Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124016880, 9780124016972

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

1st Edition

Tools for Neuroscience Research and Emerging Clinical Applications

Editors: Charlotte Stagg Douglas Rothman
eBook ISBN: 9780124016972
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124016880
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th December 2013
Page Count: 398
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Description

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Tools for Neuroscience Research and Emerging Clinical Applications is the first comprehensive book for non-physicists that addresses the emerging and exciting technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Divided into three sections, this book provides coverage of the key areas of concern for researchers. The first, on how MRS is acquired, provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques, analysis, and pitfalls encountered in MRS; the second, on what can be seen by MRS, provides essential background physiology and biochemistry on the major metabolites studied; the final sections, on why MRS is used, constitutes a detailed guide to the major clinical and scientific uses of MRS, the current state of teh art, and recent innovations.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy will become the essential guide for people new to the technique and give those more familiar with MRS a new perspective.

Key Features

  • Chapters written by world-leading experts in the field
  • Fully illustrated
  • Covers both proton and non-proton MRS
  • Includes the background to novel MRS imaging approaches

Readership

Neuroscience researchers and clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists) using MR imaging

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

Contributors

Introduction

Section 1: How MRS is Acquired

Section 2: Biochemistry—What Underlies the Signal?

Section 3: Applications of Proton MRS

Section 4: Applications of Non-Proton MRS

References

Section 1: Technical Aspects—How MRS is Acquired

Chapter 1.1. Basis of Magnetic Resonance

Introduction

MRS Methods

Conclusions

References

Chapter 1.2. Localized Single-Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Water Suppression, and Novel Approaches for Ultrashort Echo-Time Measurements

Introduction

Instrumental Impacts on Volume Definition

Factors Affecting Spectral Quality

Basic Localization 1H Mrs Methods

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 1.3. Technical Considerations for Multivoxel Approaches and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

Introduction

Multivolume Selection

Spatial Encoding

Fast Gradient-Encoding Methods

Encoding Based on Prior Knowledge

Water Suppression

Lipid Suppression

B0 Shimming

Conclusions

References

Chapter 1.4. Spectral Editing and 2D NMR

Introduction

Scalar Coupling

In Vivo GABA Editing

2D NMR Spectroscopy

References

Chapter 1.5. Spectral Quantification and Pitfalls in Interpreting Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Data: What To Look Out For

Introduction: A Simple Example of Spectral Quantitation

Measuring Peak Intensity

Nuisance Signals

Software Packages for Spectral Quantification

Signal Referencing and Absolute Quantification

Quality Control

Conclusions

References

Section 2: Biochemistry — What Underlies the Signal?

Chapter 2.1. N-Acetylaspartate and N-Acetylaspartylglutamate in Central Nervous System Health and Disease

Introduction

NAA

NAAG

References

Chapter 2.2. The Biochemistry of Creatine

Introduction

Creatine and High-Energy Phosphate Metabolism

CK within the CNS

Therapeutic Cr Supplementation

Quantification of Brain Cr with MRS

Conclusions

References

Chapter 2.3. The Biochemistry of Choline

Introduction

Biosynthesis

Biological Function

Indicators of Membrane Damage

The Cho Peak in MRS

Conclusions

References

Chapter 2.4. Glutamate

Introduction

Roles of Glutamate in Brain

Regulation of Glutamate Concentration

Interpretation of Changes in Glutamate Concentration

Conclusions

References

Chapter 2.5. Other Significant Metabolites: Myo-Inositol, GABA, Glutamine, and Lactate

Introduction

Myo-Inositol

GABA

Glutamine

Lactate

Conclusions

References

Section 3: Applications of Proton-MRS

Chapter 3.1. Usefulness of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Clinical Management of Brain Tumors

Introduction

1H MRS Acquisition and Normal Values

To be or not to be a Tumor, that is the Question

Proton MRS in the Classification of Brain Tumors

MRS in the Assessment of Glial Tumor Grade

Proton MRS in the Follow-up of Brain Tumors

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3.2. Multiple Sclerosis and Inflammatory Diseases

Introduction

MS

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.3. Epilepsy

Introduction

31P Studies of High-Energy Phosphates in Epilepsy

1H Spectroscopy in Epilepsy

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.4. Stroke and Cerebral Ischemia

Introduction

Ischemic Stroke

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Stroke

Spectroscopy: Proton MRS

MRS in the Penumbra and Infarct Core

Spectral Editing

Diaschisis

Stroke and Depression

Spectroscopy in the Recovering Brain

Problems with MRS Acquisition in Stroke

References

Chapter 3.5. Use of MRS in Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Canavan’s Disease and MRS in Differential Diagnosis

Introduction

Primary Leukodystrophies

Lysosomal Storage Diseases

Peroxisomal Disorders Producing Leukodystrophies

Amino Aciduria

Organic Acidurias

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.6. MRS of Psychiatric Disorders

Introduction

Findings During Episodes of Illness

Abnormalities after Clinical Recovery

Abnormalities in High-Risk Groups

Clinical Role

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.7. Preclinical and Clinical Applications of 1H MRS in the Spinal Cord

Introduction

Importance of 1H MRS Advances

Methodological Challenges and Considerations

Preclinical and Clinical 1H MRS Applications in the Spinal Cord

Future Potential of 1H MRS in the Spinal Cord

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.8. Interindividual Differences in Behavior and Plasticity

Introduction

Summary of GABA Metabolism

Data from Animal Models of Plasticity Induction

Quantifying GABA in Humans in Vivo

Chapter Outline

Interindividual Differences in GABA can be Related to Behavior

GABA Changes in Clinical Populations

GABAergic Changes in Plasticity Induction

Relationship to MRS-Assessed GABA and Information Derived from Other Imaging Modalities

Conclusions and Outstanding Questions

References

Chapter 3.9. MRS in Development and Across the Life Span

Introduction

Overview

MRS in Early Brain Development

MRS Across the Life Span

The Way Forward

References

Chapter 3.10. Hormonal Influences on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Measures

Introduction

Overview of Hormone Biology

Neurochemicals: Males Versus Females

Summary of Estradiol and Progesterone

Male Sex Steroidal Hormones and Neurochemical Changes

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.11. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Neuroenergetics and Neurotransmission

13C MRS Measurements of Cerebral Energy Metabolism

MRS Measurements of Neurotransmitter Fluxes

Application of 13C MRS in Human Disease

Summary

References

Section 4: Applications of Non-Proton MRS

Chapter 4.1. Quantitative Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Sodium, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Potassium in the Human Brain: A Rationale for Bioscales in Clinical Applications

Introduction

Justification for Quantification of Mr Signals

Quantification of MR Signals

Clinical Applications of Quantitative Sodium Imaging

Potential Applications of Quantitative 17-Oxygen MR Imaging

Potential Applications of Quantitative 31-Phosphorus MR Imaging

Applications of Quantitative Potassium MR Imaging

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 4.2. Carbon (13C) MRS

Introduction

Studies in Animal and Cell Models of the Glutamate/Glutamine Cycle and Neuronal and Glial Energetics

In Vivo 13C MRS Studies of Human Brain

Future Prospects for 13C MRS Studies in Humans

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 4.3. Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Brain

Introduction

Kinetic Analysis to Derive In Vivo Metabolic Rate(s) from Hyperpolarized MR Studies

Some Pointers to Future Exploitation of Hyperpolarized MR in Neuroscience and Neurology

Acknowledgments

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
398
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124016972
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124016880

About the Editor

Charlotte Stagg

Affiliations and Expertise

St Edmund Hall, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Douglas Rothman

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

Reviews

"Specialists in the neurosciences and in Magnetic Resonance Specctroscopy technology present a reference of the imaging technology for neurologists, psychiatrists, radiologists, and neuroscientists…The areas covered are technical aspects - how MRS is acquired, biochemistry - what underlies the signal, and applications of proton and non-proton MRS."--ProtoView.com, April 2014