Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Tools for Neuroscience Research and Emerging Clinical Applications

1st Edition - November 11, 2013

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  • Editors: Charlotte Stagg, Douglas Rothman
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124016880
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124016972

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Description

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Tools for Neuroscience Research and Emerging Clinical Applications is the first comprehensive book for non-physicists that addresses the emerging and exciting technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Divided into three sections, this book provides coverage of the key areas of concern for researchers. The first, on how MRS is acquired, provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques, analysis, and pitfalls encountered in MRS; the second, on what can be seen by MRS, provides essential background physiology and biochemistry on the major metabolites studied; the final sections, on why MRS is used, constitutes a detailed guide to the major clinical and scientific uses of MRS, the current state of teh art, and recent innovations. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy will become the essential guide for people new to the technique and give those more familiar with MRS a new perspective.

Key Features

  • Chapters written by world-leading experts in the field
  • Fully illustrated
  • Covers both proton and non-proton MRS
  • Includes the background to novel MRS imaging approaches

Readership

Neuroscience researchers and clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists) using MR imaging

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements

    Contributors

    Introduction

    Section 1: How MRS is Acquired

    Section 2: Biochemistry—What Underlies the Signal?

    Section 3: Applications of Proton MRS

    Section 4: Applications of Non-Proton MRS

    References

    Section 1: Technical Aspects—How MRS is Acquired

    Chapter 1.1. Basis of Magnetic Resonance

    Introduction

    MRS Methods

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 1.2. Localized Single-Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Water Suppression, and Novel Approaches for Ultrashort Echo-Time Measurements

    Introduction

    Instrumental Impacts on Volume Definition

    Factors Affecting Spectral Quality

    Basic Localization 1H Mrs Methods

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 1.3. Technical Considerations for Multivoxel Approaches and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    Introduction

    Multivolume Selection

    Spatial Encoding

    Fast Gradient-Encoding Methods

    Encoding Based on Prior Knowledge

    Water Suppression

    Lipid Suppression

    B0 Shimming

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 1.4. Spectral Editing and 2D NMR

    Introduction

    Scalar Coupling

    In Vivo GABA Editing

    2D NMR Spectroscopy

    References

    Chapter 1.5. Spectral Quantification and Pitfalls in Interpreting Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Data: What To Look Out For

    Introduction: A Simple Example of Spectral Quantitation

    Measuring Peak Intensity

    Nuisance Signals

    Software Packages for Spectral Quantification

    Signal Referencing and Absolute Quantification

    Quality Control

    Conclusions

    References

    Section 2: Biochemistry — What Underlies the Signal?

    Chapter 2.1. N-Acetylaspartate and N-Acetylaspartylglutamate in Central Nervous System Health and Disease

    Introduction

    NAA

    NAAG

    References

    Chapter 2.2. The Biochemistry of Creatine

    Introduction

    Creatine and High-Energy Phosphate Metabolism

    CK within the CNS

    Therapeutic Cr Supplementation

    Quantification of Brain Cr with MRS

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2.3. The Biochemistry of Choline

    Introduction

    Biosynthesis

    Biological Function

    Indicators of Membrane Damage

    The Cho Peak in MRS

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2.4. Glutamate

    Introduction

    Roles of Glutamate in Brain

    Regulation of Glutamate Concentration

    Interpretation of Changes in Glutamate Concentration

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2.5. Other Significant Metabolites: Myo-Inositol, GABA, Glutamine, and Lactate

    Introduction

    Myo-Inositol

    GABA

    Glutamine

    Lactate

    Conclusions

    References

    Section 3: Applications of Proton-MRS

    Chapter 3.1. Usefulness of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Clinical Management of Brain Tumors

    Introduction

    1H MRS Acquisition and Normal Values

    To be or not to be a Tumor, that is the Question

    Proton MRS in the Classification of Brain Tumors

    MRS in the Assessment of Glial Tumor Grade

    Proton MRS in the Follow-up of Brain Tumors

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3.2. Multiple Sclerosis and Inflammatory Diseases

    Introduction

    MS

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3.3. Epilepsy

    Introduction

    31P Studies of High-Energy Phosphates in Epilepsy

    1H Spectroscopy in Epilepsy

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3.4. Stroke and Cerebral Ischemia

    Introduction

    Ischemic Stroke

    Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Stroke

    Spectroscopy: Proton MRS

    MRS in the Penumbra and Infarct Core

    Spectral Editing

    Diaschisis

    Stroke and Depression

    Spectroscopy in the Recovering Brain

    Problems with MRS Acquisition in Stroke

    References

    Chapter 3.5. Use of MRS in Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Canavan’s Disease and MRS in Differential Diagnosis

    Introduction

    Primary Leukodystrophies

    Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    Peroxisomal Disorders Producing Leukodystrophies

    Amino Aciduria

    Organic Acidurias

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3.6. MRS of Psychiatric Disorders

    Introduction

    Findings During Episodes of Illness

    Abnormalities after Clinical Recovery

    Abnormalities in High-Risk Groups

    Clinical Role

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3.7. Preclinical and Clinical Applications of 1H MRS in the Spinal Cord

    Introduction

    Importance of 1H MRS Advances

    Methodological Challenges and Considerations

    Preclinical and Clinical 1H MRS Applications in the Spinal Cord

    Future Potential of 1H MRS in the Spinal Cord

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3.8. Interindividual Differences in Behavior and Plasticity

    Introduction

    Summary of GABA Metabolism

    Data from Animal Models of Plasticity Induction

    Quantifying GABA in Humans in Vivo

    Chapter Outline

    Interindividual Differences in GABA can be Related to Behavior

    GABA Changes in Clinical Populations

    GABAergic Changes in Plasticity Induction

    Relationship to MRS-Assessed GABA and Information Derived from Other Imaging Modalities

    Conclusions and Outstanding Questions

    References

    Chapter 3.9. MRS in Development and Across the Life Span

    Introduction

    Overview

    MRS in Early Brain Development

    MRS Across the Life Span

    The Way Forward

    References

    Chapter 3.10. Hormonal Influences on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Measures

    Introduction

    Overview of Hormone Biology

    Neurochemicals: Males Versus Females

    Summary of Estradiol and Progesterone

    Male Sex Steroidal Hormones and Neurochemical Changes

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3.11. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Neuroenergetics and Neurotransmission

    13C MRS Measurements of Cerebral Energy Metabolism

    MRS Measurements of Neurotransmitter Fluxes

    Application of 13C MRS in Human Disease

    Summary

    References

    Section 4: Applications of Non-Proton MRS

    Chapter 4.1. Quantitative Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Sodium, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Potassium in the Human Brain: A Rationale for Bioscales in Clinical Applications

    Introduction

    Justification for Quantification of Mr Signals

    Quantification of MR Signals

    Clinical Applications of Quantitative Sodium Imaging

    Potential Applications of Quantitative 17-Oxygen MR Imaging

    Potential Applications of Quantitative 31-Phosphorus MR Imaging

    Applications of Quantitative Potassium MR Imaging

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 4.2. Carbon (13C) MRS

    Introduction

    Studies in Animal and Cell Models of the Glutamate/Glutamine Cycle and Neuronal and Glial Energetics

    In Vivo 13C MRS Studies of Human Brain

    Future Prospects for 13C MRS Studies in Humans

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4.3. Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Brain

    Introduction

    Kinetic Analysis to Derive In Vivo Metabolic Rate(s) from Hyperpolarized MR Studies

    Some Pointers to Future Exploitation of Hyperpolarized MR in Neuroscience and Neurology

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 398
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: November 11, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124016880
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124016972

About the Editors

Charlotte Stagg

Affiliations and Expertise

St Edmund Hall, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Douglas Rothman

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

Ratings and Reviews

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Latest reviews

  • SergejOstojic Sun May 17 2020

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Excellent text, essential to non-imaging specialist to better understand the fundamentals of MR spectroscopy and metabolic turmoil in various conditions!