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1 The Method of Logical Effort
1.2 Delay in a logic gate
1.3 Multistage logic networks
1.4 Choosing the best number of stages
2 Design Examples
2.1 The AND function of eight inputs
2.1.1 Calculating gate sizes
2.2.1 Generating complementary inputs
2.3 Synchronous arbitration
2.3.1 The original circuit
2.3.2 Improving the design
2.3.3 Restructuring the problem
3 Deriving the Method of Logical Effort
3.1 Model of a logic gate
3.2 Delay in a logic gate
3.3 Minimizing delay along a path
3.4 Choosing the length of a path
3.5 Using the wrong number of stages
3.6 Using the wrong gate size
4 Calculating the Logical Effort of Gates
4.1 Definitions of logical effort
4.2 Grouping input signals
4.3 Calculating logical effort
4.4 Asymmetric logic gates
4.5 Catalog of logic gates
4.5.1 NAND gate
4.5.2 NOR gate
4.5.3 Multiplexers, tristate inverters
4.5.4 XOR, XNOR, and parity gates
4.5.5 Majority gate
4.5.6 Adder carry chain
4.5.7 Dynamic latch
4.5.8 Dynamic Muller Celement
4.5.9 Upper bounds on logical effort
4.6 Estimating parasitic delay
4.7 Properties of logical effort
5 Calibrating the Model
5.1 Calibration technique
5.2 Designing test circuits
5.2.1 Rising, falling, and average delays
5.2.2 Choice of input
5.2.3 Parasitic capacitance
5.2.4 Process sensitivity
5.3 Other characterization methods
5.3.1 Data sheets
5.3.2 Test chips
5.4 Calibrating special circuit families
6 Asymmetric Logic Gates
6.1 Designing asymmetric logic gates
6.2 Applications of asymmetric logic gates
7 Unequal Rising and Falling Delays
7.1 Analyzing delays
7.2 Case analysis
7.2.1 Skewed gates
7.2.2 Impact of fl and ¯ on logical effort
7.3 Optimizing CMOS P=N ratios
8 Circuit Families
8.1 PseudoNMOS circuits
8.1.1 Symmetric NOR gates
8.2 Domino circuits
8.2.1 Logical effort of dynamic gates
8.2.2 Stage effort of domino circuits
8.2.3 Building logic in static gates
8.2.4 Designing dynamic gates
8.3 Transmission gates
9 Forks of Amplifiers
9.1 The fork circuit form
9.2 How many stages should a fork use?
10 Branches and Interconnect
10.1 Circuits that branch at a single input
10.1.1 Branch paths with equal lengths
10.1.2 Branch paths with unequal lengths
10.2 Branches after logic
10.3 Circuits that branch and recombine
10.4.1 Short wires
10.4.2 Long wires
10.4.3 Medium wires
10.5 A design approach
11 Wide Structures
11.1 An ninput AND structure
11.1.1 Minimum logical effort
11.1.2 Minimum delay
11.1.3 Other wide functions
11.2 An ninput Muller Celement
11.2.1 Minimum logical effort
11.2.2 Minimum delay
11.3.1 Simple decoder
11.3.3 LyonSchediwy decoder
11.4.1 How wide should a multiplexer be?
11.4.2 Mediumwidth multiplexers
12.1 The theory of logical effort
12.2 Insights from logical effort
12.3 A design procedure
12.4 Other approaches to path design
12.4.1 Simulate and tweak
12.4.2 Equal fanout
12.4.3 Equal delay
12.4.4 Numerical optimization
12.5 Shortcomings of logical effort
12.6 Parting words
A Cast of Characters
B Reference process parameters
C Logical Effort Tools
C.1 Library characterization
C.2 Wide gate design
D.1 Chapter 1
D.2 Chapter 2
D.3 Chapter 3
D.4 Chapter 4
D.5 Chapter 5
D.6 Chapter 6
D.7 Chapter 7
D.8 Chapter 8
D.9 Chapter 9
D.10 Chapter 10
D.11 Chapter 11
Designers of high-speed integrated circuits face a bewildering array of choices and too often spend frustrating days tweaking gates to meet speed targets. Logical Effort: Designing Fast CMOS Circuits makes high speed design easier and more methodical, providing a simple and broadly applicable method for estimating the delay resulting from factors such as topology, capacitance, and gate sizes.
The brainchild of circuit and computer graphics pioneers Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull, "logical effort" will change the way you approach design challenges. This book begins by equipping you with a sound understanding of the method's essential procedures and concepts-so you can start using it immediately. Later chapters explore the theory and finer points of the method and detail its specialized applications.
- Explains the method and how to apply it in two practically focused chapters.
- Improves circuit design intuition by teaching simple ways to discern the consequences of topology and gate size decisions.
- Offers easy ways to choose the fastest circuit from among an array of potential circuit designs.
- Reduces the time spent on tweaking and simulations-so you can rapidly settle on a good design.
- Offers in-depth coverage of specialized areas of application for logical effort: skewed or unbalanced gates, other circuit families (including pseudo-NMOS and domino), wide structures such as decoders, and irregularly forking circuits.
- Presents a complete derivation of the method-so you see how and why it works.
This book is intended for anyone who designs CMOS integrated circuits.
- No. of pages:
- © Morgan Kaufmann 1999
- 9th February 1999
- Morgan Kaufmann
- Paperback ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Ivan E. Sutherland, a vice president and fellow at Sun Microsystems, received the Turing Award and the Von Neumann Medal for his pioneering contributions in the fields of computer graphics and microelectronic design.
Robert F. Sproull is an internationally noted expert on the design of graphics hardware and software. He too is a vice president and fellow at Sun.
David Harris is the Harvey S. Mudd Professor of Engineering Design at Harvey Mudd College. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University and his M.Eng. in electrical engineering and computer science from MIT. Before attending Stanford, he worked at Intel as a logic and circuit designer on the Itanium and Pentium II processors. Since then, he has consulted at Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Broadcom, and other design companies. David holds more than a dozen patents and is the author of three other textbooks on chip design, as well as many Southern California hiking guidebooks. When he is not working, he enjoys hiking, flying, and making things with his three sons.
Associate Professor of Engineering, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA, USA
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