Living Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127059501, 9780323144490

Living Chemistry

1st Edition

Authors: David Ucko
eBook ISBN: 9780323144490
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 615
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Description

Living Chemistry is a 23-chapter textbook that provides a thorough, systematic coverage of the chemical information related to health.
The opening chapters cover the basic concepts required for understanding the ""language"" and principles of chemistry. These chapters also introduce the International System of units followed by the studies of carbon compounds based on functional groups. The discussions then shift to the study of biologically important molecules, such as the chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, as well as the individual reaction steps for important complex metabolic pathways. The remaining chapters explore the chemistry of vitamins, hormones, body fluids, drugs and poisons. Optional topics, including a mathematics review, scientific notation, the unit-factor and proportion methods, metric conversion with practice problems, atomic orbitals, hybridization, metabolic pathways, and the cell, are provided in the supplementary texts. This book is of great value to undergraduate chemistry students.

Table of Contents


1 Matter and measurement

1.1 The scientific method

1.2 The metric system

1.3 Mass

1.4 Length

1.5 Volume

1.6 Density

1.7 Temperature

1.8 Three states of matter

Summary

Exercises

2 The composition of matter

2.1 The atom

2.2 Charge

2.3 Atomic number

2.4 Atomic mass

2.5 The structure of atoms

2.6 Isotopes

2.7 Elements

2.8 Atomic weight

2.9 The periodic table

2.10 Properties of the elements

2.11 Elements important to health

Summary

Exercises

3 Chemical bonding

3.1 The chemical bond

3.2 Covalent bonding

3.3 The molecule

3.4 Lewis symbols

3.5 Diatomic molecules

3.6 Polar covalent bonds

3.7 Valence

3.8 Naming covalent compounds

3.9 Ions

3.10 Charges of ions

3.11 Ionic bonds

3.12 Writing formulas of ionic compounds

3.13 Polyatomic ions

Summary

Exercises

4 Compounds and chemical change

4.1 Formula or molecular weight of compounds

4.2 Percentage composition

4.3 The mole

4.4 Compounds vs mixtures

4.5 Chemical reactions

4.6 Balancing chemical equations

4.7 Interpreting equations

4.8 Calculations based on equations

4.9 Types of reactions

4.10 Oxidation-reduction reactions

4.11 Energy and chemical reactions

4.12 Reversibility of reactions

4.13 Rate of a reaction

Summary

Exercises

5 Gases and respiration

5.1 Kinetic molecular theory

5.2 Diffusion

5.3 Temperature

5.4 Pressure

5.5 The gas laws: pressure and volume

5.6 Breathing

5.7 The gas laws: pressure and temperature

5.8 The gas laws: volume and temperature

5.9 The gas laws: the quantity of gas

5.10 Air and partial pressures

5.11 Respiration

5.12 Oxygen therapy

5.13 Other important gases

Summary

Exercises

6 Water

6.1 The structure of water

6.2 Kinetic theory of liquids and solids

6.3 Evaporation

6.4 The calorie and specific heat

6.5 Heat and the states of water

6.6 Density and specific gravity

6.7 Surface tension

6.8 Viscosity

6.9 Water pressure

6.10 Water of hydration

6.11 Water purification

6.12 Water balance

6.13 Humidity therapy

Summary

Exercises

7 Solutions

7.1 Types of solutions

7.2 The process of dissolving

7.3 Solubility of solids

7.4 Saturation

7.5 The solubility of liquids and gases

7.6 Concentration of solutions—percentage

7.7 Molarity

7.8 Dilution of solutions

7.9 Osmosis

7.10 Osmosis and the blood

7.11 Colloids

7.12 Dialysis

Summary

Exercises

8 Acids, bases, and salts

8.1 Acids

8.2 Properties of acids

8.3 Bases

8.4 Properties of bases

8.5 The pH of acids and bases

8.6 Measurement of pH

8.7 Neutralization and titration

8.8 Normality

8.9 Salts and hydrolysis

8.10 Body electrolytes

8.11 Buffers

8.12 Acidosis and alkalosis

Summary

Exercises

9 Nuclear chemistry and radiation

9.1 Radioactivity

9.2 Nuclear reactions

9.3 Natural radioactivity

9.4 Artificial radioactivity

9.5 Half-life

9.6 Nuclear energy

9.7 X-ray radiation and photography

9.8 Detection of radiation

9.9 Units of radiation

9.10 Radioisotopes in diagnosis

9.11 Radiation therapy and cancer

9.12 Effects of radiation

9.13 Radiation safety

Summary

Exercises

10 Organic chemistry—hydrocarbons

10.1 The carbon atom

10.2 Alkanes

10.3 Alkyl groups

10.4 Isomers

10.5 Reactions of alkanes

10.6 Alkenes

10.7 Reactions of alkenes

10.8 Alkynes

10.9 Cycloalkanes

10.10 Aromatic hydrocarbons—benzene

10.11 Properties of benzene

10.12 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Summary

Exercises

11 Oxygen derivatives of the hydrocarbons

11.1 Functional groups

11.2 Alcohols

11.3 Examples of alcohols

11.4 Reactions of alcohols

11.5 Ethers

11.6 Reactions of ethers

11.7 Aldehydes

11.8 Reactions of aldehydes

11.9 Ketones

11.10 Acids

11.11 Reactions of acids

11.12 Esters

11.13 Reactions of esters

Summary

Exercises

12 Other organic derivatives and polymers

12.1 Halogen derivatives

12.2 Sulfur derivatives

12.3 Nitrogen derivatives—amines

12.4 Reactions of amines

12.5 Nitrogen derivatives—amides

12.6 Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds

12.7 Nitrogen derivatives—alkaloids

12.8 Other nitrogen derivatives

12.9 Organic polymers

12.10 Addition polymers

12.11 Condensation polymers

Summary

Exercises

13 Carbohydrates

13.1 Classification of carbohydrates

13.2 Monosaccharides

13.3 Open and closed forms of monosaccharides

13.4 Glucose

13.5 Other hexoses—galactose and fructose

13.6 Disaccharides

13.7 Polysaccharides

13.8 Reactions of carbohydrates

13.9 Optical isomers and carbohydrates

Summary

Exercises

14 Lipids

14.1 Fatty acids

14.2 Soaps and detergents

14.3 Waxes

14.4 Fats and oils

14.5 Properties of fats and oils

14.6 Body fats

14.7 Phospholipids

14.8 Cell membranes and active transport

14.9 Sphingolipids

14.10 Steroids

Summary

Exercises

15 Proteins

15.1 The amino acids

15.2 Properties of amino acids

15.3 Primary structure of proteins

15.4 Secondary structure of proteins

15.5 Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins

15.6 Examples of protein structure

15.7 Classification of proteins

15.8 Properties of proteins

15.9 Denaturation of proteins

15.10 Protein and mineral—bones and teeth

Summary

Exercises

16 Enzymes and digestion

16.1 Mechanism of enzyme action

16.2 Classification of enzymes

16.3 Factors affecting enzyme activity

16.4 Enzyme cofactors

16.5 Inhibitors

16.6 Applications of enzymes in medicine

16.7 Enzymes and nerve impulses

16.8 Enzymes of carbohydrate digestion

16.9 Enzymes of lipid digestion

16.10 Enzymes of protein digestion

Summary

Exercises

17 Energy and carbohydrate metabolism

17.1 Biochemical energy

17.2 Electron transfer

17.3 Storage and transfer of energy

17.4 Uses of energy in the body

17.5 Glycolysis

17.6 Citric acid (Krebs) cycle

17.7 The respiratory chain

17.8 Products of glucose catabolism

17.9 Carbohydrate anabolism

17.10 Glycogen metabolism

17.11 Blood glucose

Summary

Exercises

18 Metabolism of lipids

18.1 The fatty acid "cycle"

18.2 Energy released by lipid catabolism

18.3 Lipogenesis

18.4 Role of acetyl-CoA

18.5 Ketosis

18.6 Ketoacidosis

18.7 Body lipids

18.8 Obesity

18.9 Blood lipids and atherosclerosis

18.10 Lipids and diet

Summary

Exercises

19 Metabolism of proteins

19.1 The nitrogen cycle

19.2 Amino acid catabolism

19.3 The urea (ornithine) cycle

19.4 Amino acid anabolism

19.5 Metabolism of other nitrogen compounds

19.6 Nitrogen balance

19.7 Dietary protein

19.8 Protein deficiency—kwashiorkor

19.9 Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

Summary

Exercises

20 Heredity and protein synthesis

20.1 Nucleotides

20.2 Polynucleotides and base pairing

20.3 Transcription

20.4 Translation of the genetic code

20.5 Protein synthesis

20.6 Regulation of synthesis

20.7 DNA replication

20.8 Mutations

20.9 Mutagens

20.10 Molecular (genetic) diseases

20.11 Information transfer

Summary

Exercises

21 Vitamins and hormones

21.1 Vitamins

21.2 Water-soluble vitamins—thiamin

21.3 Water-soluble vitamins—riboflavin

21.4 Water-soluble vitamins—niacin

21.5 Water-soluble vitamins—folacin

21.6 Water-soluble vitamins—pantothenic acid

21.7 Water-soluble vitamins—vitamin B6

21.8 Water-soluble vitamins—vitamin B12

21.9 Water-soluble vitamins—ascorbic acid

21.10 Water-soluble vitamins—biotin

21.11 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin A

21.12 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin D

21.13 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin Ε

21.14 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin Κ

21.15 Recommended dietary allowances

21.16 Hormones

21.17 Thyroxine (thyroid gland)

21.18 Parathormone (parathyroid gland)

21.19 Calcitonin (parathyroid gland)

21.20 Insulin (pancreas)

21.21 Glucagon (pancreas)

21.22 Testosterone (male gonads)

21.23 Estrogen (female gonads)

21.24 Progesterone (female gonads)

21.25 Epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenal gland)

21.26 Cortisol and aldosterone (adrenal gland)

21.27 Vasopressin (hypophysis or pituitary)

21.28 Adrenocorticotropni (hypophysis)

21.29 Gonadotropic hormones (hypophysis)

21.30 Growth hormone (hypophysis)

21.31 Thyrotropin (hypophysis)

21.32 Hormonal regulation

21.33 Examples of hormone function

Summary

Exercises

22 Chemistry of the body fluids

22.1 Blood plasma

22.2 Blood antibodies

22.3 Blood clotting

22.4 Erythrocytes and gas transport

22.5 Abnormal number of erythrocytes

22.6 Blood groups

22.7 Leukocytes

22.8 Blood analysis

22.9 Other extracellular fluids

22.10 Milk

22.11 Urine

22.12 Normal composition of urine

22.13 Abnormal compounds in urine

Summary

Exercises

23 Drugs and poisons

23.1 The action of drugs

23.2 Antibiotics

23.3 Aspirin and analgesics

23.4 Narcotic analgesics

23.5 Anesthetics

23.6 Sedative-hypnotics

23.7 Antianxiety and antipsychotic drugs

23.8 Alcohol

23.9 Stimulants

23.10 Hallucinogens

23.11 Drugs and the autonomic nervous system

23.12 Poisons

23.13 Environmental pollutants

Summary

Exercises

Appendix A Basic mathematics for chemistry

A.1 Fractions, decimals, and percent

A.2 Scientific (exponential) notation

A.3 Proportions and algebra

A.4 The unit-factor method

Appendix B Metric system conversions

B.1 Conversions within the metric system

B.2 Conversions between the English and metric systems

B.3 Temperature conversions

Exercises

Appendix C Orbitals

C.1 Electron configurations of the atoms

C.2 Hybrid orbitals

Appendix D Details of glucose catabolism

D.1 Glycolysis

D.2 The citric acid cycle

Appendix E The Cell

Appendix F Answers to numerical problems

Index




Details

No. of pages:
615
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323144490

About the Author

David Ucko