Mechanics and Chemistry in Lubrication

Mechanics and Chemistry in Lubrication

1st Edition - August 1, 1985

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  • Authors: A. Dorinson, K.C. Ludema
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080875736

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Although it is widely recognized that friction, wear and lubrication are linked together in a single interdisciplinary complex of scientific learning and technological practice, fragmented and specialized approaches still predominate. In this book, the authors examine lubrication from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. They demonstrate that once the treatment of lubrication is released from the confines of the fluid film concept, this interdisciplinary approach comes into full play. Tribological behavior in relation to lubrication is then examined from two major points of view: one is mechanical, not only with respect to the properties and behavior of the lubricant but also of the surfaces being lubricated. The other is chemical and encompasses the chemistry of the lubricant, the surfaces and the ambient surroundings. It is in the emphasis on the interaction of the basic mechanical and chemical processes in lubrication that this book differs from conventional treatments.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    1. Introduction

    1.1. What Is Friction

    1.2. Friction and Wear

    1.3. Tribology

    1.4. Some Further Statements about Lubrication


    2. Simple Hydrodynamic Theory: The Reynolds Equation in Two Dimensions

    2.1. Beauchamp Tower's Bearing Experiments

    2.2. A n Engineering Derivation of the Two-Dimensional Reynolds Equation

    2.3. The Reynolds Equation in Use: The Plane Slider Bearing

    2.4. Energy Losses in the Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Bearings

    2.5. The Pivoted Slider Bearing: Design Variables

    2.6. The Full Journal Bearing

    2.6.1. Application of the Reynolds Equation to the Full Journal' Bearing

    2.6.2. Friction in the Full Journal Bearing



    3. Some Advanced Aspects of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    3.1. The Classical Fluid

    3.1.1. Stress Analysis of a Fluid

    3.1.2. The Simple Visccus Fluid

    3.2. The Navier-Stokes Equations

    3.3. The Generalized Reynolds Equation

    3.4. Squeeze Films

    3.5. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    3.5.1. Elastohydrodynamic Theory

    3.5.2. Some Elastohydrodynamic Solutions: Line Contact

    3.5.3. Elastohydrodynamic Solutions for Point Contact

    3.5.4. Experimental Observations of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication


    4. The Nature and Properties of Liquids

    4.1. The Properties of Liquids and Lubrication

    4.2. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Viscosity

    4.3. Capillary Viscometry

    4.3.1. Newtonian Flow through a Capillary

    4.3.2. Non-Newtonian Capillary Flow

    4.3.3. Sources of Error in Capillary Viscometry

    4.4. Capillary Viscometers

    4.4.1. The Cannon-Fenske Viscometer

    4.4.2. Capillary Viscometry Under Pressure

    4.5. Rotational Viscometry and Viscometers

    4.5.1. The Couette Viscometer

    4.5.2. The Cone-and-Plate Viscometer

    4.6. Rolling-Ball and Falling-Sinker Viscometers

    4.7. Orifice Viscometers

    4.8. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Viscosity

    4.8.1. The Walther Equation and ASTM Viscosity-Temperature Charts

    4.8.2. The Viscosity Index

    4.8.3. Pressure and Viscosity

    4.9. Theories of Viscosity and the Molecular Structure of Liquids

    4.10. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus

    4.11. The Role of Compressibility in Lubrication


    5. Gases as Lubricating Fluids

    5.1. Fundamentals of Gas Film Lubrication

    5.2. Gas-Lubricated Bearings

    5.3. Properties of Gases


    6. Measurement of Fluid Film Thickness and Detection of Film Failure

    6.1. Electrical Methods

    6.1.1. Film Thickness by Electrical Resistance

    6.1.2. Film Thickness by Electrical Capacitance

    6.2. ODtical Interferometry

    6.3. X-Ray Transmission

    6.4. Summarizing Discussion of Film Thickness Measurement

    6.5. The Meaning of Film Failure

    6.6. Electrical Methods of Detecting Film Failure

    6.7. Detection of Fluid Film Failure by Friction or by Examination of Surface Condition


    7. Friction: Phenomenology. Detection and Measurement

    7.1. Basic Phenomenology of the Friction of Solid Bodies

    7.2. Simple Behavioral Aspects of Static and Kinetic Friction

    7.3. Experimental Arrangements for Detection and Measurement of Friction

    7.3.1. Devices Utilizing Elastic Deflection

    7.3.2. Dead-Weight Tangential Traction Devices

    7.3.3. Inclined Plane Method for Static Friction

    7.3.4. Damping of Oscillatory Motion


    8. Friction: Mechanisms and Analysis

    8.1. A Simple Mechanism for the Friction of Solid Metallic Bodies

    8.2. Extension of the Adhesive-Junction Model for Friction

    8.3. Intermittent Motion in Frictional Sliding: Stick-Slip Oscillation

    8.4. Frictionally Induced Quasiharmonic Vibration

    8.5. The Nature of Static and Kinetic Friction

    8.6. Sliding Speed and Friction

    8.7. Non-Adhesional Mechanisms for Friction


    9. Lubricated Friction

    9.1. The Contact and Friction of Clean Surfaces

    9.2. The Influence of Oxides on the Friction of Metals

    9.3. Lubricated Friction: The Behavioristic View

    9.4. A Theoretical View of Lubricated Friction


    10. Lubricant Additive Action . I. Basic Categories and Mechanisms

    10.1. What is a Lubricant Additive

    10.2. Classification and Nomenclature

    10.3. Interposed Adsorption Films

    10.3.1. Simple Absorbed Films

    10.3.2. Chemisorbed Films

    10.4. The Additive Action of Adsorbed Films

    10.4.1. Durability of Films

    10.4.2. Influence of Temperature on Adsorbed Films and Friction

    10.4.3. Thermodynamics of Adsorption and Lubrication

    10.4.4. Other Physicochemical Influences in Adsorbed Film Behavior

    10.5. Chemically Deposited Films

    10.5.1. Polymeric Condensation Films

    10.5.2. Surface Resin ("Friction Polymer")

    10.6. Interaction Films

    10.7. Asperity Junction-Growth Inhibition


    11. Lubricant Additive Action. II. Chemical Reactivity and Additive Functionality

    11.1. A Basic View of Reactions between Additives and Metal Surfaces

    11.2. Chemical Structures in Additives and Mechanisms of Additive Action

    11.2.1. Sulfur Compounds: Chemical Reactions

    11.2.2. Sulfur Compounds: Lubricant Additive Action

    11.2.3. Chlorine Compounds: Chemical Reactions

    11.2.4. Chlorine Compounds: Lubricant Additive Action

    11.2.5. PhosDhorus COmDOundS: Chemical Reactions and Additive Action

    11.2.6. Phosphorus and Other Key Elements: Dithiophosphates (Phosphorodithioates) etc

    11.3. The Action of Multicomponent Additives

    11.3.1. Multicomponent Additives with Sulfur and Chlorine

    11.3.2. Multicomponent Additives with Phosphorus and Chlorine

    11.3.3. Sulfur and Fatty Esters in Multicomponent Additives

    11.3.4. Interference Effects with Multicomponent Additives


    12. Contact of Solid Bodies

    12.1. Surfaces and Surface Roughness

    12.1.1. Descriptive Surface Topography

    12.1.2. The Metrics of Surface Roughness

    12.2. Contact and Adhesion

    12.2.1. Simple Deformation Models of Contact

    12.2.2. Adhesion and Separation

    12.3. Characterization of Surfaces from Profile Data

    12.4. Surface Topography and the Mechanics of Asperity Contact

    12.5. Experimental Studies of Contact and Adhesion

    12.6. The Tribological Significance of Contact and Adhesion


    13. Wear: Basic Principles and General Behavior

    13.1. A Basic Definition of Wear

    13.2. Phenomenological Wear

    13.2.1. Wear in Pure Sliding

    13.2.2. Mixed Sliding and Rolling

    13.2.3. Pure Rolling

    13.2.4. Impinging Contact

    13.2.5. Dry and Lubricated Wear

    13.2.6. Wear of Non-Metals

    13.3. Mechanistic Processes in Phenomenological Wear

    13.3.1. Adhesion and Transfer

    13.3.2. Plastic Deformation Processes

    13.3.3. Fatigue Mechanisms

    13.3.4. Chemical Reaction Processes

    13.3.5. Combinations of Mechanistic Processes

    13.4. Nomenclature

    13.5. Wear Models

    13.5.1. Wear Models and Asperity Contact

    13.5.2. Models for Constant Wear Rate

    13.5.3. Wear with Variable Rate

    13.5.4. Geometrical Influences in Wear Models

    13.5.5. Physical Parameters in Wear Models

    13.6. Catastrophic Wear Damage


    14. Aspects of Lubricated Wear

    14.1. Lubricated Wear by Penetration of the Fluid Film

    14.1.1. Wear and Partial Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    14.1.2. Wear and Mixohydrodynamic Lubrication

    14.2. Compounded Lubricants and Wear

    14.2.1. Reaction-Rate Theories of Wear in the Presence of Compounded Lubricants

    14.2.2. Reaction Rate Processes and Phenomenological Wear

    14.3. The Control of Scuffing


    15. Temperature Effects in Friction. Wear and Lubrication

    15.1. Interfacial Temperature and Rubbing

    15.1.1. A Descriptive Model for Interfacial Temperature in Rubbing

    15.1.2. Calculation of Interfacial Temperature by Continuum Heat Conduction Theory

    15.1.3. A Stochastic Model for Interfacial Temperature Generated at Discrete Sites

    15.2. Experimental Observations of Interfacial Temperature

    15.2.1. The Dynamic Thermocouple

    15.2.2. The Embedded Thermocouple

    15.2.3. The Strip Thermistor

    15.2.4. Emission of Infrared Radiation

    15.3. Ambient Temperature Effects

    15.4. Effects of Temperature on Friction and Wear

    15.5. Effects of Temperature on Lubrication and Lubricants


    16. Petroleum Lubricating Oils

    16.1. Processing of Petroleum Lubricants

    16.2. Nomenclature and Classification of Petroleum Oils

    16.3. Structure in Lubricating Oils by Direct Techniques

    16.3.1. Extraction, Chromatographic Adsorption, Distillation and Mass Spectrography

    16.3.2. Distillation, Extraction, Chromatographic Adsorption, Thermal Diffusion and Mass Spectrography

    16.3.3. Mass Spectrography of Refinery-Run Fractions

    16.3.4. Nature of the Alkyl and Aromatic Structures

    16.4. Type Structures in Lubricating Oils by Correlation with Physical Properties: Indirect Methods

    16.5. Type Structures in the Performance of Petroleum Oils as Lubricants


    17. Non-Petroleum Liquids as Lubricants

    17.1. Chemical Types and Structures

    17.2. Chemical Types and Properties of Synthetic Lubricants

    17.3. Applications of Synthetic Lubricants


    18. Lubricating Grease

    18.1. Basic Aspects of Lubricating Grease Structure

    18.2. The Manufacture of Lubricating Grease

    18.3. Further Consideration of Grease Structure

    18.3.1. Bleeding and Permeability

    18.3.2. Consistency and Penetration

    18.4. The Flow of Greases

    18.5. Grease as a Lubricant in Service


    19. Lubrication by Solids

    19.1. Classification and Terminology

    19.2. Layer-Lattice Inorganic Solids as Lubricants

    19.2.1. Molybdenum Disulfide as a Luricating Lamellar Solid

    19.2.2. Graphite as a Solid Lubricant

    19.2.3. Graphite Fluoride as a Solid Lubricant

    19.2.4. Boron Nitride as a Solid Lubricant

    19.2.5. Other Layer-Lattice Inorganic Solids as Lubricants

    19.3. Lubrication by Non-Lamellar Inorganic Solids and by Soft Metals

    19.4. Organic Solids as Lubricants

    19.5. The Technological Utilization of Solid Lubricants


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 633
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © North Holland 1985
  • Published: August 1, 1985
  • Imprint: North Holland
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080875736

About the Authors

A. Dorinson

K.C. Ludema

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