field voltage
    9.7 Dynamic model and control model of DC motors
    9.7.1 Open-loop control of permanent magnet motors
    9.7.2 Closed-loop control of permanent magnet motors
    9.7.3 Motor speed control using PWM
    9.8 Servo Motors
    9.9 Stepper Motors
    9.9.1 How stepper motor works
    9.9.2 Stepper motor control
    9.9.3 Hardware for stepper motor control
    9.9.3.1 The power circuit
    9.9.3.2 The L297 oscillator
    9.9.3.3 The NE555 oscillator
    9.9.3.4 Power supply
    9.10 Motor selection

    Chapter 10: Mechanical Actuator Systems
    10.1 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
    10.1 Symbols for Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
    10.2 Hydraulic Pumps
    10.2.1 Gear Pumps
    10.2.2 Vane Pumps
    10.3 Pneumatic Compressors
    10.3.1 Centrifugal Compressors
    10.3.2 Axial Compressors
    10.4 Valves
    10.4.1 Relief Valves
    10.4.2 Loading Valves
    10.4.3 Differential Pressure Regulating Valves
    10.4.4 Three-way Valves
    10.4.5 Four-way Valves
    10.2 Mechanical elements
    10.2.1 Mechanisms
    10.2.2 Machines
    10.2.3 Types of motion
    10.3 Kinematic Chains
    10.3.1 The four-bar chain
    10.3.2 The slider-crank mechanism
    10.4 Cams
    10.4.1 Classification of cam mechanisms
    10.4.1.1 Modes of input/output motion
    10.4.1.2 Follower configuration
    10.4.1.3 Follower arrangement
    10.4.1.4 Cam shape
    10.4.2 Motion events
    10.4.2.1 Constant velocity motion
    10.4.2.2 Constant acceleration motion
    10.4.2.3 Harmonic motion
    10.5 Gears
    10.5.1 Spur and helical gears
    10.5.2 Bevel gears
    10.5.3 Rack and pinion
    10.5.4 Gear trains
    10.5.5 Epicyclic gear trains
    10.6 Ratchet Mechanisms
    10.7 Flexible mechanical elements
    10.7.1 Belt drives
    10.8 Friction clutches
    10.8.1 Dog clutch
    10.8.2 Cone clutch
    10.8.3 Plate clutch
    10.8.4 Band clutch
    10.8.5 Internal expanding clutch
    10.8.6 Centrifugal clutch
    10.8.7 Clutch selection
    10.9 Design of clutches
    10.9.1 Constant pressure
    10.9.2 Constant wear
    10.10 Brakes
    10.10.1 Band brake
    10.10.2 Drum brake
    10.10.3 Disk brake
    10.10.4 Brake selection
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 11: Interfacing Micro-controller with Actuators
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Interfacing with general-purpose 3-state transistors
    11.3 Interfacing Relays
    11.4 Interfacing Selenoids
    11.5 Interfacing Stepper Motors
    11.6 Interfacing Permanent Magnet Motors
    11.7 Interfacing Sensors
    11.8 Interfacing ADC
    11.9 Interfacing DAC
    11.10 Interfacing Power Supplies
    11.11 Interfacing with RS 232, 485
    11.12 Compatibility at interface
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 12: Control Theory: Modeling
    12.1 Introduction to control systems
    12.2 Modeling in the frequency domain
    12.2.1 Block diagram representation
    12.2.2 Laplace Transforms
    12.2.3 The transfer function
    12.2.4 Electrical network transfer functions
    12.2.4.1 Passive networks
    12.2.4.2 Operational amplifiers
    12.2.5 Mechanical systems transfer functions
    12.2.5.1 Translational mechanical systems transfer functions
    12.2.5.2 Rotational mechanical systems transfer functions
    12.2.6 Electromechanical systems transfer functions
    12.2.7 Electromechanical analogies
    12.3 Modeling in the time domain state equations
    12.4 Block diagrams
    12.4.1 Cascade form
    12.4.2 Parallel form
    12.4.3 Feedback form

    Chapter 13: Control Theory: Analysis
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 System response
    13.2.1 Poles and zeros of a transient function
    13.3 Dynamic Characteristics of Control Systems
    13.4 Zero order system
    13.5 First order system
    13.6 Second order systems
    13.7 General second order transfer function
    13.7.1 under-damped second order systems
    13.7.2 Operator D-Method
    13.8 Systems Modeling and Interdisciplinary Analogies
    13.9 Stability
    13.10 Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria
    13.11 Steady-state errors
    13.11.1 Steady-state error for unity feed-back system
    13.11.2 Static error constants and system type
    13.11.3 Steady-state error through static error constants
    13.11.4 Steady-state error specifications
    13.11.5 Steady-state error for non-unity feed-back system

    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 14: Control Theory: graphical techniques
    14.1 Root locus techniques
    14.1.1 Vector representations of complex numbers
    14.1.2 Properties of root locus
    14.1.3 Root locus plots.
    14.2 Frequency response techniques
    14.2.1 Nyquist plots
    14.2.2 Bode plots
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 15: Robotics Systems
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Types of robots
    15.2.1 Autonomous/Mobile Robots
    15.2.2 Robotic Arms
    15.3 Basic Definitions in robotic arms
    15.4 Robotic Arm Configuration
    15.5 Robot Applications
    15.6 Basic Robotic Systems
    15.6.1 Robotic mechanical-arm
    15.6.2 End of arm tooling (EOAT)
    15.7 Robotic manipulator kinematics
    15.7.1 Forward Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot
    15.7.2 Inverse Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot
    15.8 Robotic arm positioning concepts
    15.9 Robotic arm path planning
    15.10 Simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 16: Electronic Fabrication Process
    16.1 Production of Electronic Grade Silicon
    16.1.1 Single-Crystal Growing
    16.1.2 Shaping of Silicon into Wafers
    16.1.3 Film Deposition
    16.1.4 Oxidation
    16.1.5 Lithography
    16.1.6 Photo-masking, Etching, & Ion Implantation in Silicon Gate Process
    16.2 Fabrication Processes
    16.2.1.1 IC Packaging
    16.2.1.2 Number of External Terminals
    16.2.2 Materials used in IC Packages
    16.2.3 Configurations in IC Packaging
    16.3 PCB Manufacturing
    16.4 PCB Assembly
    16.5 Surface Mount Technology
    Summary
    References

    Chapter 17: Reliability
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Principles of Reliability
    17.3 Reliability of Systems
    17.3.1 Reliability of Series Systems
    17.3.2 Reliability of Parallel Systems
    17.3.3 Reliability of Generic Series-Parallel Systems
    17.3.4 Reliability of Major Parallel Systems
    17.3.5 Reliability of Standby Systems
    17.4 Common Mode Failure
    17.5 Availability of Systems with Repair
    17.6 Response surface modeling
    17.6.1 Planning the experimental investigation
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 18: Artificial Intelligence in Mechatronics Systems
    18.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
    18.1.1 Explosion control
    18.1.2 PSO operators
    18.1.2.1 Position minus position
    18.1.2.2 Coefficient times velocity
    18.1.2.3 Velocity minus velocity
    18.1.2.4 Position minus velocity
    18.1.3 PSO neighborhood
    18.1.3.1 Social neighborhood
    18.1.3.2 Physical neighborhood
    18.1.3.3 Queens
    18.1.4 PSO improvement strategies
    18.1.4.1 No-hope tests
    18.1.4.2 Re-hope process
    18.1.4.2.1 Lazy descent method (LDM)
    18.1.4.2.2 Energetic descent method (EDM)
    18.1.4.2.3 Local iterative leveling (LI)L
    18.1.4.2.4 Adaptive re-hope method (ARM)
    18.1.4.2.5 Parallel and sequential versions
    18.2 TRIBES
    18.2.1 Particles
    18.2.2 Initial population of particles
    18.2.3 Informers
    18.2.4 Tribes
    18.2.5 Promising search areas using hyper-spheres
    18.2.6 Adaptations
    18.2.6.1 Good particle and bad particle
    18.2.6.2 Best particle and worst particle
    18.2.6.3 Classification of good tribe and bad tribe
    18.2.6.4 Rules for adding a tribe
    18.2.6.5 Rules for removing a tribe
    18.2.6.6 Adaptation scheme
    18.2.6.7 Position update
    18.2.6.8 Stopping criteria
    18.2.6.9 Tribes algorithm
    18.2.6.10 Parameter setting
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 19: Mechatronics applications of some new optimization techniques
    19.1 Example 1: Gear train design
    19.2 Example 2: Pressure vessel design
    19.3 Example 3: Coil compression spring design
    19.4 Example 4: Assembly sequencing and magazine assignment for robotics assembly
    19.4.1 Problem formulation
    19.4.2 PSO for robotic assembly using DPP model
    19.4.3 Experimental results
    19.5 Example 5: Automated guided vehicle (AGV) unit load
    19.5.1 Unit load sizes model description
    19.5.1.1 Model description
    19.5.1.2 Model assumption
    19.5.1.3 Model for unit load sizes
    19.4.1.4 A model for estimating capacity and number of AGvs
    19.5.2 Results
    19.6 Example 6: DC motor design
    19.6.1 Classification and standardization
    19.6.2 Volume and bore sizing
    19.6.3 Armature design
    19.6.4 Field pole design
    19.6.5 Optimization design of DC motor
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 20: Mechatronics Systems & Case Shows
    20.1 Case Show 1: A PC-based CNC drilling machine
    • Design of the CNC drilling machine
    • Prediction and reduction of process times for the PC-based CNC drilling machine
    • Response surface methodology-based approach to CNC drilling operations
    20.2 Case Show 2: Mobile robots
    • A Robotic gaming machine
    • Multiple Robotic Gaming Machines
    • An Autonomous
    • An Automated Guided Vehicle
    20.3 Case Show 3: Robotic arm
    20.4 Suggestions for additional Case Shows
    Summary
    Problems
    References

    Appendices

    Appendix A: The Engineering Design Process
    Appendix B: Springs
    B1 Stresses in helical springs
    B2 Deflection and Stiffness in Helical Springs
    B3 Materials for Helical Springs
    B4 Design Methodology for Helical Springs
    Appendix C Spur Gears
    C1 Design Considerations
    C2 Lewis Method for Bending Stress
    C3 Modified Lewis Equation
    C3 Design Guides
    Appendix D Selection of Rolling Contact Bearings
    D1 Types of Ball Bearings
    D2 Types of Roller Bearings
    D3 Life of a Bearing
    D3.1 Rating Life of Bearing
    D3.2 Reliability of Bearing
    D4 Static Load Capacity
    D5 Dynamic Load Capacity
    D6 Equivalent Dynamic Load
    Appendix E Design for Fatigue Strength
    E1 Endurance Limit
    E2 Fatigue Strength
    Appendix F Shaft Design
    F1 Design Based on Static Load
    F2 Design Based on Fluctuating Load
    F3 Soderberg Criterion for Failure
    F4 Design based on Maximum Shear Stress Theory of Failure
    & Soderberg Criterion for Failure
    F5 Design based on Distortion Energy Theory of Failure & Soderberg Criterion
    Appendix G Power Screws Design
    G1 Mechanics of Power Screws
    G2 Raising load
    G3 Lowering load
    G4 Collar effect
    Appendix H Flexible Mechanical Elements Design
    H1 Analysis of flat belts
    H2 Length of open flat belt
    H3 Length of crossed flat belt
    H4 Tensions
    Appendix I CircuitMaker Tutorial
    Appendix J MATLAB Tutorial
    Appendix K Mechatronics resources
    Summary
    Problems
    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 672
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2005
  • Published: May 25, 2005
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780750663793
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080492902

About the Author

Godfrey Onwubolu

Godfrey Onwubolu holds a BEng degree (University of Benin), a MSc degree in mechanical engineering (Aston University) and a PhD in computer-aided design (Aston University). His industrial experience is in manufacturing engineering in West Midlands, England. He was a consultant to a centre of innovation for enabling small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. Godfrey works mainly in three areas: computer-aided design (CAD), additive manufacturing, and inductive modelling. He has published two textbooks on CAD: One is heavily used in many North American universities and colleges, and the other is listed by London’s Imperial College Press as one of the top-10 bestsellers. Godfrey currently works in the area of additive manufacturing, popularly known as 3D printing, where he continues to investigate the functionality of additive manufactured parts based on machine input parameters, in order to make users understand the characteristics of additive manufacturing technologies.He is internationally recognized for his work in inductive modelling, especially in Europe, where he gives public lectures and examines doctoral theses on the subject in universities. He is currently the lead researcher at Sheridan College in applying this technology to the joint Sheridan-Nexflow project for studying the behaviours of Nexflow air products based on their operational parameters. Godfrey has authored more than 130 papers in international journals/conference proceedings and at least eight textbooks. For several years, he has been serving on the International Program Committee for the Inductive Modeling Conference in Europe. He is currently on the Editorial Boards of International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Planning & Control. He continues to use his expertise in the domains of computer-aided design, additive manufacturing, and inductive modelling to impart knowledge to students as an engineering and technology educator, and to advance productivity in the manufacturing industry sector in Canada and beyond.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biomedical and Rehabilitation Engineering and Additive Manufacturing, Sheridan Institute of Technology, Brampton, Canada

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