Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123914538, 9780123914156

Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms

1st Edition

Invertebrates and Entomopathogens

Editors: Juan Morales-Ramos M. Guadalupe Rojas David Shapiro-Ilan
eBook ISBN: 9780123914156
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123914538
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th November 2013
Page Count: 764
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Description

Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms: Invertebrates and Entomopathogens is an essential reference and teaching tool for researchers in developed and developing countries working to produce "natural enemies" in biological control and integrated pest management programs.

As we become aware of the negative impact of pesticides in human health and on the environment, interest is rapidly increasing in developing biological pest control alternatives. Tremendous advances have been made in beneficial organism technology, such as insect predators and parasitoids, mite predators, entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. However, developing techniques to mass produce these biological control agents is not enough if the cost of commercialization is prohibitive. Advancing mass production to the level of economic feasibility is critical, so these new technologies can compete in the open market.

This book educates academic and industry researchers, and enables further development of mass production so new technologies can compete in the open market. It is also an excellent resource for those researching beneficial arthropod mass production and technologies for other uses, including for study and application in biotechnology and biomedical research.

Key Features

  • Focuses on techniques for mass production of beneficial organisms and methods of evaluation and quality assessment
  • Organizes and presents the most advanced and current knowledge on methods to mass produce beneficial organisms in response to the increased global demand for alternatives to chemical pesticides for biological control producers
  • Includes a team of highly respected editors and authors with broad expertise in these areas

Readership

Entomologists, biological control researchers, industry working on the production of beneficial organisms, bioscience researchers seeking to establish culture or rearing of organisms for study and academics in the field of biotechnology

Table of Contents

Dedication

Contributors

Section I

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract

1.1. Challenges of Mass Producing Beneficial Organisms

1.2. Challenges of Arthropod Mass Production for Biological Control

1.3. Challenges of Mass Producing Pathogens for Biological Control

1.4. Challenges of Mass Rearing Invertebrates for their Products and Ecological Services

References

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Production of Coleopteran Predators

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Foods and Production of Predators

2.3 Rearing Density and Production

2.4 Temperature and Production

2.5 Quality Control and Production

2.6 Conclusions and Recommendations

References

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Production of Heteropteran Predators

Abstract

Acknowledgments

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Foods

3.3 Plant Materials and Alternatives

3.4 Crowding and Cannibalism

3.5 Microorganisms

3.6 Breeding and Colony Maintenance

3.7 Mass-Rearing Systems

3.8 Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Production of Dipteran Parasitoids

Abstract

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Dipteran Parasitoids as Biocontrol Agents

4.3 Aspects of Dipteran Parasitoid Biology of Special Interest for Production

4.4 Production Techniques

4.5 Perspectives and Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 5. Mass Rearing Bemisia Parasitoids for Support of Classical and Augmentative Biological Control Programs

Abstract

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Laboratory Culture

5.3 Outdoor Field Cage Production

5.4 Large-Scale Greenhouse-Based System

5.5 Conclusion

5.6 USDA Disclaimer

References

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Mass Rearing of the Stem-Galling Wasp Tetramesa romana, a Biological Control Agent of the Invasive Weed Arundo donax

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Biological, Ecological, and Behavioral Information about the Arundo Wasp

6.3 A Plant-Based MASS REARING SYSTEM for the Arundo Wasp

6.4 Challenges Encountered and Addressed in the Development of Mass Rearing

6.5 Use of MASS REARED Arundo Wasps for Biological Control of Arundo

6.6 Investigations into an Artificial Diet for Rearing of the Arundo Wasp

6.7 Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 7. Artificial Diet Development for Entomophagous Arthropods

Abstract

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Arthropod Nutrition

7.3 Determining the Basic Formulation

7.4 Presentation

7.5 Diet Refining

7.6 Future Perspectives

7.7 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 8. Life Tables as Tools of Evaluation and Quality Control for Arthropod Mass Production

Abstract

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Life Table

8.3 Case Studies

8.4 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 9. Concepts and Methods of Quality Assurance for Mass-Reared Parasitoids and Predators

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Quality Assurance in the Marketplace

9.3 Customer Involvement in Quality Assurance

9.4 Building a Complete Quality Assurance System

9.5 Quality Assessments of Mass-Reared Natural Enemies

9.6 Quality Assurance and Control Data Acquisition and Analysis

9.7 Quality Assurance System Review

9.8 Research on Quality Assessment for Mass-Reared Parasitoids and Predators

9.9 Conclusion

References

Section II

Chapter 10. Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes

Abstract

10.1 Introduction

10.2 In Vivo Production

10.3 In Vitro Production: Solid Culture

10.4 In Vitro Production: Liquid Culture

10.5 Analysis and Conclusion

References

Chapter 11. Mass Production of Entomopathogenic Fungi: State of the Art

Abstract

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Production Methods for the Important Insect Pathogenic Fungi

11.3 Process and Quality Control in Mass Production

11.4 Current Knowledge about Effect of Cultural Conditions on Propagule Attributes

11.5 The Challenge in Mass Production of Entomopathogenic Fungi

References

Chapter 12. Commercial Production of Entomopathogenic Bacteria

Abstract

12.1 Biology of Commercial Bacterial Entomopathogens

12.2 Biology of Commercial Bacterial Entomopathogens

12.3 Pathogenesis and Pest Control Impact

12.4 Culture Selection and Maintenance

12.5 Inoculum Preparation for Entomopathogenic Bacteria

12.6 Fermentation Medium Selection

12.7 Recovery and Concentration Steps

12.8 Formulation Selection

12.9 Formulation Standardization

12.10 Quality Assurance Methods

12.11 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Production of Entomopathogenic Viruses

Abstract

Acknowledgments

13.1 Introduction

13.2 In Vivo Production of Baculovirus-Based Biopesticides

13.3 In Vitro Production: Current Status

13.4 Limitations to Bioreactor Production of Baculovirus-Based Pesticides

13.5 Future Research Directions for Bioreactor Production of Baculovirus-Based Pesticides

13.6 Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Formulations of Entomopathogens as Bioinsecticides

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Biological Considerations

14.3 Physical Considerations

14.4 Additional Considerations on Formulation

14.5 Conclusions and Future of Biopesticide Formulations

References

Chapter 15. Mass Production of Entomopathogens in Less Industrialized Countries

Abstract

Acknowledgments

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Issues and Opportunities for Entomopathogen Uptake in Less Industrialized Countries

15.3 Practical Constraints for Entomopathogen Uptake in Developing Countries

15.4 Production of Entomopathogens in Less Industrialized Countries

15.5 Production of Entomopathogenic Fungi

15.6 Additional Examples from Other Countries

15.7 Other Systems

15.8 Mass Production of Baculoviruses

15.9 Other Production Systems

15.10 Generic Production Issues

15.11 Requirements for Establishing Biopesticide Industries in LICs

References

Section III

Chapter 16. Insect Protein as a Partial Replacement for Fishmeal in the Diets of Juvenile Fish and Crustaceans

Abstract

Acknowledgments

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Model Insects and Potential as Feed for Fish

16.3 Challenges and Opportunities to Expansion of Market for Insects as Feed

16.4 Quality Control and Production

16.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

References

Chapter 17. Insects as Food for Insectivores

Abstract

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Nutrient Content of Insects

17.3 Effects of Insect Size/Life Stage on Nutrient Composition

17.4 Effects of Insect Diet on Insect Nutrient Composition

17.5 Effects of Environment on Insect Composition

17.6 Nutrient Requirements of Insectivores, Including Diet Availability

17.7 Enhancing the Nutrient Composition of Insects as Food for Insectivores

17.8 Other Considerations

17.9 Conclusions

References

Chapter 18. Insects for Human Consumption

Abstract

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Historic and Cultural Precedents for Insects as Food

18.3 Nutritional and Human Health Value of Insects

18.4 Insects as a Sustainable Source of Human Food

18.5 Current Examples of Mass-Produced Insects with Potential as Human Food

18.6 Potential Products and Byproducts from Mass-Produced Food or Feed Insects

18.7 Conclusions and a Call to Action

References

Chapter 19. Production of Solitary Bees for Pollination in the United States

Abstract

Acknowledgments

19.1 Introduction

19.2 The Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee

19.3 The Alkali Bee

19.4 The Blue Orchard Bee

19.6 Other Solitary Bees of Interest for Pollination

19.7 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 20. Current and Potential Benefits of Mass Earthworm Culture

Abstract

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Current Applications

20.3 The Future for Mass Earthworm Culture

References

Further Reading

Index

Details

No. of pages:
764
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123914156
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123914538

About the Editor

Juan Morales-Ramos

Dr. Morales’ main expertise is in mass production of arthropods, insect nutritional ecology and the

development of rearing methods and mechanization of rearing processes for beneficial arthropods.

Between 1992 and 1998, he developed mass propagation technology for the boll weevil parasitoid

Catolaccus grandis. This research earned him the USDA-ARS scientist of the year award in 2002.

During 1998 and 2004 he developed termite and ant baiting systems. This research earned him the

USDA-ARS technology transfer award and the Federal Laboratory Consortium regional excellence in

technology transfer award in 2004. Since 2004, he has developed novel rearing methods for

predatory mites and other beneficial arthropods. This included new technology for separation of

mealworm sizes for infection with entomopathogenic nematodes, novel methods for mass producing

Tenebrio molitor, mechanized methods to pack T. molitor cadavers infected with nematodes, and

mechanized methods for infecting T. molitor larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes. The work on

the in-vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using T. molitor earn him the National

Federal laboratory Consortium award of excellence in technology transfer in 2013. Dr. Morales-

Ramos has produced a total of 104 publications and 12 patents; his is currently the project leader of

the project titled “Mass Production of Biological Control Agents”. Dr. Morales-Ramos recently edited

the book titled “Mass production of Beneficial Organisms” published in January 2014 by Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS, National Biological Control Laboratory, Stoneville, MS, USA

M. Guadalupe Rojas

Dr. Rojas’ main expertise is in insect nutrition, nutritional ecology and the development of artificial

diets for biological control agents and bait matrixes to control termites and ants. Between 1993 to

1998 she developed an artificial diet for the boll weevil parasitoid Catolaccus grandis. Between 1998

and 2004, she developed bait matrices for control of the Formosan subterranean termite and

household ants, both of which were successfully commercialized by Ensystex and FMC, and still are

sold world-wide. This work earned her the USDA-ARS technology transfer award and the Federal

Laboratory Consortium regional excellence in technology transfer award in 2004. Since 2004, she has

developed artificial diets for predatory mites and other insect predators and improved susceptibility

of Tenebrio molitor to entomopathogenic nematodes. The work on the in-vivo production of

entomopathogenic nematodes using T. molitor earned her the National Federal laboratory Consortium award of excellence in technology transfer in 2013. Dr. Rojas has produced a total of 99 publications and holds 12 patents, her current responsibilities include principal scientist on 3 different research agreements with 3 different companies including Syngenta Bioline, Kopert, and Monsanto. ”. Dr. Rojas recently co-edited the book titled “Mass production of Beneficial Organisms” published in January 2014 by Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS, National Biological Control Laboratory, Stoneville, MS, USA

David Shapiro-Ilan

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS, SAA, SE Fruit and Tree Nut Research Unit, Byron, GA

Reviews

"…covers the topic of large scale production of a huge range of insects and entomopathogens, plus some useful additional topics covering areas such as diet development, quality assurance and formulation…as a reference point for information on starting up production in any of the areas covered, this book would be a useful source of updated information."--Society for Invertebrate Pathology Newsletter, June 2014