Preface. A General Picture of Physical Processes in the Ocean. 1. The Earth as a Thermodynamic System. 2. Forces Inducing the Motion of Water Masses in the Ocean. The Force of Gravity and Its Components. Geopotential. Pressure, Buoyancy. Vertical Stability. The Väisälä-Brunt Oscillation Frequency. The Inclination of Isobaric Surfaces. The Action of the Coriolis Force. Frictional Forces. The Equation of Motion of Waters. Seawater as a Physical Medium. 1. The Structure of the Water Molecule. 2. The Association of Water Molecules. The Structure of an Ice Crystal and Liquid Water. 3. Ion Hydrates in Seawater. 4. The Principal Chemical Constituents and the Salinity of Seawater. 5. Electrical Conductivity as an Indicator of Seawater Salinity. Measurement of Salinity on the Practical Scale. 6. Yellow Substances in Seawater. 7. Suspended Particles in Seawater, Their Concentration and Dimensions. 8. Gas Bubbles in Sea Water. The Thermodynamics of Seawater. 1. Seawater State Parameters. 2. The Thermal Expansion of Seawater. 3. The Compressibility of Seawater. Potential Temperature and Potential Density in the Sea. 4. The Salinity Effect on the Specific Volume of Seawater. 5. The Equation of State for Seawater. The Interaction of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation with Seawater. The Inherent Optical Properties of the Sea. 1. Radiance and Other Basic Photometric Quantities in Hydrooptics. 2. Light Absorption in Seawater. Light Absorption by Water Molecules. Light Absorption by Seawater Constituents. 3. Light Scattering in Seawater. Rayleigh's Theory of Scattering. The Volume Scattering Function and the Total Scattering Coefficient. Molecular Scattering According to the Smoluchowski-Einstein Fluctuation Theory. Scattering by Marine Suspended Particles. Principles of the Mie Theory. A Matrix Description of Scattering. Stokes Parameters. 4. The Transparency of Seawater to Light and Other Electromagnetic Waves. The Radiant Energy Transfer Equation in the Sea. Solar Radiation Inflow and the Natural Irradiance in the Sea. The Apparent Optical Properties of the Sea. The Solar Constant. 1. The Influx of Solar Radiation to the Sea Surface. The Optical Thickness of the Atmosphere. The Single Scattering Model. The Transmittance of a Real Atmosphere. 2. Reflection and Transmittance of Sunlight at the Sea Surface. The Albedo of the Sea Reflectance Functions. Albedo Reflection from a Roughened Sea Surface. 3. The Penetration of Natural Light into the Sea Depths. The Optical Classification of Waters. Vector Irradiance. The Diversity of Irradiance and the Optical Classification of Waters. Fluctuations in the Underwater Irradiance. 4. The Apparent Optical Properties of the Sea and their Relationships with the Inherent Properties in an Underwater Light Field. Definitions of Apparent Optical Properties. The Interrelationships among the Optical Properties of the Sea. The Asymptotic Light Field. The Transfer of Mass, Heat and Momentum in the Marine Environment. 1. Molecular Transport of Mass, Heat and Momentum in Seawater. The Equation of Diffusion. The Thermal Conductivity Equation. The Navier-Stokes Equation of Motion. 2. The Turbulent Exchange of Mass, Heat and Momentum in the Sea. Conditions for Turbulent Motion. Average and Fluctuating Component of Velocity. Averaging of the Navier-Stokes Equation of Motion. The Turbulent Exchange of Momentum. The Turbulent Exchange of Mass and Heat. Small-Scale Air-Sea Interaction and its Influence on the Structure of Water Masses in the Sea. 1. Fluxes of Momentum, Mass and Heat Across the Sea Surface. The Solar Radiation Flux Q. The Long Radiation Flux Q. The Surface Boundary Layer, Momentum Flux. The Fluxes of Sensible Heat Q and Latent Heat Q and of the Mass of Water Vapour M. The Laminar Surface Layer. Fluxes of Water Droplets, Salt Particles and Electric Charge. 2. The Energy Budget of a Basin and Its Influence on the Structure of Water Masses. The Equation of the Turbulent Energy Budget. The Horizontally Stratified Sea Model. The Mixed Layer Model. The Heat Budget of a Sea Basin. The Acoustic Properties of the Sea. The Wave Equation for Unattenuated Waves. The Energy and Intensity of Sound. 1. The Velocity of Sound in the Sea. Sound Velocity Distributions in the Sea. 2. The Absorption and Scattering of Sound in the Sea. Relaxation Processes in Seawater. The Absorption of Sound Energy in the Sea. Sound Scattering Functions. Sound Scatter at Small Scattering Centres and Bubbles. 3. Introduction to the Ray Theory of Sound Propagation in the Sea. The Eikonal Equation. Trajectories of Sound Rays in the Sea. Bibliography. Index.
In trying to discover as much as possible about the marine environment, oceanography has split into many subdisciplines, each represented by innumerable publications. To date however, there has been no concise synthesis introducing readers to the whole array of physical processes in the sea, and showing how these processes are related to one another and to other natural phenomena. The author of Marine Physics aims to fill this gap.
The volume presents energy and mass transfer processes in the marine environment together with an explanation of their effects on other processes. Starting with a general introduction to the thermodynamics of ocean waters, there follow chapters on radiation transfer processes; the molecular exchange of mass, heat and momentum; the turbulent exchange of mass, heat and momentum; small-scale air-sea interactions; modelling the surface boundary layer; and the propagation of acoustic waves in the sea. The discussions begin with physical principles and culminate in a presentation of current research problems. The volume is completed with the presentation of basic quantities, equations, formulas and diagrams, as well as indexes and 576 literature references. This volume should be an invaluable resource to post-graduates and scientists in the fields of engineering and oceanography, and for those interested in the protection or exploitation of the marine environment.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 1992
- 13th January 1992
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Oceanology, Sopot, Poland