Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080066066, 9781483153247

Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment)

1st Edition

Second Revised and Enlarged Edition

Editors: A. Sherry J. S. Beck A.E. Cruddace
eBook ISBN: 9781483153247
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 416
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Description

Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attention to types of turbines, construction of steam turbine cylinders and rotors, and gas and hydraulic turbines. The following chapters look at turbine auxiliary systems such as glands and sealing systems, lubrication systems, governors and governing gear; feed water heating systems, feed heater arrangement, and regenerative cycle calculations; and design and construction of condensers. The final chapter is devoted to miscellaneous station services and pipework in power plants and discusses water services, compressed air services, heating and ventilation, and miscellaneous cranes and lifting tackle. This volume will be of interest to power station engineers.

Table of Contents


List of Illustrations

Chapter 1. Turbines

1.1. Thermodynamics and Steam Turbine Theory

1.1.1. The Cycle

1.1.2. The Nozzle

1.1.3. Moving Blades

1.1.4. Stage Efficiency

1.1.5. The Condition Line

1.1.6. Output and Specific Heat Consumption

1.2. Types of Turbine

1.2.1. Direction of Flow

1.2.2. Means of Heat Supply

1.2.3. Means of Heat Rejection

1.2.4. Cylinder Arrangement

1.2.5. Rotor Speed

1.3. Steam Turbine Cylinder Construction

1.3.1. Cylinders and Diaphragms

1.4. Steam Turbine Rotor Construction

1.4.1. Rotor Design

1.4.2. Rotor Materials

1.4.3. Thermal Stability of Rotors

1.4.4. The Balance of Rotors

1.4.5. Rotor Expansion

1.5. Steam Turbine Blading

1.5.1. Velocity Compounded Stage

1.5.2. Impulse-Type Stage

1.5.3. Reaction-Type Stage

1.5.4. Low-Pressure Stages

1.5.5. Blading Materials

1.6 Steam Chests, Valves and Loop Pipes

1.6.1. Steam Chests and Strainers

1.6.2. Steam Valves

1.6.3. Loop Pipes

1.6.4. Water Separators

1.7 Couplings, Bearings and Turning Gear

1.7.1. Couplings

1.7.2. Shaft Alignment

1.7.3. Journal Bearings

1.7.4. Thrust Bearings

1.7.5. Turning Gear

1.7.6. Disengageable Couplings

1.8 Gas Turbines

1.8.1. Introduction

1.8.2. The Cycle

1.8.3. The Compressor

1.8.4. The Combustion Chamber

1.8.5. The Turbine

1.8.6. Bearings

1.8.7. Fuels

1.9 Hydraulic Turbines

1.9.1. Types of Hydraulic Turbine

1.9.2. The Pelton Turbine

1.9.3. The Francis Turbine

1.9.4. The Kaplan Turbine

1.9.5. The Tubular Turbine

1.9.6. Pumped Storage

1.10 Future Outlook

1.10.1. The Demand for Larger Units

1.10.2 Current Limitations in Conventional Plant Development

1.10.3 Binary Cycles

1.10.4 Increasing Thermal Efficiency

1.10.5. Turbines for Nuclear Stations

1.10.6. Gas Turbines

1.10.7. Hydraulic Turbines

Appendix 1. List of 500 MW Steam Turbines on Order by C.E.G.B.

Appendix 2. Peak Load Gas Turbines

Appendix 3. Hydraulic Turbines

References

Exercises

Chapter 2. Turbine Auxiliary Systems

2.1. Lubrication Systems

2.1.1. Introduction

2.1.2. Oil Pumps

2.1.3. Oil Valves

2.1.4. Oil Coolers

2.1.5. Tanks, Strainers and Filters

2.1.6. Turbine Oils

2.1.7. Generator Hydrogen Seals

2.2. Glands and Sealing Systems

2.2.1. Carbon Ring Gland

2.2.2. Labyrinth Glands

2.2.3. Water-Sealed Glands

2.3. Governors and Governing Gear

2.3.1. Introduction

2.3.2. Speed Governing

2.3.3. Speed Governors

2.3.4. Relays

2.3.5. Speeder Gear

2.3.6. Anticipatory Gear

2.3.7. Governing Characteristics

2.3.8. Governing of Reheat Turbines

2.3.9. Hydraulic System and Fluids

2.3.10. On-Load Testing

2.4. Turbine Protective Devices

2.4.1. Possible Hazards

2.4.2. Emergency Stop Valve Operating Gear

2.4.3. Tripping Devices

2.4.4. Unloading Gear

2.5. Turbine Greasing

References

Exercises

Chapter 3. Feed Water Heating Systems

3.1. History of Feed Water Heating

3.2. How Regenerative Feed Heating Improves Efficiency

3.3. Choice of Feed Water Temperature

3.3.1. Number of Feed Heating Stages

3.3.2. Reheat—Regenerative Cycle with Turbine-driven Boiler Feed Pump

3.3.3. Generalized Analysis of the Regenerative Cycle

3.4. Types of Feed Heater

3.4.1. Surface Type

3.4.2. Direct Contact Type

3.5. Feed Heater Arrangement

3.6. Regenerative Cycle Calculations

3.7. Some Aspects of The Thermal Design of Surface Feed Heaters

3.7.1. Heat Transfer Coefficients

3.7.2. H.P. Heater Desuperheating Section Design

3.7.3. Condensing Heater Design

3.8. Some Aspects of the Thermal Design of Direct Contact Heaters

3.9. Some Aspects of Surface Heater Construction

3.9.1. Tube Material

3.9.2. Welded Tube Joints

3.9.3. Waterbox

3.9.4. Vents

3.9.5. Reception of Drains

3.9.6. High Water Level Protection

3.10. Some Aspects of Direct Contact Heater Construction

3.10.1. Elevation of the Deaerator

3.11. Unit Bled Steam Evaporators

3.11.1. Types of Evaporator

3.12. Feed Pumps

3.12.1. Positioning in the Feed Train

3.12.2. System Arrangement

3.12.3. Pump Duty

3.12.4. Type of Drive

3.12.5. Some Aspects of Pump Design and Construction

3.13. Future Trends

References

Exercises

Chapter 4. Condenser and Cooling Water Plant

Condenser

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Condenser

4.3. Air Extraction Equipment

4.4. Extraction Pumps

4.5. Effect of Cooling Water Quality

4.6. Leakages

4.7. On-Load Cleaning

4.8. Dry Cooling Tower Systems

4.9. Future Development

4.10. Condenser Design Details

Cooling Water Plant

4.11. Introduction

4.12. Screening Plant and Strainers

4.13. Coarse Screens

4.14. Moving Screens

4.15. Debris Removal

4.16. Cooling Water Pumps

4.17. Gear Boxes

4.18. Cooling Towers

References

Exercises

Chapter 5. Miscellaneous Station Services, Pipework and Plant

5.1. Water Services

5.1.1. Introduction

5.1.2. Clean and General Water Services

5.1.3. Drains

5.1.4. River Water Services

5.1.5. Fire Services

5.1.6. Boiler Blowdown and Drain Pipework

5.2 Pumps

5.2.1.Introduction

5.2.2. Reciprocating Pumps

5.2.3. Centrifugal Pumps

5.2.4. Classification and Capacity of Miscellaneous Pumps

5.2.5. Chemical Injection Pumps

5.2.6. Fire Service Pumps

5.2.7. Water Service Pumps

5.2.8. Seal Pumps

5.3. Compressed Air Services

5.3.1. Introduction

5.3.2. Compressors

5.3.3. Pressure of Air Required

5.3.4. Theory of Air Compression

5.3.5. Two-Stage Compression

5.3.6. Compression above Two Stage

5.3.7. Indicated Horse Power and Volumetric Efficiency

5.3.8. Aftercooling

5.3.9. General Construction and Layout of Compressor Plant

5.3.10. Air Filter

5.3.11. Intercooler

5.3.12. Receiver

5.4. Main Steam and Auxiliary Pipework and Valves

5.4.1. Introduction

5.4.2. Materials Used in Pipe Manufacture

5.4.3. General Considerations in Pipework Layouts

5.4.4. Pipework Identification

5.4.5. Expansion Allowance

5.4.6. Pipework Expansions

5.4.7. Pipe Construction and Joints

5.4.8. Construction of Flanges and Jointing Materials

5.4.9. Special Fittings

5.4.10. Steam Traps

5.4.11. Strainers

5.4.12. Fire Hydrants

5.4.13. Valves

5.4.14. Parallel Slide Valves

5.4.15. Ferranti Valves

5.4.16. By-Pass Valves

5.4.17. Globe Valves

5.4.18. Blowdown Valves

5.4.19. Non-Return Valves

5.4.20. Sluice Valves

5.4.21. Electrically Operated Valves

5.4.22. Butterfly Valves

5.4.23. Plug Valves

5.4.24. Characterized Throttling Valves

5.4.25. Safety Relief Valves

5.5. Heating and Ventilating

5.5.1. Introduction

5.5.2. Basic Heating

5.5.3. Short-Time Heating

5.5.4. Office Ventilation

5.5.5. Boiler House Ventilation

5.5.6. Special System

5.6. Heat Insulation

5.6.1. Necessity for Insulation

5.6.2. Properties Required

5.6.3. Materials Used

5.6.4. Economic Thickness of Insulation

5.6.5. Detection of Leakage

5.6.6. Other Insulating Materials

5.6.7. Modern Trends

5.6.8. Trace Heating

5.7. Miscellaneous Cranes and Lifting Tackle

5.7.1. Introduction

5.7.2. Workshop Crane

5.7.3. Stores Crane

5.7.4. Pumphouse Crane

5.7.5. Miscellaneous Lifting Tackle

Exercises

Contents of Volumes 1-8

Details

No. of pages:
416
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483153247

About the Editor

A. Sherry

J. S. Beck

A.E. Cruddace