Liquid Chromatography

Liquid Chromatography

Fundamentals and Instrumentation

1st Edition - January 8, 2013

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  • Editors: Salvatore Fanali, Paul R. Haddad, Colin Poole, David Lloyd
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124158672

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Description

A single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the practice of modern liquid chromatography suitable for advanced students and professionals working in a laboratory or managerial capacity

Key Features

  • Chapters written by authoritative and visionary experts in the field provide an overview and focused treatment of a single topic
  • Comprehensive coverage of modern liquid chromatography from theory, to methods, to selected applications
  • Thorough selected references and tables with commonly used data to facilitate research, practical work, comparison of results, and decision making
  • Extensive original tables and figures, placing recent research developments into a general context
  • Worked examples, intuitive explanations, and clear figures reinforce learning

Readership

Practitioners of distillation and separation science looking for a quick access to the newest knowledge; graduate students searching for special applications; chemists;  professional scientists in academia, industry and government laboratories; environmental engineers; mechanical engineers

70% professionals, 20% students, 10% others.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Chapter 1. Milestones in the Development of Liquid Chromatography

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 HPLC Theory and Practice

    1.3 Columns

    1.4 Equipment

    1.5 Detectors

    Apologies and Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 2. Kinetic Theories of Liquid Chromatography

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Macroscopic Kinetic Theories

    2.3 Microscopic Kinetic Theories

    2.4 Comparison of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Models

    References

    Chapter 3. Column Technology in Liquid Chromatography

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Column Design and Hardware

    3.3 Column Packing Materials and Stationary Phases

    3.4 Column Systems and Operations

    3.5 Chromatographic Column Testing and Evaluation

    3.6 Column Maintenance and Troubleshooting

    3.7 Today’s Column Market–an Evaluation, Comparison, and Critical Appraisal

    References

    Chapter 4. Secondary Chemical Equilibria in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Acid–Base Equilibria

    4.3 Ion-Interaction Chromatography

    4.4 Micellar Liquid Chromatography

    4.5 Metal Complexation

    Further Reading

    Chapter 5. Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Principles of HILIC

    5.3 Mobile and Stationary Phases Commonly Employed in HILIC

    5.4 Application Examples

    References

    Chapter 6. Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Principles of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography

    6.3 Main Factors that Affect Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography

    6.4 Purification Strategies

    6.5 Practical Aspects of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Purification

    6.6 Selected Applications

    6.7 Future Trends

    References

    Chapter 7. Liquid–Solid Chromatography

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Retention and Separation

    7.3 Method Development

    7.4 Problems in the Use of Normal-Phase Chromatography

    References

    Chapter 8. Ion Chromatography

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Basic Principles and Separation Modes

    8.3 Instrumentation

    8.4 Applications

    References

    Chapter 9. Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Historical Background

    9.3 Retention in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    9.4 Band Broadening in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    9.5 Resolution in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    9.6 Size-Exclusion Chromatography Enters the Modern Era: The Determination of Absolute Molar Mass

    9.7 Size-Exclusion Chromatography Today: Multidetector Measurements, Physicochemical Characterization, Two-Dimensional Techniques

    9.8 Conclusions

    Acknowledgement and Disclaimer

    References

    Chapter 10. Solvent Selection in Liquid Chromatography

    10.1 Elution Strength

    10.2 Columns and Solvents in RPLC, NPLC, and HILIC

    10.3 Assessment of the Elution Strength

    10.4 Schoenmakers’s Rule

    10.5 Isoeluotropic Mixtures

    10.6 Solvent-Selectivity Triangles

    10.7 Practical Guidelines for Optimization of Mobile Phase Composition

    10.8 Additional Considerations for Solvent Selection

    References

    Chapter 11. Method Development in Liquid Chromatography

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Goals

    11.3 A Structured Approach to Method Development

    11.4 Method Development in Practice

    11.5 Prevalidation

    11.6 Validation

    11.7 Documentation

    11.8 Summary

    References

    Chapter 12. Theory and Practice of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The Effects of Experimental Conditions on Separation

    12.3 Method Development

    12.4 Problems Associated with Gradient Elution

    References

    Chapter 13. General Instrumentation

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Solvent Source

    13.3 Pumping Systems

    13.4 Gradient-Elution Mixing Systems

    13.5 Sample Injection

    13.6 Column Compartment

    13.7 Tubings and Fittings

    13.8 Detector Overview

    13.9 Ultraviolet–Visible Absorbance Detectors

    13.10 Refractive Index Detectors

    13.11 Evaporative Light-Scattering Detectors

    13.12 Charged Aerosol Detectors

    13.13 Conductivity Detectors

    13.14 Fluorescence Detectors

    13.15 Electrochemical Detectors

    13.16 Other Detection Methods

    References

    Chapter 14. Advanced Spectroscopic Detectors for Identification and Quantification: Mass Spectrometry

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Ionization Methods Suitable for LC Coupling

    14.3 How to Increase Specificity of MS Data

    14.4 Micro- and Nano-LC–MS

    14.5 Capillary Electrochromatography

    References

    Chapter 15. Advanced Spectroscopic Detectors for Identification and Quantification: FTIR and Raman

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Off-Line Hyphenation

    15.3 On-Line Hyphenation

    15.4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 16. Advanced Spectroscopic Detectors for Identification and Quantification: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Hyphenation of NMR with HPLC

    16.3 Advances in NMR Sensitivity

    16.4 Strategies for Obtaining NMR Information from a Given LC Peak

    16.5 Integration with a Multiple Detection System (LC–NMR–MS)

    16.6 Quantification Capabilities

    16.7 Fields of Application

    16.8 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Quantitative Structure Property (Retention) Relationships in Liquid Chromatography

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Methodology and Goals of QSRR Studies

    17.3 Applications of QSRR in Proteomics

    17.4 Characterization of Stationary Phases

    17.5 QSRR and Assessment of Lipophilicity of Xenobiotics

    17.6 QSRR Analysis of Retention Data Determined on Immobilized-Biomacromolecule Stationary Phases

    17.7 Quantitative Retention–(Biological) Activity Relationships

    17.8 Chemometrically Processed Multivariate Chromatographic Data in Relation to Pharmacological Properties of Drugs and “Drug Candidates”

    17.9 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 18. Modeling of Preparative Liquid Chromatography

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Column Model

    18.3 Adsorption Model

    18.4 Process Optimization of Preparative Chromatography

    18.5 Case Example

    References

    Chapter 19. Process Concepts in Preparative Chromatography

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Classical Isocratic Discontinuous Elution Chromatography

    19.3 Other Discontinuous Operating Concepts

    19.4 Continuous Concepts of Preparative Chromatography

    19.5 Optimization and Concept Comparison

    19.6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 20. Miniaturization and Microfluidics

    20.1 Introduction, Definitions, and Scope

    20.2 Microfluidic Systems for Separations

    20.3 Commercial Instrumentation

    20.4 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 21. Capillary Electrochromatography: A Look at Its Features and Potential in Separation Science

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Principles of Capillary Electrochromatography

    21.3 Instrumentation

    21.4 Method Optimization in CEC

    21.5 Examples of Some Recent Applications

    21.6 Conclusions and Future Trends

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: January 8, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124158672

About the Editors

Salvatore Fanali

Salvatore Fanali
Salvatore Fanali is Director of Research at the Institute of Chemical Methodologies, Italian National Research Council (C.N.R.) in Monterotondo (Rome), Italy, and head of the Capillary Electromigration and Chromatographic Methods Unit at the same Institute. His research activity is mainly focused on separation science including the development of modern miniaturized techniques (electrodriven and liquid chromatography). He also studies hyphenation with mass spectrometry and development of new stationary phases. Separation methods developed are currently applied to food, pharmaceuticals, chiral environment, and biomedical analysis. He is Editor of the Journal of Chromatography A and a member of the advisory editorial board of seven international scientific journals. Fanali is the author of about 300 publications including some book chapters. He received several awards including the “Liberti Medal” in Separation Science from the Italian Chemical Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Institute of Chemical Methodologies, Italian National Research Council (C.N.R.), Monterotondo, Rome, Italy; Head, Capillary Electromigration and Chromatographic Methods Unit, Institute of Chemical Methodologies, Italian National Research Council (C.N.R.), Monterotondo, Rome, Italy

Paul R. Haddad

Paul R. Haddad
Paul Haddad is currently a Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Australian Research Council Federation Fellow at the University of Tasmania, as well as Director of the Pfizer Analytical Research Centre. He has more than 500 publications in this field and has presented in excess of 450 papers at local and international scientific meetings. He is an editor of Journal of Chromatography A, a contributing editor for Trends in Analytical Chemistry, and was an editor of Analytica Chimica Acta for 6 years. He is currently a member of the editorial boards of 10 other journals of analytical chemistry or separation science. He is the recipient of several national and international awards, including the ACS Award in Chromatography, the Marcel Golay Award, the AJP Martin Gold Medal awarded by the Chromatographic Society, the Royal Society of Chemistry Analytical Separation Methods Award, the RACI HG Smith and Analytical Division medals, and more.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, School of Chemistry, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

Colin Poole

Colin Poole
Professor Colin Poole is internationally known in the field of thin-layer chromatography and is an editor of the Journal of Chromatography and former editor of the Journal of Planar Chromatography – Modern TLC. He has authored several books on chromatography, recent examples being The Essence of Chromatography published by Elsevier (2003), and Gas Chromatography published by Elsevier (2012). He is the author of approximately 400 research articles, many of which deal with thin-layer chromatography, and is co-chair of the biennial “International Symposium on High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

David Lloyd

David Lloyd
David Lloyd obtained his PhD from the Department of Chemistry, University of York, UK, working with Prof. David Goodall on the development of laser-based polarimetry as a chiral detection method. He then completed postdoctoral research on bioanalytical capillary electrophoresis (CE) with Prof. Irving Wainer at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, TN. He has since worked both in academia (McGill University, Departments of Oncology and Experimental Medicine) and the pharmaceutical industry (DuPont Pharmaceuticals and Bristol-Myers Squibb). Whilst at McGill, Dr. Lloyd’s analytical research focused on microscale bioanalysis by CE and on chiral CE. Since moving to the pharmaceutical industry, his responsibilities have been in analytical R&D for projects ranging from the late discovery stage through worldwide registrational filings, with a primary focus on separations science. From 1995 – 2002, Dr. Lloyd was Contributing Editor of TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry; and from 1999 - 2011, he was Editor of the Journal of Chromatography B.

Affiliations and Expertise

Bristol-Myers Squibb, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

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