Maximizing Gene Expression

Maximizing Gene Expression

1st Edition - September 1, 1986

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  • Editors: William Reznikoff, Larry Gold
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483100807

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Maximizing Gene Expression focuses on prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression. The book first discusses E. coli promoters. Topics include structure analysis, steps in transcription initiation, structure-function correlation, and regulation of transcription initiation. The text also highlights yeast promoters, including elements that select initiation sites, transcription regulation, regulatory proteins, and upstream promoter elements. The text also describes protein coding genes of higher eukaryotes; instability of messenger RNA in bacteria; and replication control of the ColE1-type plasmids. The text then describes translation initiation, including the translation of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The book puts emphasis on the selective degradation of abnormal proteins in bacteria. Topics include proteins rapidly hydrolyzed in E. coli; intracellular aggregates of abnormal polypeptides; energy requirement and pathway for proteins; proteolytic enzymes in E. coli; and regulation of ion expression. The text also highlights the detection of proteins produced by recombinant DNA techniques and mechanism and practice. The book is a good source of information for readers wanting to study gene expression.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. E. Coli Promoters

    1.1 Defining Promoters

    1.2 Structure Analysis

    1.3 Steps in Transcription Initiation

    1.4 Structure-Function Correlation

    1.5 Regulation of Transcription Initiation

    1.6 Conclusion


    2. Yeast Promoters

    2.1 Transcription in Yeast

    2.2 Methods for Studying Yeast Promoters

    2.3 Upstream Promoter Elements

    2.4 The TATA Promoter Element

    2.5 Elements that Select Initiation Sites

    2.6 Transcription Regulation

    2.7 Regulatory Proteins

    2.8 Other Aspects of Regulation

    2.9 Complex Promoter Organization

    2.10 Molecular Mechanisms: Inferences and Speculations


    3. Protein Coding Genes of Higher Eukaryotes: Promoter Elements and trans-Acting Factors

    3.1 The TATA Box and the Cap Site

    3.2 The Upstream Promoter Elements

    3.3 Enhancer Elements

    3.4 Other trans-Kcúng Factors

    3.5 Conclusion and Prospects


    4. The Instability of Messenger RNA in Bacteria

    4.1 Some Fundamental Observations and Their Significance

    4.2 Mechanistic Models

    4.3 Search for Specific Enzymes for mRNA Degradation

    4.4 The Search for Targets

    4.5 Searching for New Ends

    4.6 Searching for a Model

    4.7 Conclusions


    5. Replication Control of the ColE1-Type Plasmids

    5.1 Incompatibility

    5.2 Replication of ColE1 DNA In Vitro

    5.3 RNA I and Primer Processing

    5.4 RNA I Secondary Structure

    5.5 Mutations in RNA I and Primer That Define Domains of Interaction

    5.6 Analysis of the RNA I-Primer Interaction

    5.7 The Replication Primer

    5.8 Replication-Defective Mutants

    5.9 Temperature-Sensitive Replication Mutants

    5.10 The rop Function

    5.11 Partition and Stability Functions

    5.12 Host Contributions to ColE1 Replication

    5.13 On the Control of the Control Elements

    5.14 Implications for Maximizing Gene Expression


    6. Copy Number and Stability of Yeast Plasmids

    6.1 Vectors for DNA Cloning in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    6.2 Elements of the 2μ Circle Replication System

    6.3 Factors Affecting the Stability and Copy Number of Hybrid 2µ-Based Plasmids

    6.4 Conclusion


    7. Translation Initiation

    7.1 Prokaryotes

    7.2 Eukaryotes

    7.3 Conclusion


    8. Biased Codon Usage: An Exploration of Its Role in Optimization of Translation

    8.1 Codon Usage

    8.2 Physiological Aspects of Codon Usage

    8.3 Codon Context and tRNA-tRNA Interaction

    8.4 Evolutionary Aspects of Codon Usage

    8.5 Altering Codon Bias Experimentally


    9. The Selective Degradation of Abnormal Proteins in Bacteria

    9.1 Proteins Rapidly Hydrolyzed in E. Coli

    9.2 Intracellular Aggregates of Abnormal Polypeptides

    9.3 The Energy Requirement and Pathway for Protein Breakdown

    9.4 ATP-Stimulated Proteolysis in Cell-Free Extracts

    9.5 Proteolytic Enzymes in E. Coli

    9.6 Protease La, the ATP-Dependent Protease

    9.7 The ATP-Dependent Proteolytic Mechanism

    9.8 Regulation of Ion Expression

    9.9 Protein Breakdown and the Heat Shock Response

    9.10 Unanswered Questions


    10. Detection of Proteins Produced by Recombinant DNA Techniques

    10.1 Complementation of E. Coli Mutants

    10.2 Complementation of Yeast Mutants

    10.3 Complementation in Mammalian Cells

    10.4 Rescue of the Sequence Conferring the New Phenotype

    10.5 Complementation in Drosophila

    10.6 Detection Using Immunological Methods

    10.7 Detection Using Antisera Raised Against Synthetic Peptides

    References 338

    11. Mechanism and Practice

    11.1 Transcription Initiation

    11.2 Translation Initiation

    11.3 Messenger Stability and Secondary Structure

    11.4 Gene Amplification

    11.5 Protein Stability



Product details

  • No. of pages: 390
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1986
  • Published: September 1, 1986
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483100807

About the Editors

William Reznikoff

Affiliations and Expertise


Larry Gold

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