Managing Mining and Minerals Processing Wastes

Managing Mining and Minerals Processing Wastes

Concepts, Design, and Applications

1st Edition - March 10, 2023

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  • Editors: Chongchong Qi, Craig Benson
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323912839
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323912846

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Managing Mining and Minerals Processing Wastes: Concepts, Design and Applications presents fundamental knowledge in waste management in mining and minerals processing and summarizes recent advances. The book offers readers insights into innovative ways to manage waste in the mining and minerals industry. Sections cover a brief introduction to this topic and an explanation of waste generation, and how to manage the six types of waste, including waste rock, mill tailings, coal refuse and coal fly ash, quarry waste, metallurgical slugs and washery rejects. The title then emphasizes the management of hazardous waste, the acid mine drainage and the lifecycle assessment of waste management. Finally, the book considers current and emerging challenges. This publication offers a comprehensive background to waste management in mining and minerals processing and a summary of recent advances and innovative strategies for managing each kind of waste.

Key Features

  • Presents the background to waste management in minerals and mining, also summarizing recent advances
  • Provides an accessible introduction to the current state of, and future prospects for, waste management
  • Helps readers increase their usable knowledge on waste management in mining and minerals engineering
  • Offers new insights into how waste can be managed in innovative ways
  • Covers hazardous waste, acid mine drainage, lifecycle assessment and emerging issues


Mining and minerals engineers, graduate level students interested in waste management

Table of Contents

  • Section I Mining wastes
    1. Low-sulfide mining waste rock as aggregates for concrete: mechanical
    properties and durability assessment

    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Experimental procedure
    1.2.1 Materials
    1.2.2 Concrete preparation
    1.2.3 Concrete testing
    1.3 Results and discussion
    1.3.1 Rheological properties of fresh concretes
    1.3.2 Compressive strength
    1.3.3 Resistance to rapid chloride penetration
    1.3.4 Deicing salt surface scaling
    1.3.5 Resistance to rapid freezing and thawing
    1.4 Conclusions and recommendations
    2. Effect of fractal gangue on macroscopic and mesoscopic mechanical
    properties of cemented waste rock backfill

    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Experimental methods
    2.2.1 Experimental material
    2.2.2 Experimental specimen preparation
    2.2.3 Experimental equipment and process
    2.3 Experimental results and discussion
    2.3.1 Ultrasonic and strength properties
    2.3.2 Deformation property
    2.3.3 Microstructure characteristics
    2.4 Simulation method and interpretation
    2.4.1 Discrete element method model
    2.4.2 Simulation results and discussion
    2.5 Conclusion
    Section II Minerals wastes
    3. Geochemical evaluation of sulfidic tailings and cemented paste backfill with
    respect to environmental impacts

    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Effect of acid mine drainage resulting from sulfidic tailings on the environment
    3.3 Determination of acid mine drainage
    3.3.1 Static tests
    3.3.2 Kinetic tests
    3.4 Cemented paste backfill and acid mine drainage
    3.5 Diffusion, leach, and kinetic test studies on cemented paste backfill
    3.6 Sulfide-rich tailings, current challenges, and recycling potential
    3.7 Conclusions
    4. Cementing sulfur tailings using low-clinker cement
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Materials and methods
    4.2.1 Raw materials
    4.2.2 Mix proportions
    4.2.3 Test methods
    4.3 Results and discussion
    4.3.1 Fluidity
    4.3.2 Compressive strength
    4.3.3 Phase analysis
    4.3.4 Microstructure analysis
    4.3.5 Expansion
    4.4 Conclusion
    5. Mechanical activation on mine waste material for integrated mineral
    carbonation process in Turnagain Project: a summary

    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Turnagain nickel project for integrated mineral carbonation process
    5.3 Main findings in the papers
    5.3.1 Characterization of the microstructure of mechanically activated olivine
    using X-ray diffraction pattern analysis (Paper 1)
    5.3.2 Mechanical activation of ultramafic mine waste for mineral carbonation
    using planetary milling (Paper 2)
    5.3.3 Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste using high
    speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation (Paper 3)
    5.3.4 Carbon dioxide adsorption isotherm study on mine waste for integrated CO2
    capture and sequestration processes (Paper 4)
    5.3.5 Economic analysis on the application of mechanical activation in an
    integrated mineral carbonation processes (Paper 5)
    5.4 Conclusion
    6. Feasibility and performance evaluation of cementitious material mixed
    with coal gangue solid waste

    6.1 Introduction
    6.1.1 Research background
    6.1.2 Characteristics of coal gangue materials
    6.1.3 Research status of coal gangue as building materials
    6.1.4 Research status of alkali-activated materials
    6.1.5 Research content
    6.2 Preparation of coal gangue geopolymers
    6.2.1 Materials and methods
    6.2.2 Test method
    6.2.3 Results and discussions
    6.3 Effect of slag on coal gangue geopolymers
    6.3.1 Test materials and characterization
    6.3.2 Results and discussions
    6.4 Discussion on the feasibility of coal gangue solid waste as cementitious material
    6.5 Conclusions
    Section III Metallurgical and utilization wastes
    7. Management and disposal of alumina production
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Geochemical composition of bauxite ore and red mud
    7.2.1 Bauxite ore
    7.2.2 Red mud
    7.3 Disposal method of the red mud
    7.3.1 Hydrochemistry of bauxite liquor and its major elements
    7.3.2 The containment of bauxite liquor in red mud management facilities
    7.3.3 Current lining technology for red mud disposal and bauxite liquor containment
    7.4 Recycling and reusing of red mud
    7.4.1 Recycle red mud as construction raw materials
    7.4.2 Recover valuable elements from red mud
    7.4.3 Reuse red mud in pollution treatment
    7.4.4 Challenges and prospects
    7.5 Summary and conclusions
    8. Application of geosynthetic clay liner for coal combustion products

    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Materials and methods
    8.2.1 Geosynthetic clay liners
    8.2.2 Synthetic coal combustion products leachate
    8.2.3 Hydraulic conductivity test
    8.2.4 Swelling index test
    8.2.5 Loss in ignition test
    8.2.6 Total organic carbon test
    8.3 Results and discussion
    8.3.1 Hydraulic conductivity test
    8.3.2 Temporal behavior
    8.3.3 Effect of ionic strength on hydraulic conductivity
    8.3.4 Swell index
    8.3.5 Hydraulic conductivity versus initial polymer loading
    8.3.6 Polymer elution
    8.4 Summary
    9. Geopolymerization of coal fly ash: effect of milling and mechanical activation
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 The effect of milling in a ball mill on fly ash geopolymerization
    9.2.1 Materials and methods
    9.2.2 Characterizations of milled fly ash
    9.2.3 Properties of fly ash-derived geopolymer
    9.3 The effect of mechanical activation using high-energy mills on fly ash geopolymerization
    9.4 Conclusion
    10. Recovery of steel slag as a raw material in cement-based mixes: usefulness as
    aggregate and binder

    10.1 Steelmaking process: types of slag
    10.2 Slag properties
    10.2.1 Electric arc furnace slag
    10.2.2 Ladle furnace slag
    10.2.3 Granulated blast furnace slag
    10.3 Steel slag applications in the construction sector: overview
    10.3.1 Electric arc furnace slag
    10.3.2 Ladle furnace slag
    10.3.3 Granulated blast furnace slag
    10.4 Steel slag in cement-based mixes: results obtained and design tip
    10.4.1 Electric arc furnace slag
    10.4.2 Ladle furnace slag
    10.4.3 Granulated blast furnace slag
    10.5 General remarks and conclusions
    11. Solid ashes investigation for its efficient recycling: chemical properties and
    clustering analysis

    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Methodology
    11.2.1 Data collection and analysis
    11.2.2 Three clustering algorithms
    11.2.3 Evaluation index of clustering
    11.3 Results and discussion
    11.3.1 Chemical properties of solid ashes
    11.3.2 Correlation between chemical oxides of solid ash
    11.3.3 Clustering analysis
    11.4 Conclusion
    Section IV Applications
    12. Mining waste utilization: case studies and good practices

    12.1 Utilization of typical metal mine wastes
    12.1.1 Utilization of metal tailings
    12.1.2 Utilization of fly ash
    12.1.3 Utilization of mine waste rocks
    12.2 Recovery of valuable components
    12.2.1 Valuable component recovery
    12.2.2 Tailings dam construction
    12.2.3 Treating acid mine wastewater with tailings
    12.3 Resource utilization of coal gangue
    12.3.1 Coal gangue sintered bricks
    12.3.2 Building materials
    12.3.3 Environmental restoration materials
    12.3.4 Power generation
    12.4 Ecological restoration of abandoned mine land
    12.5 Summary
    13. Recent practices in mine tailings’ recycling and reuse
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Tailings management: conventional approaches
    13.3 Major challenges
    13.4 A valuable source for different industrial sectors
    13.5 Recycling and reuse: recent approaches
    13.5.1 Cemented paste backfill
    13.5.2 Reusing as a raw ingredient
    13.5.3 Mine tailings reuse through treatment
    13.6 Summary and conclusion

Product details

  • No. of pages: 338
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2023
  • Published: March 10, 2023
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323912839
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323912846

About the Editors

Chongchong Qi

Chongchong Qi is a Professor in the School of Resources and Safety Engineering at Central South University, China. His research focuses on solid waste management in the mining and minerals industry and innovative strategies for solid waste reuse and recycling. He has published over 70 papers on related topics, served on various international committees and worked as the editorial board member for three SCI journals. He has received significant funding to develop innovative approaches for solid waste management in the mining and minerals industry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, China

Craig Benson

Craig H. Benson is Dean of the School of Engineering at the University of Virginia, USA. Recognized for his expertise in waste containment systems, he is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. His work focuses on environmental containment of solid, hazardous, radioactive and mining wastes; beneficial use of industrial byproducts; and sustainable infrastructure. Federal and state codes as well as guidance issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state regulatory authorities have incorporated his research on lining systems. He has received several awards for his work. He is a member of the ASCE Geo-Institute (GI) and is former Editor-in-Chief of the ASCE/GI Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dean, School of Engineering, University of Virginia, USA

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