Lipid Oxidation

Lipid Oxidation

Challenges in Food Systems

1st Edition - April 2, 2013

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  • Editors: Amy Logan, Uwe Nienaber, Xiangqing Pan
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102299
  • eBook ISBN: 9780988856516

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Lipid oxidation in food systems is one of the most important factors which affect food quality, nutrition, safety, color and consumers’ acceptance. The control of lipid oxidation remains an ongoing challenge as most foods constitute very complex matrices. Lipids are mostly incorporated as emulsions, and chemical reactions occur at various interfaces throughout the food matrix. Recently, incorporation of healthy lipids into food systems to deliver the desired nutrients is becoming more popular in the food industry. Many food ingredients contain a vast array of components, many of them unknown or constituting diverse or undefined molecular structures making the need in the food industry to develop effective approaches to mitigate lipid oxidation in food systems. This book provides recent perspectives aimed at a better understanding of lipid oxidation mechanisms and strategies to improve the oxidative stability of food systems.

Key Features

  • Five chapters on naturally-derived antioxidants that focus on applications within food systems
  • Contributors include an international group of leading researchers from academic, industrial, and governmental entities
  • Discusses the oxidative stability of enzymatically produced oils and fats
  • Provides overviews on the complexities of lipid oxidation mechanisms, and emulsion systems most suseptible to rapid lipid oxidation


food scientists, food formulators, research and development

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Chapter 1: Challenges in Elucidating Lipid Oxidation Mechanisms: When, Where, and How Do Products Arise?
      • Introduction
      • Radical Reactions Involved in Lipid Oxidation
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 2: Challenges in Analyzing Lipid Oxidation: Are One Product and One Sample Concentration Enough?
      • Fundamental Requirements of Lipid Oxidation Analyses
      • Providing Quantitative, Reproducible Analyses That Accurately Reflect Oxidation Chemistry
      • Combining and Integrating Multiple Assays to Track Alternate Oxidation Pathways
      • Obtaining Maximum Information about Rates and Products
      • Tracking the Footprints of Lipid Oxidation—Identifying and Measuring Changes in Critical Cooxidation Target Molecules
      • Simplifying and Identifying Data Patterns Using Chemometrics or Other Statistical Analyses
      • A New Understanding of Lipid Oxidation from Multi-Product Data
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 3: Oxidation in Different Food Matrices: How Physical Structure Impacts Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Bulk Oils
      • Introduction of Lipid Oxidation in Colloidal Food Systems
      • Food Emulsions and Lipid Oxidation
      • Lipid and Aqueous Phase Components That Impact Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions
      • Association Colloids and Lipid Oxidation
    • Chapter 4: Substrate and Droplet Size: Important Factors for Understanding Aqueous Lipid Oxidation
      • Introduction
      • Affinity of Antioxidants and Prooxidants to the Interface
      • Effect of Substrate on the Aqueous Lipid Oxidation
      • Droplet Size and Oxidative Stability of Lipids in Oil-in-Water Emulsion
      • Effect of Emulsifier on the Oxidative Stability of Lipids in Oil-in-Water Emulsions
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 5: The Role of the Interfacial Layer and Emulsifying Proteins in the Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions
      • Introduction
      • Oxidation of Emulsions: Main Findings
      • Designing Oil-in-Water Emulsions to Study the Role of the Interface Layer on Oxidation
      • Oxidation of the Lipid Phase When the Interfaces Are Stabilized by Proteins versus Surfactants
      • The Double Roles of Proteins in the Oxidation of Emulsions
      • Homogeneity and Compactness of the Interface Layer: Its Possible Role in Oxidation Development
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment:
    • Chapter 6: Oxidative Stability of Enzymatically Processed Oils and Fats
      • Introduction
      • Enzymes for the Modification of Fats and Oils
      • Main Reaction Routes for the Modification of Fats and Oils
      • Oxidative Stability of Enzymatically Modified Oils and Fats
      • Possible Factors Influencing the Oxidative Stability of Enzymatically Modified Oils and Fats
      • Approaches to Improve Oxidative Stability of Enzymatically Processed Oils and Fats
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 7: The Polar Paradox: How an Imperfect Conceptual Framework Accelerated Our Knowledge of Antioxidant Behavior
      • Introduction
      • Discussion
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 8: Role of Hydrophobicity on Antioxidant Activity in Lipid Dispersions: From the Polar Paradox to the Cut-Off Theory
      • Introduction
      • How Does Hydrophobicity Impact Antioxidant Capacity?
      • The Physicochemistry behind the Cut-Off Effect
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 9: Understanding Antioxidant and Prooxidant Mechanisms of Phenolics in Food Lipids
      • Introduction
      • Antioxidant Mechanisms of Phenolics in Foods
      • Prooxidant Mechanisms of Phenolics on Foods
      • Potential Solutions to Minimize Prooxidant Activity
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 10: Antioxidant Evaluation and Antioxidant Activity Mechanisms
      • Introduction
      • Cause and Prevention of Lipid Autoxidation
      • Common Antioxidant Evaluation Methods Based on Chemical Reactions
      • Scope and Limitation of ET- and HAT-Based Antioxidant Activity Assays
      • Antioxidant Evaluation Methods Based on Lipid Peroxidation Model
      • Fluorescent Molecular Probes as Trackers for Antioxidant and Lipid Oxidation
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 11: Strategies to Minimize Oxidative Deterioration in Aquatic Food Products: Application of Natural Antioxidants from Edible Mushrooms
      • Introduction
      • Lipid Oxidation and Quality Deterioration in Aquatic Food Products
      • Application of Natural Antioxidants from Edible Mushrooms for Controlling Oxidative Deterioration in Aquatic Food Products
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12: The Natural Antioxidant Ergothioneine: Resources, Chemical Characterization, and Applications
      • Introduction
      • Sources of Ergothioneine
      • Antioxidant Properties of Ergothioneine and Its Application to Foods
      • Chemical Analysis of Ergothioneine
      • Enhancement of Ergothioneine and Its Protective Effects on Oxidative Stress in Animals
      • Detection of Antioxidant Compounds Using Online HPLC–DPPH Method: Application to Ergothioneine in Mushrooms
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 13: Rosemary and Green Tea Extracts as Natural Antioxidants: Chemistry, Technology, and Applications
      • Introduction
      • Rosemary Extract
      • Green Tea Extract
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 14: Using Natural Plant Extracts to Delay Lipid Oxidation in Foods
      • Introduction
      • Factors Motivating the Shift from Synthetic Antioxidants to Natural Plant Extracts
      • Use of Natural Plant Extracts in Food
      • Hurdles Encountered When Using Plant Extracts
    • Chapter 15: Strategies to Prevent Oxidative Deterioration in Oil-in-Water Emulsion Systems: Canola-Based Phenolic Applications
      • Introduction
      • Enhanced Oxidative Stability within Oil-in-Water Emulsion Systems: A Case Study
      • Acknowledgments
    • Editors and Contributors
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 548
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2013
  • Published: April 2, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102299
  • eBook ISBN: 9780988856516

About the Editors

Amy Logan

Amy Logan (nee Richards) has over 10 years of experience as a lipid chemist, and is currently working as a research scientist within CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences in Werribee, Australia. With a Ph.D. from the University of Melbourne (School of Agriculture and Food Systems), Amy has worked alongside the Australian Canola Industry studying the effect of genotype and environment on chemical composition and the influence of oxidative stability within Brassica oils. This research was the basis of her 2006 AOCS Honored Student Award. Her current interests include emulsion/colloidal science, lipid oxidative stability, and structure-function relationships within food matrices. She is currently involved in studies concerning the functional properties of dairy products based on the composition and architecture of the milkfat globule. Awarded with a 2008 Victorian Fellowship and a recipient of the 2010–2011 Australian Academy of Science “Scientific Visits to North America” program, she is an active member of the AOCS including roles within both the Australasian Section and the Lipid Oxidation and Quality division.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Werribee, Australia

Uwe Nienaber

Uwe Nienaber is an Associate Principal Scientist in the Analytical Sciences Department at Kraft Foods in Glenview, Illinois, where he is currently leading the Physical Sciences group. He earned both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Food Chemistry from the University of Münster in Germany. His main interests are in the areas of analytical testing, lipid oxidation, water relations in foods and shelf life. Prior to joining Kraft Foods in 2001, he was a Research Associate at the Food Science and Technology Department at Ohio State University, conducting research on high-­pressure processing of foods. From 1994 to 1997 he worked as R&D Manager at Nutrifood Indonesia with responsibilities for product development and analytical testing. He has been a member of the American Oil Chemists’ Society since 2008. He is also a professional member of IFT since 1997 and has served the Chicago Section as treasurer and chair.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Principal Scientist, Analytical Sciences Department, Kraft Foods, Glenview, IL, United States

Xiangqing Pan

Xiangqing (Shawn) Pan is a research scientist at DuPont Nutrition and Health (formally Solae, LLC), and his research interests are in the areas of analytical sciences, lipid oxidation and antioxidants, phospholipids, protein and carbohydrate chemistry. Shawn earned his Ph.D. in the area of Food Chemistry with focus on seafood lipid oxidation and antioxidants from Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology at Japan, where his study was financially supported by Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho), and his graduate program research in Japan was the basis of his 2005 AOCS Honored Student Award. Prior to joining Solae, LLC, Shawn was a postdoctoral research associate from 2005 to 2007 at Donald Danforth Plant Science Center/University of Missouri-St. Louis in the area of plant biochemistry with focus on lipid metabolomics, lipidomics and proteomics. Shawn has 25 publications in the prestigious journals of the field such as Nature Protocols, Plant Cell, Plant Journal, and Phytochemistry.

As an active AOCS member, Shawn actively involved in AOCS LOQ division activities during last five years. He is an active LOQ extended committee member since 2008 and served in different roles in LOQ division such as LOQ Frankel Best Paper Award Committee Chair, Best Student Poster Award Committee Chair and AOCS Honored Student Award Committee Chair as well as AOCS Young Scientist Award Committee member. Shawn also served as AOCS Annual Meeting Technique program Session Chairs since 2010.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, DuPont Nutrition and Health, St. Louis, MO, United States

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