Mechatronics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750663793, 9780080492902


1st Edition

Principles and Applications

Authors: Godfrey Onwubolu
eBook ISBN: 9780080492902
Paperback ISBN: 9780750663793
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 25th May 2005
Page Count: 672
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Mechatronics is a core subject for engineers, combining elements of mechanical and electronic engineering into the development of computer-controlled mechanical devices such as DVD players or anti-lock braking systems. This book is the most comprehensive text available for both mechanical and electrical engineering students and will enable them to engage fully with all stages of mechatronic system design. It offers broader and more integrated coverage than other books in the field with practical examples, case studies and exercises throughout and an Instructor's Manual. A further key feature of the book is its integrated coverage of programming the PIC microcontroller, and the use of MATLAB and Simulink programming and modelling, along with code files for downloading from the accompanying website.

Key Features

  • Integrated coverage of PIC microcontroller programming, MATLAB and Simulink modelling
  • Fully developed student exercises, detailed practical examples
  • Accompanying website with Instructor's Manual, downloadable code and image bank


Undergraduate and postgraduate students in mechanical and electrical engineering and on dedicated mechatronics courses; Also engineering design and technology; IT and computing; aeronautical engineering; control, systems and robotics; manufacturing and product design.

Table of Contents

Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1: Introduction to Mechatronics 1.1 Historical perspective 1.2 Mechatronics system 1.3 Mechatronics key elements 1.3.1 Electronics 1.3.2 Digital control 1.3.3 Sensors and actuators 1.3.4 Information technology 1.4 Some examples of mechatronics systems Summary References

Chapter 2: Electrical Components and Circuits 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 External Energy Sources 2.1.2 Ground 2.2 Electrical Components 2.2.1 Resistor 2.2.2 Capacitor 2.2.3 Inductor 2.3 Resistive Elements 2.3.1 Node Voltage Method Node Voltage Analysis Method 2.3.2 Mesh Current Method Mesh Current Analysis Method 2.3.3 The Principle of Superposition 2.3.4 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 2.4 Sinusoidal Sources and Complex Impedance 2.4.1 Resistive Impedance 2.4.2 Capacitive Impedance 2.4.3 Inductive Impedance Summary Problems References

Chapter 3: Semiconductor Electronic Devices 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Covalent Bonds and Doping Materials 3.3 The PN Junction and the Diode Effect 3.4 The Zener Diode 3.5 Power Supplies 3.6 Transistor Circuits 3.6.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors Transistor Operation Basis Circuit Configurations BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis Practical BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis Small Signal Models of the BJT 3.6.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (MOS) Transistors Enhanced Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Depletion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors 3.6.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs) 3.6.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Small Signal Models 3.6.5 Transistors Gates and Switching Circuits Diode Gates Bipolar Junction Transistors Gates Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) Gates Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Gates 3.6.6 Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (CMOS) Transistor Gates Summary Problems References

Chapter 4: Digital Electronics 4.1 Number Systems 4.2 Combinational Logic Design using Truth Table 4.3 Karnaugh Maps and Logic Design 4.4 Combinational Logic Modules 4.4.1 Half Adders 4.4.2 Full Adders 4.4.3 Multiplexers 4.4.4 Decoders 4.4.5 Read and Write Memory 4.5 Timing Diagrams 4.6 Sequential Logic Modules 4.6.1 SR Flip-flops 4.6.2 SR Flip-flops 4.6.3 D Flip-flops 4.6.4 JK Flip-flop 4.6.5 Master/Slave or Pulse Trigger 4.6.6 Edge Triggering 4.7 Sequential Logic Design 4.8 Applications of Flip-flops 4.8.1 Data Registers 4.8.2 Counters 4.8.3 Schmitt Trigger 4.8.4 NE555 Timer 4.8.5 Astable Multivibrator 4.8.6 Mono-stable Multivibrator (One-Shot) 4.8.7 Serial and Parallel Interfaces Summary Problems References

Chapter 5: Analog Electronics 5.1 Amplifiers 5.2 The Ideal Operational Amplifier Model 5.3 Inverting Amplifier 5.4 Non-inverting Amplifier 5.5 Unity-Gain Buffer 5.6 Summer 5.7 Difference Amplifier 5.8 Instrumentation Amplifier 5.9 Integrator Amplifier 5.10 Differentiator Amplifier 5.11 Comparator 5.12 Sample and Hold Amplifier 5.13 Active Filters 5.13.1 Low-pass Active Filters 5.13.2 High-pass Active Filters 5.13.3 Active Band-pass Filters Summary Problems References

Chapter 6: Microcomputers and Micro-controllers 6.1 Microprocessors and Microcomputers 6.2 Micro-controllers 6.3 PIC16F84 Micro-controller Architecture 6.3.1 Features of PIC16F84/16F87 6.3.2 The PIC16F84 Architecture 6.3.3 Memory Organization of PIC16F84/16F87 6.3.4 Special Features of the PIC16F84/16F87 6.4 Programming a PIC using Assembly Language 6.5 Programming a PIC using C Language 6.5.1 Initializing Ports 6.5.2 Programming PIC using CC5X 6.5.3 Practical problems for CC5X programming 6.6 Interfacing Common PIC Peripherals: PIC Millennium Board 6.6.1 Numeric Keyboard 6.6.2 LCD Display 6.7 PIC 16F877 microcontroller 6.8 Interfacing to the PIC 6.8.1 Data Output from the PIC 6.8.2 Data Input to the PIC 6.9 Communicating with PIC during programming 6.9.1 Compiling with CCS: PIC compiler 6.9.2 Boot loader for communicating with PIC 6.9.3 Tera Term for serial communication Summary Problems References

Chapter 7: Data Acquisition 7.1 Data Acquisition Systems 7.2 Sampling and aliasing 7.2.1 Sampling 7.2.2 Aliasing 7.3 Quantization 7.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Hardware 7.4.1 Binary Weighted Ladder DAC 7.4.2 Resistor Ladder DAC 7.5 Analog -to-Digital Conversion Hardware 7.5.1 Parallel-Encoding (Flash) ADC 7.5.2 Successive-Approximation ADC 7.5.3 Dual Slope ADC 7.6 System Integration in Data Acquisition Systems Summary Problems References

Chapter 8: Sensors 8.1 Distance Sensors 8.1.1 Potentiometer 8.1.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer 8.1.3 Digital Optical Encoder Absolute Encoder Incremental Encoder 8.2 Movement Sensors 8.2.1 Velocity Sensors Doppler Effect 8.2.2 Acceleration Sensors Spring Mass Accelerometers Piezoelectric Accelerometers Piezoresistive Accelerometers Variable Resistance Accelerometers 8.3 Proximity Sensors 8.3.1 Inductive Proximity Sensors 8.3.2 Capacitive Proximity Sensors 8.3.3 Photoelectric Proximity Sensors 8.4 Stress and Strain Measurement 8.4.1 Resistance Strain Gauges Wheatstone Bridge for Measuring Resistance Changes 8.4.2 Capacitance Strain Gauges 8.4.3 Photoelectric Strain Gauges 8.4.4 Semiconductor Strain Gauges 8.5 Force Measurement Transducers 8.5.1 Optoelectric Force Sensors 8.5.2 Time of Flight Sensors 8.5.3 Binary Force Sensors 8.6 Temperature Measurement Transducers 8.6.1 Liquid Expansion Thermometer 8.6.2 Bimetallic Strip Thermometer 8.6.3 Gas Thermometer 8.6.4 Resistance Temperature Detector 8.6.5 Thermocouple 8.6.6 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuit Thermal Sensor Diode Thermometer Thermistors 8.7 Pressure Transducer 8.6.1 Pressure Gradient Flow Transducers Summary Problems References

Chapter 9: Electrical Actuator Systems 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Moving-iron Transducers 9.3 Solenoids 9.4 Relays 9.5 Electric Motors 9.6 Direct-Current Motors 9.6.1 Fundamentals of DC motors 9.6.2 Separately excited motors 9.6.3 Shunt motors 9.6.4 Series motors 9.6.5 Control of DC motors 9.6.6 Speed control of shunt or separately excited motors 9.6.7 Controlling speed by adding resistance 9.6.8 Controlling speed by adjusting armature voltage 9.6.9 Controlling speed by adjusting field voltage 9.7 Dynamic model and control model of DC motors 9.7.1 Open-loop control of permanent magnet motors 9.7.2 Closed-loop control of permanent magnet motors 9.7.3 Motor speed control using PWM 9.8 Servo Motors 9.9 Stepper Motors 9.9.1 How stepper motor works 9.9.2 Stepper motor control 9.9.3 Hardware for stepper motor control The power circuit The L297 oscillator The NE555 oscillator Power supply 9.10 Motor selection

Chapter 10: Mechanical Actuator Systems 10.1 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 10.1 Symbols for Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 10.2 Hydraulic Pumps 10.2.1 Gear Pumps 10.2.2 Vane Pumps 10.3 Pneumatic Compressors 10.3.1 Centrifugal Compressors 10.3.2 Axial Compressors 10.4 Valves 10.4.1 Relief Valves 10.4.2 Loading Valves 10.4.3 Differential Pressure Regulating Valves 10.4.4 Three-way Valves 10.4.5 Four-way Valves 10.2 Mechanical elements 10.2.1 Mechanisms 10.2.2 Machines 10.2.3 Types of motion 10.3 Kinematic Chains 10.3.1 The four-bar chain 10.3.2 The slider-crank mechanism 10.4 Cams 10.4.1 Classification of cam mechanisms Modes of input/output motion Follower configuration Follower arrangement Cam shape 10.4.2 Motion events Constant velocity motion Constant acceleration motion Harmonic motion 10.5 Gears 10.5.1 Spur and helical gears 10.5.2 Bevel gears 10.5.3 Rack and pinion 10.5.4 Gear trains 10.5.5 Epicyclic gear trains 10.6 Ratchet Mechanisms 10.7 Flexible mechanical elements 10.7.1 Belt drives 10.8 Friction clutches 10.8.1 Dog clutch 10.8.2 Cone clutch 10.8.3 Plate clutch 10.8.4 Band clutch 10.8.5 Internal expanding clutch 10.8.6 Centrifugal clutch 10.8.7 Clutch selection 10.9 Design of clutches 10.9.1 Constant pressure 10.9.2 Constant wear 10.10 Brakes 10.10.1 Band brake 10.10.2 Drum brake 10.10.3 Disk brake 10.10.4 Brake selection Summary Problems References

Chapter 11: Interfacing Micro-controller with Actuators 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Interfacing with general-purpose 3-state transistors 11.3 Interfacing Relays 11.4 Interfacing Selenoids 11.5 Interfacing Stepper Motors 11.6 Interfacing Permanent Magnet Motors 11.7 Interfacing Sensors 11.8 Interfacing ADC 11.9 Interfacing DAC 11.10 Interfacing Power Supplies 11.11 Interfacing with RS 232, 485 11.12 Compatibility at interface Summary Problems References

Chapter 12: Control Theory: Modeling 12.1 Introduction to control systems 12.2 Modeling in the frequency domain 12.2.1 Block diagram representation 12.2.2 Laplace Transforms
12.2.3 The transfer function
12.2.4 Electrical network transfer functions Passive networks Operational amplifiers 12.2.5 Mechanical systems transfer functions Translational mechanical systems transfer functions Rotational mechanical systems transfer functions 12.2.6 Electromechanical systems transfer functions 12.2.7 Electromechanical analogies 12.3 Modeling in the time domain state equations 12.4 Block diagrams 12.4.1 Cascade form 12.4.2 Parallel form 12.4.3 Feedback form

Chapter 13: Control Theory: Analysis 13.1 Introduction 13.2 System response 13.2.1 Poles and zeros of a transient function 13.3 Dynamic Characteristics of Control Systems 13.4 Zero order system 13.5 First order system 13.6 Second order systems 13.7 General second order transfer function 13.7.1 under-damped second order systems 13.7.2 Operator D-Method 13.8 Systems Modeling and Interdisciplinary Analogies 13.9 Stability 13.10 Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria 13.11 Steady-state errors 13.11.1 Steady-state error for unity feed-back system 13.11.2 Static error constants and system type 13.11.3 Steady-state error through static error constants 13.11.4 Steady-state error specifications 13.11.5 Steady-state error for non-unity feed-back system

Summary Problems References

Chapter 14: Control Theory: graphical techniques 14.1 Root locus techniques 14.1.1 Vector representations of complex numbers 14.1.2 Properties of root locus 14.1.3 Root locus plots. 14.2 Frequency response techniques 14.2.1 Nyquist plots 14.2.2 Bode plots Summary Problems References

Chapter 15: Robotics Systems 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Types of robots 15.2.1 Autonomous/Mobile Robots 15.2.2 Robotic Arms 15.3 Basic Definitions in robotic arms 15.4 Robotic Arm Configuration 15.5 Robot Applications 15.6 Basic Robotic Systems 15.6.1 Robotic mechanical-arm 15.6.2 End of arm tooling (EOAT) 15.7 Robotic manipulator kinematics 15.7.1 Forward Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot 15.7.2 Inverse Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot 15.8 Robotic arm positioning concepts 15.9 Robotic arm path planning 15.10 Simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK Summary Problems References

Chapter 16: Electronic Fabrication Process 16.1 Production of Electronic Grade Silicon 16.1.1 Single-Crystal Growing 16.1.2 Shaping of Silicon into Wafers 16.1.3 Film Deposition 16.1.4 Oxidation 16.1.5 Lithography 16.1.6 Photo-masking, Etching, & Ion Implantation in Silicon Gate Process 16.2 Fabrication Processes IC Packaging Number of External Terminals 16.2.2 Materials used in IC Packages 16.2.3 Configurations in IC Packaging 16.3 PCB Manufacturing 16.4 PCB Assembly 16.5 Surface Mount Technology Summary References

Chapter 17: Reliability 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Principles of Reliability 17.3 Reliability of Systems 17.3.1 Reliability of Series Systems 17.3.2 Reliability of Parallel Systems 17.3.3 Reliability of Generic Series-Parallel Systems 17.3.4 Reliability of Major Parallel Systems 17.3.5 Reliability of Standby Systems 17.4 Common Mode Failure 17.5 Availability of Systems with Repair 17.6 Response surface modeling 17.6.1 Planning the experimental investigation Summary Problems References

Chapter 18: Artificial Intelligence in Mechatronics Systems 18.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) 18.1.1 Explosion control 18.1.2 PSO operators Position minus position Coefficient times velocity Velocity minus velocity Position minus velocity 18.1.3 PSO neighborhood Social neighborhood Physical neighborhood Queens 18.1.4 PSO improvement strategies No-hope tests Re-hope process Lazy descent method (LDM) Energetic descent method (EDM) Local iterative leveling (LI)L Adaptive re-hope method (ARM) Parallel and sequential versions 18.2 TRIBES 18.2.1 Particles 18.2.2 Initial population of particles 18.2.3 Informers 18.2.4 Tribes 18.2.5 Promising search areas using hyper-spheres 18.2.6 Adaptations Good particle and bad particle Best particle and worst particle Classification of good tribe and bad tribe Rules for adding a tribe Rules for removing a tribe Adaptation scheme Position update Stopping criteria Tribes algorithm Parameter setting Summary Problems References

Chapter 19: Mechatronics applications of some new optimization techniques 19.1 Example 1: Gear train design 19.2 Example 2: Pressure vessel design 19.3 Example 3: Coil compression spring design 19.4 Example 4: Assembly sequencing and magazine assignment for robotics assembly 19.4.1 Problem formulation
19.4.2 PSO for robotic assembly using DPP model 19.4.3 Experimental results 19.5 Example 5: Automated guided vehicle (AGV) unit load 19.5.1 Unit load sizes model description Model description Model assumption Model for unit load sizes A model for estimating capacity and number of AGvs 19.5.2 Results
19.6 Example 6: DC motor design 19.6.1 Classification and standardization
19.6.2 Volume and bore sizing 19.6.3 Armature design 19.6.4 Field pole design 19.6.5 Optimization design of DC motor Summary Problems References

Chapter 20: Mechatronics Systems & Case Shows 20.1 Case Show 1: A PC-based CNC drilling machine • Design of the CNC drilling machine • Prediction and reduction of process times for the PC-based CNC drilling machine • Response surface methodology-based approach to CNC drilling operations 20.2 Case Show 2: Mobile robots • A Robotic gaming machine • Multiple Robotic Gaming Machines • An Autonomous
• An Automated Guided Vehicle 20.3 Case Show 3: Robotic arm 20.4 Suggestions for additional Case Shows Summary Problems References


Appendix A: The Engineering Design Process Appendix B: Springs B1 Stresses in helical springs B2 Deflection and Stiffness in Helical Springs B3 Materials for Helical Springs B4 Design Methodology for Helical Springs Appendix C Spur Gears C1 Design Considerations C2 Lewis Method for Bending Stress C3 Modified Lewis Equation C3 Design Guides Appendix D Selection of Rolling Contact Bearings D1 Types of Ball Bearings D2 Types of Roller Bearings D3 Life of a Bearing D3.1 Rating Life of Bearing D3.2 Reliability of Bearing D4 Static Load Capacity D5 Dynamic Load Capacity D6 Equivalent Dynamic Load Appendix E Design for Fatigue Strength E1 Endurance Limit E2 Fatigue Strength Appendix F Shaft Design F1 Design Based on Static Load F2 Design Based on Fluctuating Load F3 Soderberg Criterion for Failure F4 Design based on Maximum Shear Stress Theory of Failure & Soderberg Criterion for Failure F5 Design based on Distortion Energy Theory of Failure & Soderberg Criterion Appendix G Power Screws Design G1 Mechanics of Power Screws G2 Raising load G3 Lowering load G4 Collar effect Appendix H Flexible Mechanical Elements Design H1 Analysis of flat belts H2 Length of open flat belt H3 Length of crossed flat belt H4 Tensions Appendix I CircuitMaker Tutorial Appendix J MATLAB Tutorial Appendix K Mechatronics resources Summary Problems References


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About the Author

Godfrey Onwubolu

Godfrey Onwubolu holds a BEng degree (University of Benin), a MSc degree in mechanical engineering (Aston University) and a PhD in computer-aided design (Aston University). His industrial experience is in manufacturing engineering in West Midlands, England. He was a consultant to a centre of innovation for enabling small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. Godfrey works mainly in three areas: computer-aided design (CAD), additive manufacturing, and inductive modelling. He has published two textbooks on CAD: One is heavily used in many North American universities and colleges, and the other is listed by London’s Imperial College Press as one of the top-10 bestsellers. Godfrey currently works in the area of additive manufacturing, popularly known as 3D printing, where he continues to investigate the functionality of additive manufactured parts based on machine input parameters, in order to make users understand the characteristics of additive manufacturing technologies.He is internationally recognized for his work in inductive modelling, especially in Europe, where he gives public lectures and examines doctoral theses on the subject in universities. He is currently the lead researcher at Sheridan College in applying this technology to the joint Sheridan-Nexflow project for studying the behaviours of Nexflow air products based on their operational parameters. Godfrey has authored more than 130 papers in international journals/conference proceedings and at least eight textbooks. For several years, he has been serving on the International Program Committee for the Inductive Modeling Conference in Europe. He is currently on the Editorial Boards of International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Planning & Control. He continues to use his expertise in the domains of computer-aided design, additive manufacturing, and inductive modelling to impart knowledge to students as an engineering and technology educator, and to advance productivity in the manufacturing industry sector in Canada and beyond.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biomedical & Rehabilitation Engineering and Additive Manufacturing, Sheridan Institute of Technology, Brampton, Canada

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