Mammalian Protein Metabolism

Mammalian Protein Metabolism

Volume I

1st Edition - January 1, 1964

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  • Editors: H. N. Munro, J. B. Allison
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272924

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Mammalian Protein Metabolism, Volume I focuses on the processes, methodologies, biosynthesis, protein formation, and reactions involved in mammalian protein metabolism. The selection first elaborates on the origin and growth of concepts of protein metabolism, including the development of nitrogen balance as a technique for the study of protein metabolism; identification of proteins as a chemical class; discovery of nitrogen and its biological consequences; and recognition of the importance of nitrogenous compounds. The text then examines protein digestion and absorption in nonruminants and digestion and absorption of nitrogenous compounds in ruminants. Topics include passage of nitrogenous compounds from the rumen; utilization of nitrogenous compounds in the rumen; and endogenous nitrogen entering the reticulum and rumen. The book examines free amino acids and peptides in tissues, metabolic fate of amino acids, protein biosynthesis in mammalian tissues, and metabolism of plasma proteins. Discussions focus on the distribution of proteins between plasma and lymph, interpretation of plasma radioactivities, amino acid activating enzymes, ribosomes and protein synthesis, pathways of amino acid degradation, and synthesis of urea. The selection is a dependable source of data for researchers interested in mammalian protein metabolism.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Historical Introduction: The Origin and Growth of our Present Concepts of Protein Metabolism

    I. Discovery of Nitrogen and Its Biological Consequences: The Age of Black, Rutherford, and Lavoisier

    II. Recognition of the Importance of Nitrogenous Compounds: The Nutritional Studies of Francois Magendie

    III. Identification of the Proteins as a Chemical Class: The Theories of Liebig and Mulder

    IV. The Development of Nitrogen Balance as a Technique for the Study of Protein Metabolism: The Era of Carl Voit

    V. The Nutritional Studies of Voit and His Successors

    VI. Studies on the Metabolism of Nitrogenous Materials since the Time of Voit

    VII. Conclusion


    Part I Biochemical Aspects of Protein Metabolism

    An Introduction to Biochemical Aspects of Protein Metabolism


    Chapter 2 Protein Digestion and Absorption in Nonruminants

    I. Introduction

    II. Digestion in the Stomach

    III. Digestion in the Intestine

    IV. The Endogenous Protein

    V. Absorption


    Chapter 3 The Digestion and Absorption of Nitrogenous Compounds in the Ruminant

    I. Introduction

    II. Endogenous Nitrogen Entering the Reticulum and Rumen

    III. Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds in the Rumen

    IV. Passage of Nitrogenous Compounds from the Rumen

    V. The Nitrogen Cycle within the Body of the Ruminant


    Chapter 4 Free Amino Acids and Peptides in Tissues

    I. Introduction

    II. Where Do Amino Acids Go when They Disappear from the Circulation?

    III. General Biological Significance of Cellular Uptake of Amino Acids

    IV. Influence of the Uptake Process on the Direction of Amino Acid Metabolism

    V. Mode of Amino Acid Transport

    VI. Peptides in Tissues

    VII. Intravenous Amino Acid Nutrition: An Intensified Form of the General Problem of Supplying Amino Acids to Cells

    VIII. Homeostasis of the Plasma Amino Acid Levels


    Chapter 5 The Metabolic Fate of Amino Acids

    I. Pathways of Amino Acid Degradation

    II. Synthesis of Urea

    III. Formation of Nitrogenous Cell Constituents from Amino Acids

    IV. Urinary Excretion of Amino Acids

    V. Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids in the Mammalian Body

    VI. Gluconeogenesis from Amino Acids

    VII. Nutritional Adaptation of Amino Acid Metabolism

    VIII. The Cause of the Specific Dynamic Action of Proteins


    Chapter 6 Protein Biosynthesis in Mammalian Tissues

    Part I. The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis

    I. The Problem of Protein Biosynthesis

    II. Major Events Leading to a Hypothesis of Protein Synthesis

    III. Amino Acid Activating Enzymes

    IV. Soluble Ribonucleic Acid

    V. Ribosomes

    VI. Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis

    VII. Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis: Synthesis of Templates

    VIII. Protein Synthesis in Mitochondria

    IX. Protein Synthesis in Isolated Nuclei

    X. Conclusion


    Chapter 7 Protein Biosynthesis in Mammalian Tissues

    Part II. Studies on Turnover in the Whole Animal

    I. Introduction

    II. Different Types of Protein Turnover

    III. General Problems Arising in the Interpretation of Turnover Data

    IV. Protein Turnover in Specific Systems

    V. Attempts at Assessment of Over-all Rate of Protein Synthesis in the Whole Mammal

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 8 Metabolism of Plasma Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution of Proteins between Plasma and Lymph

    III. Sites of Catabolism and Replacement

    IV. Interpretation of Plasma Radioactivities

    V. Interpretation of Total Body I131 Radioactivities

    VI. Absolute Measurement of Protein Synthesis Rate

    VII. Role of the Liver in Plasma Protein Metabolism

    VIII. Possible Sites of Catabolism

    IX. Rates of Plasma Protein Catabolism

    X. Rates of Plasma Protein Synthesis

    XI. Plasma Protein Metabolism in Dietary Deprivation

    XII. Qualifications to a First-Order Kinetic Concept

    XIII. Possible Significance of Turnover

    XIV. Appendix on Preparation of Labeled Proteins


    Chapter 9 Some Aspects of Hormone and Protein Metabolic Interrelationships

    I. Introduction

    II. Hormones and Fetal Growth

    III. Hormones and Prepubertal Growth

    IV. Hormones, Body Growth, and Nitrogen Balance

    V. Hormones and Serum Proteins

    VI. Hormones and Protein Metabolism in Tissues and Organs

    VII. Pregnancy

    VIII. Protein Nutrition and Hormone Action

    IX. Steroids in Recovery from Protein Depletion

    X. Hypophysectomy and Protein Repletion


    Chapter 10 General Aspects of the Regulation of Protein Metabolism by Diet and Hormones

    I. Introduction

    II. Tissue Response to Dietary Protein Intake, with Reference to Labile or Reserve Body Protein

    III. Influence of Dietary Carbohydrate and Fat on Protein Metabolism

    IV. Hormonal Action and Body Protein Distribution

    V. Interaction of Diet and Hormones in the Regulation of Protein Metabolism

    VI. General Conclusions and Summary


    Chapter 11 Elimination of Nitrogen from the Body


    I. Excretion of Nitrogenous Compounds in the Urine

    II. Dermal Losses

    III. Fecal Excretion

    IV. The Concept of Nitrogen Balance


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 582
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1964
  • Published: January 1, 1964
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272924

About the Editors

H. N. Munro

J. B. Allison

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