Living Chemistry

Living Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Author: David Ucko
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144490

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Description

Living Chemistry is a 23-chapter textbook that provides a thorough, systematic coverage of the chemical information related to health. The opening chapters cover the basic concepts required for understanding the ""language"" and principles of chemistry. These chapters also introduce the International System of units followed by the studies of carbon compounds based on functional groups. The discussions then shift to the study of biologically important molecules, such as the chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, as well as the individual reaction steps for important complex metabolic pathways. The remaining chapters explore the chemistry of vitamins, hormones, body fluids, drugs and poisons. Optional topics, including a mathematics review, scientific notation, the unit-factor and proportion methods, metric conversion with practice problems, atomic orbitals, hybridization, metabolic pathways, and the cell, are provided in the supplementary texts. This book is of great value to undergraduate chemistry students.

Table of Contents


  • 1 Matter and measurement

    1.1 The scientific method

    1.2 The metric system

    1.3 Mass

    1.4 Length

    1.5 Volume

    1.6 Density

    1.7 Temperature

    1.8 Three states of matter

    Summary

    Exercises

    2 The composition of matter

    2.1 The atom

    2.2 Charge

    2.3 Atomic number

    2.4 Atomic mass

    2.5 The structure of atoms

    2.6 Isotopes

    2.7 Elements

    2.8 Atomic weight

    2.9 The periodic table

    2.10 Properties of the elements

    2.11 Elements important to health

    Summary

    Exercises

    3 Chemical bonding

    3.1 The chemical bond

    3.2 Covalent bonding

    3.3 The molecule

    3.4 Lewis symbols

    3.5 Diatomic molecules

    3.6 Polar covalent bonds

    3.7 Valence

    3.8 Naming covalent compounds

    3.9 Ions

    3.10 Charges of ions

    3.11 Ionic bonds

    3.12 Writing formulas of ionic compounds

    3.13 Polyatomic ions

    Summary

    Exercises

    4 Compounds and chemical change

    4.1 Formula or molecular weight of compounds

    4.2 Percentage composition

    4.3 The mole

    4.4 Compounds vs mixtures

    4.5 Chemical reactions

    4.6 Balancing chemical equations

    4.7 Interpreting equations

    4.8 Calculations based on equations

    4.9 Types of reactions

    4.10 Oxidation-reduction reactions

    4.11 Energy and chemical reactions

    4.12 Reversibility of reactions

    4.13 Rate of a reaction

    Summary

    Exercises

    5 Gases and respiration

    5.1 Kinetic molecular theory

    5.2 Diffusion

    5.3 Temperature

    5.4 Pressure

    5.5 The gas laws: pressure and volume

    5.6 Breathing

    5.7 The gas laws: pressure and temperature

    5.8 The gas laws: volume and temperature

    5.9 The gas laws: the quantity of gas

    5.10 Air and partial pressures

    5.11 Respiration

    5.12 Oxygen therapy

    5.13 Other important gases

    Summary

    Exercises

    6 Water

    6.1 The structure of water

    6.2 Kinetic theory of liquids and solids

    6.3 Evaporation

    6.4 The calorie and specific heat

    6.5 Heat and the states of water

    6.6 Density and specific gravity

    6.7 Surface tension

    6.8 Viscosity

    6.9 Water pressure

    6.10 Water of hydration

    6.11 Water purification

    6.12 Water balance

    6.13 Humidity therapy

    Summary

    Exercises

    7 Solutions

    7.1 Types of solutions

    7.2 The process of dissolving

    7.3 Solubility of solids

    7.4 Saturation

    7.5 The solubility of liquids and gases

    7.6 Concentration of solutions—percentage

    7.7 Molarity

    7.8 Dilution of solutions

    7.9 Osmosis

    7.10 Osmosis and the blood

    7.11 Colloids

    7.12 Dialysis

    Summary

    Exercises

    8 Acids, bases, and salts

    8.1 Acids

    8.2 Properties of acids

    8.3 Bases

    8.4 Properties of bases

    8.5 The pH of acids and bases

    8.6 Measurement of pH

    8.7 Neutralization and titration

    8.8 Normality

    8.9 Salts and hydrolysis

    8.10 Body electrolytes

    8.11 Buffers

    8.12 Acidosis and alkalosis

    Summary

    Exercises

    9 Nuclear chemistry and radiation

    9.1 Radioactivity

    9.2 Nuclear reactions

    9.3 Natural radioactivity

    9.4 Artificial radioactivity

    9.5 Half-life

    9.6 Nuclear energy

    9.7 X-ray radiation and photography

    9.8 Detection of radiation

    9.9 Units of radiation

    9.10 Radioisotopes in diagnosis

    9.11 Radiation therapy and cancer

    9.12 Effects of radiation

    9.13 Radiation safety

    Summary

    Exercises

    10 Organic chemistry—hydrocarbons

    10.1 The carbon atom

    10.2 Alkanes

    10.3 Alkyl groups

    10.4 Isomers

    10.5 Reactions of alkanes

    10.6 Alkenes

    10.7 Reactions of alkenes

    10.8 Alkynes

    10.9 Cycloalkanes

    10.10 Aromatic hydrocarbons—benzene

    10.11 Properties of benzene

    10.12 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

    Summary

    Exercises

    11 Oxygen derivatives of the hydrocarbons

    11.1 Functional groups

    11.2 Alcohols

    11.3 Examples of alcohols

    11.4 Reactions of alcohols

    11.5 Ethers

    11.6 Reactions of ethers

    11.7 Aldehydes

    11.8 Reactions of aldehydes

    11.9 Ketones

    11.10 Acids

    11.11 Reactions of acids

    11.12 Esters

    11.13 Reactions of esters

    Summary

    Exercises

    12 Other organic derivatives and polymers

    12.1 Halogen derivatives

    12.2 Sulfur derivatives

    12.3 Nitrogen derivatives—amines

    12.4 Reactions of amines

    12.5 Nitrogen derivatives—amides

    12.6 Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds

    12.7 Nitrogen derivatives—alkaloids

    12.8 Other nitrogen derivatives

    12.9 Organic polymers

    12.10 Addition polymers

    12.11 Condensation polymers

    Summary

    Exercises

    13 Carbohydrates

    13.1 Classification of carbohydrates

    13.2 Monosaccharides

    13.3 Open and closed forms of monosaccharides

    13.4 Glucose

    13.5 Other hexoses—galactose and fructose

    13.6 Disaccharides

    13.7 Polysaccharides

    13.8 Reactions of carbohydrates

    13.9 Optical isomers and carbohydrates

    Summary

    Exercises

    14 Lipids

    14.1 Fatty acids

    14.2 Soaps and detergents

    14.3 Waxes

    14.4 Fats and oils

    14.5 Properties of fats and oils

    14.6 Body fats

    14.7 Phospholipids

    14.8 Cell membranes and active transport

    14.9 Sphingolipids

    14.10 Steroids

    Summary

    Exercises

    15 Proteins

    15.1 The amino acids

    15.2 Properties of amino acids

    15.3 Primary structure of proteins

    15.4 Secondary structure of proteins

    15.5 Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins

    15.6 Examples of protein structure

    15.7 Classification of proteins

    15.8 Properties of proteins

    15.9 Denaturation of proteins

    15.10 Protein and mineral—bones and teeth

    Summary

    Exercises

    16 Enzymes and digestion

    16.1 Mechanism of enzyme action

    16.2 Classification of enzymes

    16.3 Factors affecting enzyme activity

    16.4 Enzyme cofactors

    16.5 Inhibitors

    16.6 Applications of enzymes in medicine

    16.7 Enzymes and nerve impulses

    16.8 Enzymes of carbohydrate digestion

    16.9 Enzymes of lipid digestion

    16.10 Enzymes of protein digestion

    Summary

    Exercises

    17 Energy and carbohydrate metabolism

    17.1 Biochemical energy

    17.2 Electron transfer

    17.3 Storage and transfer of energy

    17.4 Uses of energy in the body

    17.5 Glycolysis

    17.6 Citric acid (Krebs) cycle

    17.7 The respiratory chain

    17.8 Products of glucose catabolism

    17.9 Carbohydrate anabolism

    17.10 Glycogen metabolism

    17.11 Blood glucose

    Summary

    Exercises

    18 Metabolism of lipids

    18.1 The fatty acid "cycle"

    18.2 Energy released by lipid catabolism

    18.3 Lipogenesis

    18.4 Role of acetyl-CoA

    18.5 Ketosis

    18.6 Ketoacidosis

    18.7 Body lipids

    18.8 Obesity

    18.9 Blood lipids and atherosclerosis

    18.10 Lipids and diet

    Summary

    Exercises

    19 Metabolism of proteins

    19.1 The nitrogen cycle

    19.2 Amino acid catabolism

    19.3 The urea (ornithine) cycle

    19.4 Amino acid anabolism

    19.5 Metabolism of other nitrogen compounds

    19.6 Nitrogen balance

    19.7 Dietary protein

    19.8 Protein deficiency—kwashiorkor

    19.9 Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

    Summary

    Exercises

    20 Heredity and protein synthesis

    20.1 Nucleotides

    20.2 Polynucleotides and base pairing

    20.3 Transcription

    20.4 Translation of the genetic code

    20.5 Protein synthesis

    20.6 Regulation of synthesis

    20.7 DNA replication

    20.8 Mutations

    20.9 Mutagens

    20.10 Molecular (genetic) diseases

    20.11 Information transfer

    Summary

    Exercises

    21 Vitamins and hormones

    21.1 Vitamins

    21.2 Water-soluble vitamins—thiamin

    21.3 Water-soluble vitamins—riboflavin

    21.4 Water-soluble vitamins—niacin

    21.5 Water-soluble vitamins—folacin

    21.6 Water-soluble vitamins—pantothenic acid

    21.7 Water-soluble vitamins—vitamin B6

    21.8 Water-soluble vitamins—vitamin B12

    21.9 Water-soluble vitamins—ascorbic acid

    21.10 Water-soluble vitamins—biotin

    21.11 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin A

    21.12 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin D

    21.13 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin Ε

    21.14 Lipid-soluble vitamins—vitamin Κ

    21.15 Recommended dietary allowances

    21.16 Hormones

    21.17 Thyroxine (thyroid gland)

    21.18 Parathormone (parathyroid gland)

    21.19 Calcitonin (parathyroid gland)

    21.20 Insulin (pancreas)

    21.21 Glucagon (pancreas)

    21.22 Testosterone (male gonads)

    21.23 Estrogen (female gonads)

    21.24 Progesterone (female gonads)

    21.25 Epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenal gland)

    21.26 Cortisol and aldosterone (adrenal gland)

    21.27 Vasopressin (hypophysis or pituitary)

    21.28 Adrenocorticotropni (hypophysis)

    21.29 Gonadotropic hormones (hypophysis)

    21.30 Growth hormone (hypophysis)

    21.31 Thyrotropin (hypophysis)

    21.32 Hormonal regulation

    21.33 Examples of hormone function

    Summary

    Exercises

    22 Chemistry of the body fluids

    22.1 Blood plasma

    22.2 Blood antibodies

    22.3 Blood clotting

    22.4 Erythrocytes and gas transport

    22.5 Abnormal number of erythrocytes

    22.6 Blood groups

    22.7 Leukocytes

    22.8 Blood analysis

    22.9 Other extracellular fluids

    22.10 Milk

    22.11 Urine

    22.12 Normal composition of urine

    22.13 Abnormal compounds in urine

    Summary

    Exercises

    23 Drugs and poisons

    23.1 The action of drugs

    23.2 Antibiotics

    23.3 Aspirin and analgesics

    23.4 Narcotic analgesics

    23.5 Anesthetics

    23.6 Sedative-hypnotics

    23.7 Antianxiety and antipsychotic drugs

    23.8 Alcohol

    23.9 Stimulants

    23.10 Hallucinogens

    23.11 Drugs and the autonomic nervous system

    23.12 Poisons

    23.13 Environmental pollutants

    Summary

    Exercises

    Appendix A Basic mathematics for chemistry

    A.1 Fractions, decimals, and percent

    A.2 Scientific (exponential) notation

    A.3 Proportions and algebra

    A.4 The unit-factor method

    Appendix B Metric system conversions

    B.1 Conversions within the metric system

    B.2 Conversions between the English and metric systems

    B.3 Temperature conversions

    Exercises

    Appendix C Orbitals

    C.1 Electron configurations of the atoms

    C.2 Hybrid orbitals

    Appendix D Details of glucose catabolism

    D.1 Glycolysis

    D.2 The citric acid cycle

    Appendix E The Cell

    Appendix F Answers to numerical problems

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 615
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144490

About the Author

David Ucko

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