Liquid Membranes

Liquid Membranes

Principles and Applications in Chemical Separations and Wastewater Treatment

1st Edition - August 31, 2009

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  • Editor: Vladimir Kislik
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444532183
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080932569

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Liquid Membranes: Principles and Applications in Chemical Separations and Wastewater Treatment discusses the principles and applications of the liquid membrane (LM) separation processes in organic and inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, biomedical engineering, gas separation, and wastewater treatment. It presents updated, useful, and systematized information on new LM separation technologies, along with new developments in the field. It provides an overview of LMs and LM processes, and it examines the mechanisms and kinetics of carrier-facilitated transport through LMs. It also discusses active transport, driven by oxidation-reduction, catalytic, and bioconversion reactions on the LM interfaces; modifications of supported LMs; bulk aqueous hybrid LM processes with water-soluble carriers; emulsion LMs and their applications; and progress in LM science and engineering. This book will be of value to students and young researchers who are new to separation science and technology, as well as to scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of separation technologies, LM separations, and membrane reactors.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive knowledge-based information on the principles and applications of a variety of liquid membrane separation processes
  • Contains a critical analysis of new technologies published in the last 15 years


Researchers in the area of membranes and their applications as well as chemical engineers, graduate students, consultants and other scientists working in the area of membranes, wastewater, separations, pharmaceutical and water management

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction, General Description, Definitions, and Classification. Overview

    1. Introduction

    2. General Description of the LM Processes

    3. Terminology and Classification

    3.1. Classification according to module design configurations

    3.2. Classification according to transport mechanisms

    3.3. Classification according to applications

    3.4. Classification according to carrier type

    3.5. Classification according to membrane support type

    4. Overview

    2. Carrier-Facilitated Coupled Transport Through Liquid Membranes: General Theoretical Considerations and Influencing Parameters

    1. Introduction

    2. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Carrier-Facilitated Transport Through Liquid Membranes

    2.1. Models of LM transport

    2.2. Diffusion transport regime

    2.3. Chemical reactions’ kinetics regime transport

    2.4. Mixed diffusional-kinetic transport regime

    3. Driving Forces in Facilitated, Coupled Liquid Membrane Transport

    4. Selectivity

    5. Module Design Considerations for Separation Systems

    6. Factors, Affecting Carrier-Facilitated Coupling Transport

    6.1. Carrier properties

    6.2. Solvent properties influencing transport

    6.3. Membrane support properties

    6.4. Coupling ions: Anion type

    6.5. Influence of concentration polarization and fouling

    6.6. Influence of temperature

    7. Summary Remark

    3. Supported Liquid Membranes and Their Modifications: Definition, Classifications, Theory, Stability, Application and Perspectives

    1. Introduction

    2. Supported Liquid Membrane Separation Technique—the Principle

    3. Transport Mechanisms and Kinetics

    3.1. Driving force and transport mechanisms

    3.2. Product recovery and enrichment

    4. Selectivity

    4.1. Transport selectivity

    4.2. Immunological trapping

    4.3. Stereoselectivity

    5. Process and Membrane Units Design

    5.1. Commonly used supports

    5.2. Organic solvents used in SLM

    5.3. Ionic liquids as membrane phase

    5.4. Membrane units (module design)

    6. Membrane Stability

    6.1. Factors influencing membrane stability

    6.2. Degradation mechanisms

    6.3. Improving SLM stability

    6.4. Gel SLM

    6.5. Polymer inclusion membranes

    6.6. Integration of SLM with other membrane processes

    7. Supported Liquid Membranes Application

    7.1. Analytical applications

    7.2. Applications of the supported liquid membrane technique in biotechnology and environmental science

    7.3. Separation of stereoisomers

    8. Future Perspectives

    4. Emulsion Liquid Membranes: Definitions and Classification, Theories, Module Design, Applications, New Directions and Perspectives

    1. Introduction and Definitions

    1.1. Description of liquid membranes

    2. Mechanisms of ELM Transport

    2.1. Simple permeation mechanism

    2.2. Facilitated transport mechanism

    3. Modeling of Liquid Membranes

    3.1. Film models for liquid membrane separations

    3.2. Distributed resistance models for liquid membrane separations

    3.3. Equilibrium extraction correlation

    3.4. Advanced stripping model

    3.5. Models for continuous operations

    4. ELM Design Considerations

    4.1. Operational aspects in emulsion liquid membranes

    4.2. Preparation of emulsion liquid membranes

    4.3. Emulsification and surfactants

    4.4. Stripping agents

    4.5. Extractant agents

    4.6. De-emulsification

    4.7. Various parameters affecting extraction rate/permeability

    4.8. Hydrodynamics of liquid membranes

    4.9. Leakage and stability in emulsion liquid membranes

    4.10. Internal droplet size distribution

    5. Applications of ELM Technology

    5.1. Metal ion extraction

    5.2. Removal of weak acids/bases

    5.3. Separation of inorganic species

    5.4. Hydrocarbon separations

    5.5. Biochemical and biomedical applications

    5.6. Preparation of fine particles using emulsion liquid membrane

    6. Liquid Membrane Industrial Plant

    6.1. Zinc removal

    6.2. Phenol removal

    6.3. Cyanide removal

    7. Summary

    7.1. Advantages

    7.2. Disadvantages

    8. Future Prospects

    5. Bulk Hybrid Liquid Membrane with Organic Water-Immiscible Carriers: Application to Chemical, Biochemical, Pharmaceutical, and Gas Separations

    1. Introduction and Definitions

    2. Theory: Mass-Transfer Mechanisms and Kinetics

    2.1. Model for the BOHLM system

    2.2. Numerical model of competitive M2þ/Hþ countertransport

    2.3. The theory of hollow-fiber liquid membrane transport

    3. Module Design for Separation Systems

    3.1. Preliminary design and optimization of the module

    3.2. Membrane types used as barriers

    3.3. Carrier types used

    3.4. Examples of BOHLM systems

    4. Selected Applications

    4.1. Metal separation-concentration

    4.2. Biotechnological products recovery-separation

    4.3. Pharmaceutical products

    4.4. Organic compounds separation and organic pollutants recovery from wastewaters

    4.5. Fermentation or enzymatic conversion-recovery-separation (bioreactors)

    4.6. Analytical applications

    5. Summary Remarks

    6. Bulk Aqueous Hybrid Liquid Membrane (BAHLM) Processes with Water-Soluble Carriers: Application in Chemical and Biochemical Separations

    1. Introduction and Definitions

    2. Theoretical considerations

    2.1. Background

    2.2. Mass-transfer mechanisms and kinetics

    3. Module design considerations

    3.1. Module design

    3.2. Polyelectrolytes as carriers in an aqueous solution

    3.3. Ion-exchange membranes as a barrier

    3.4. Anomalous osmosis: Ion-exchange membranes, polyelectrolytes, and osmosis

    3.5. Example of preliminary evaluation of the BAHLM system

    4. Selected Applications

    4.1. Metal ions, salts separation

    4.2. Biotechnological separations: Carboxylic acids

    4.3. Isomer separation by LM with water-soluble polymers

    4.4. Carrier leakage

    4.5. Membrane lifetime

    5. Summary Remarks

    7. Liquid Membrane in Gas Separations

    1. Introduction

    2. Theory

    3. Modules and Design

    4. Stabilization of Supported Liquid Membranes and Novel Configurations

    5. Gas Separation Applications

    5.1. Production of oxygen-enriched air

    5.2. Carbon dioxide separation from various gas streams

    5.3. Olefin separation

    5.4. Sulfur dioxide separation from various gas streams

    5.5. Hydrogen separation

    6. Conclusion and Outlook

    8. Application of Liquid Membranes in Wastewater Treatment

    1. Introduction

    2. Bulk Liquid Membranes (BLMs)

    2.1. Two-phase partitioning bioreactors

    2.2. Other Applications of the BLMs

    3. Emulsion Liquid Membranes (ELMs)

    3.1. General description

    3.2. Removal of metals from wastewaters using ELMs

    3.3. Removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters using ELMs

    4. Supported Liquid Membranes (SLMs)

    4.1. General description

    4.2. Removal of metals from wastewaters using

    4.3. Removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters using SLMs

    5. Polymer Inclusion Membranes

    9. Progress in Liquid Membrane Science and Engineering

    1. Introduction

    2. Fundamental Studies in LM Science and Engineering

    3. Potential Advances in SLM and Selective Membrane Supports Production Technologies

    3.1. Facilitating membrane structures

    3.2. Affinity SLM structures

    3.3. New permselective materials

    3.4. Improved thin barrier multilayer

    3.5. Electrochemically driven techniques (fuel cells) utilizing permselective membranes

    4. Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    4.1. Immobilized catalytic membrane reactors

    4.2. Electrochemical/catalytic membrane processes

    5. Membrane-Based Gas Separation

    6. Advances in the ELM

    6.1. Reversed micellar separation

    6.2. Integrated liquid membrane processes

    7. Advances in the BOHLM Systems

    7.1. Separation by liquid membrane solvent extraction

    8. Potential Advances in the BAHLM System Applications

    8.1. Drug separation from biochemical mixtures

    8.2. BAHLM reactors: Fermentation, catalysis, and separation with enrichment of valuable compounds

    8.3. Desalination of wastewater and sea water

    8.4. Integrated water-soluble complexing/filtration techniques

    9. Potential Directions in Reducing Concentration Polarization and Fouling

    9.1. Manipulations with flow

    9.2. High shear devices

    9.3. Electric field enhancement

    9.4. Ultrasound enhancement

    10. Perspectives in Liquid Membrane Technology Applications

Product details

  • No. of pages: 462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2009
  • Published: August 31, 2009
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444532183
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080932569

About the Editor

Vladimir Kislik

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired Professor in Separation Science & Technology, Casali Institute of Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

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