Luminescence and the Solid State

Luminescence and the Solid State

2nd Edition - May 6, 2004

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  • Author: Richard Ropp
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080473239

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Since the first date of publication of this book in 1991, the subject of phosphors and luminescence has assumed even more importance in the overall scheme of technological development. Many new types of displays have appeared which depend upon phosphors in their operation. Some of these were pure conjecture in 1991 but are a reality in 2004. Descriptions have been included of the newer (as well as the older) types of displays in this edition along with an annotated portrait of the phosphors used in each category. Many of these new light sources promise to displace and make obsolete our current light sources, such as incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and the ubiquitous colour Cathode Ray Tube now used in TV and computer monitors. The importance of solid state science are summarized in the introductory chapters of this edition, and many of the chapters have been completely rewritten or revised. Each chapter has a special contribution to make in the overall understanding of the solid state science of phosphors and luminescence.

Key Features

  • Introduces the reader to the science and art of preparing inorganic luminescent materials
  • Describes how and why luminescent materials exhibit such specific intrinsic properties
  • Describes the science of the solid state and presents the exact formulas and conditions required to make all of the phosphors known at that time


Inorganic chemists, Materials scientists, Solid State Chemists/Physicists

Table of Contents


    Changes of State

    Energetics of Changes of State.

    Propagation Models and the Close-Packed Solid.

    The Structure of Solids.

    Determination of Structure of compounds.

    The Defect Solid.


    Types of Point Defects.

    The Plane Net.

    Defect Equation Symbolism.

    Some Applications for Defect Chemistry.

    Thermodynamics of the Point Defect.

    Defect Equilibria in Various Types of Compounds.

    Brouwer's Approximation Method.

    Analyses of Real Crystals using Brouwer's Method.

    The Effects of Purity (And Impurities).

    Nanotechnology and The Solid State.


    Solid State Reactions and Nucleation Mechanisms.

    Homogeneous Nucleation Processes - Particle Growth.

    Nucleation in Precipitation Reactions.

    Sequences in Particle Growth.

    Methods of Measurement of Solid State Reactions.

    Measurement of Particle Sizes and Shapes.

    Growth of Single Crystals.


    The Nature of Light.

    Absorbance, Reflectivity and Transmittance.
    Electronic Aspects of Crystals.
    Phonons as Quantized Lattice Vibrations.

    Electronic Aspects of Phosphors.

    Factors Associated with Excitation Energy Conversion.

    Mechanisms of Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Solids.

    Summary of Phonon Processes as Related to Phosphors.


    The Luminescent Center in Inorganic Phosphors.

    The Ground State Perturbation Factor.
    Design of a Phosphor.

    Factors Affecting Phosphor Efficiencies(Brightness).

    Preparation of Phosphors.

    Commercial Phosphors.

    Measurement of Optical Properties of Phosphors.
    Rare Earths and Their Spectral


    Current Progress in CRT Display and Discharge Lighting.

    Current Display Devices Based Upon Electron Generation .

    Current Display Devices Based Upon Photon Generation.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 730
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2004
  • Published: May 6, 2004
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080473239

About the Author

Richard Ropp

Richard Ropp

Richard C. Ropp, Ph.D., holds a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Rutgers University (1971), an M.S. from Purdue University (1952), and the A.B. (Chem.) from Franklin College (IN). His career in chemistry spans over 60 years and he has been a consultant to industry during the past 40 years. Dr. Ropp has presented many seminars and talks and is the author of eight books (six by Elsevier). These books are based upon the properties of alkaline earth compounds. He began working with alkaline earth compounds in 1952, and was the originator and inventor of the red color TV phosphor in 1956 which is still being used today. He also created more than 25 new lamp and TV phosphors still being manufactured for the industry. Most of these were based upon alkaline earth compounds. He also developed more than 15 new chemical processes for raw materials used in the trade, many of which involved the manufacture of alkaline earth compounds. Fifty-five patents have been issued in his name (seven on glass) and he has published 63 technical papers. About 90% of the patents involved alkaline earth compounds. He is the inventor of a new type of alkaline earth phosphate glasses based on molecular polymerization. These glasses do not exhibit surface leaching by water and are more stable to hydrolysis than silicate-based glasses. These new glasses have unique applications in fiber-optics, high level nuclear waste disposal, high strength fibers, medical and dental implants, lasers, projection TV, and uses in optical and electronic components.

Dr. Ropp held appointments as Research Specialist and Member of the Faculty of the Department of Chemistry at Rutgers University in Newark, NJ from 1971 to 1981. His experience has been varied and he has acted as Consultant and Expert Witness to attorneys concerning the technological aspects of their ongoing cases from 1989 to 2011 (more than 155 cases).

From January 1990 to January 17, 1991, he served as Vice President of Technology for International Superconductor Corporation (ISC) of North Miami Beach, FL. During that time, he was responsible for all matters pertaining to technology and acquisition of patents in the field of high temperature ceramic superconductors. Due in part to his efforts, ISC now owns 16 patents for license or sale to the industry. He continued to aid in the marketing campaign and became a member of the Licensing Executives Society in September 1990. From May to December 1989, he served as Consultant to the Corporation and wrote all 32 patent applications subsequently filed in the US Patent Office.

From April 1988 to April 1989, he served as Director of Technical Affairs at Electro-Nucleonics in Fairfield, NJ (later called CPG, Inc.) where he was responsible for Quality Control during the manufacture of controlled pore glass, including the preparation of various types and grades of coated glass. Part of the work included improvement of existing manufacturing techniques, as well as new techniques for producing coated glass.

Dr. Ropp's other affiliations include: Staff Scientist for Allied Chemical (Morristown, NJ- 1973-1977); Westinghouse Electric as Manager of Special Products Group (Bloomfield, NJ- 1963-1967) and as Consultant (1967-1970); and Advanced Development Engineer for Sylvania Electric Products (Towanda, PA- 1952-1963). He was consultant to ITT (1973) for evaluation of their lamp manufacturing plant, production methods, and quality control at Champion Lamp Works in Salem, MA. He was invited in May 1996 to lecture for two days at ITRI (Hinchu, Taiwan) on phosphor properties. A New York City insurance company sent him to Taiwan to evaluate 4000+ cathode-ray tubes, said to be water-damaged (December1996). He also served as consultant from 1995 to 2003) to Light Sources of Orange, CT during their development and manufacture of superior “Blacklight” fluorescent lamps for tanning salon usage.

Dr. Ropp is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (London) and is a Chartered Chemist of the Society. He is also a member of the American Ceramic Society, American Chemical Society, AAAS, Materials Research Society, Sigma Xi, Licensing Executives Society, and served as the President of the New Jersey Institute of Chemists (1976-1980). He is listed in Who's Who in the East and Who's Who in the World-Registry of Business Leaders.

Affiliations and Expertise

FRSC, FAIC &BCFE, Warren, New Jersey, USA

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