Measuring Underemployment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121765606, 9781483276243

Measuring Underemployment

1st Edition

Demographic Indicators for the United States

Authors: Clifford C. Clogg
Editors: H. H. Winsborough
eBook ISBN: 9781483276243
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1979
Page Count: 296
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Measuring Underemployment: Demographic Indicators for the United States discusses the Labor Utilization Framework of Hauser and Sullivan, which is a measurement scheme that posits the existence of three dimensions, or forms, of underemployment— time, income, and skill-utilization. This book describes the conceptual groundwork, operational measurement, and implications of the Labor Utilization Framework on the way the labor force aggregates. The essential elements of the socio-demographic theory of the labor force with the logical unity provided by both the Labor Utilization Framework and the specific methodologies adopted for its analysis are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the methods for latent structure analysis and cohort analysis, including the theory of frictional underemployment; “class structure” governing the distribution of labor market rewards; tempo of social change in the labor force; “productive value” of a population; and “true” dependency on productive labor. This publication is a good source for students and researchers concerned with different labor force topics that can be plausibly studied from the viewpoint of the Hauser-Sullivan framework.

Table of Contents


1 Introduction

1.1 The Labor Utilization Framework

1.2 A Critique of the Labor Utilization Framework

1.3 The Data

1.4 The Organization of This Book

2 Underemployment in the United States, 1969-1973

3 Information in the Measures of Invisible Underemployment

3.1 The Information in Full Versus Collapsed Cross-Tables

3.2 The Information in Invisible Underemployment Relative to Age, Race, Sex, and Time-Period Differentials

3.3 The Information in Invisible Underemployment Relative to Region, Family Type, and Place of Residence

3.4 Conclusion

4 The Effect of Changing Demographic Composition on the Crude Indicators of Underemployment

4.1 The Time-Period Heterogeneity of the Labor Force

4.2 The "Intrinsic" Time-Period Change in the Labor Market

4.3 A Rationale for Considering Age Distribution in the Construction of Underemployment Indicators

4.4 Age Effects for the Total Population and the Total Labor Force Aged 20-64

4.5 Conclusion

5 Latent Class Structure in the Distribution of Labor Market Rewards

5.1 The Latent Class Perspective in the Analysis of Underemployment

5.2 The 1970 Data

5.3 The Basic Model

5.4 Latent Class Models for the 1970 Data, Including Probabilistic Scale Models

5.5 Other Models for the 1970 Data

5.6 Time-Period Heterogeneity in Structural Parameters of a Dual Labor Force Model, and New Indicators of Underemployment

5.7 Differentials in Latent Class Structure for the Race-Sex Groups, 1970

5.8 Conclusion

6 The Dependence of Labor Force Status on Age, Time-Period, and Cohort

6.1 The Data

6.2 Multiplicative Models for Cohort Analysis Based upon Successive Sample Surveys

6.3 The Concept of a Cohort Effect: Statistical Differentiation among Cohorts and the Tempo of Social Change

6.4 The Goodness-of-Fit of Cohort Models Accounting for the Age-Time-Periodcohort-Specific Distribution among the Labor Force Statuses, for Males and Females by Race

6.5 Identified Cohort Parameters, Showing the Tempo of Social Change in the Labor Force

6.6 The "True" Across-Time Variation in Labor Force Status: The Case of White Males

6.7 Some Other Cohort Models

6.8 Conclusion

7 Trending and Forecasting Underemployment: Log-Linear Models and Population Projection

7.1 Forecasting Underemployment by Log-Linear Time-Trend Models

7.2 Forecasting Underemployment with the Population Projection Matrix

8 Underemployment in the Life History of Synthetic Cohorts

8.1 Expectation of Life in the Various Labor Force Statuses: Underemployment History for Males and Females by Race Given 1970 Conditions

8.2 Across-Time Comparisons of Life Expectations and of other Quantities Associated with the Modified Life Table

8.3 the Long-Run Consequences of Sustained Decreases in Underemployment

8.4 The Implications of a Meritocracy for Labor Force History for the Race-Sex Subpopulations

8.5 A Formal Account of "Eventual Productive Value"

8.6 Conclusion

9 Some New Directions for Mathematical Demography

9.1 The Relationship Between Underemployment and the Intrinsic Rate of Growth in a Stable Population

9.2 The Age Distribution of Employment Opportunity: The Constant Age Elasticity of Underemployment

10 Conclusion

10.1 Methods

10.2 Time-Period Heterogeneity in the Labor Force and the Theory of Frictional Underemployment

10.3 Latent Class Structure and Labor Market (Labor Force) Dualism

10.4 Cohort Differentiation with Respect to Labor Force Status and the Tempo of Cohort-Induced Social Change

10.5 Interaction of Race-Sex Groups in a Constrained Labor Market

10.6 Conclusion

Appendix A Operational Procedures for Applying the Labor Utilization Framework to the March Current Population Survey

A.1 Not in Labor Force

A.2 Sub-Unemployed

A.3 Unemployed

A.4 Underemployed by Low Hours

A.5 Underemployment by Low Income

A.6 Underemployed by Mismatch

A.7 Adequately Utilized

Appendix B The Life Table Modified to Take Into Account Labor Force Status

Appendix C A General Computer Program for Unrestricted or Restricted Maximum Likelihood Latent Structure Analysis

Appendix D The Quality of Single-Year Age Data by Sex in the March Current Population Survey, 1969-1973

Appendix E Normed Effects in Log-Linear Models for Dichotomous Data

Appendix F Purging Cross-Classified Data of Diagonal Effects, with Application to Demographic Rates Depending on Age, Time-Period, and Cohort

Appendix G A Computer Program for Cohort Analysis Using Multiplicative Models and the Modified Multiple Regression Approach

Appendix H A Computer Program for Adjustment Off Rates Using Multiplicative Models




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© Academic Press 1979
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Clifford C. Clogg

About the Editor

H. H. Winsborough