Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics

Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics

3rd Edition - August 11, 2020

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  • Author: Govind Agrawal
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128170410
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128170403

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Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Third Edition presents sound coverage of the fundamentals of lightwave technology, along with material on pulse compression techniques and rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers. The book's chapters include information on fiber-optic communication systems and the ultrafast signal processing techniques that make use of nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers. This book is an ideal reference for R&D engineers working on developing next generation optical components, scientists involved with research on fiber amplifiers and lasers, graduate students, and researchers working in the fields of optical communications and quantum information.

Key Features

  • Presents the only book on how to develop nonlinear fiber optic applications
  • Describes the latest research on nonlinear fiber optics
  • Demonstrates how nonlinear fiber optics principles are applied in practice


MSc students, PhD researchers, PostDocs studying and researching nonlinear fiber optics

Table of Contents

  • 1 Fiber Gratings
    1.1 Basic Concepts
    1.1.1 Bragg Diffraction
    1.1.2 Photosensitivity
    1.2 Fabrication Techniques
    1.2.1 Single-Beam Internal Technique
    1.2.2 Dual-Beam Holographic Technique
    1.2.3 Phase-Mask Technique
    1.2.4 Point-by-Point Fabrication Technique
    1.2.5 Technique Based on Ultrashort Optical Pulses
    1.3 Grating Characteristics
    1.3.1 Coupled-Mode Equations
    1.3.2 CW Solution in the Linear Case
    1.3.3 Photonic Bandgap
    1.3.4 Grating as an Optical Filter
    1.3.5 Experimental Verification
    1.4 CW Nonlinear Effects
    1.4.1 Nonlinear Dispersion Curves
    1.4.2 Optical Bistability
    1.5 Modulation Instability
    1.5.1 Linear Stability Analysis
    1.5.2 Effective NLS Equation
    1.5.3 Experimental Results
    1.6 Nonlinear Pulse Propagation
    1.6.1 Bragg Solitons
    1.6.2 Relation to NLS Solitons
    1.6.3 Experiments on Bragg Solitons
    1.6.4 Nonlinear Switching
    1.6.5 Effects of Birefringence
    1.7 Related Periodic Structures
    1.7.1 Long-Period Gratings
    1.7.2 Nonuniform Bragg Gratings
    1.7.3 Transient and Dynmaic Gratings

    2 Directional Couplers
    2.1 Coupler Characteristics
    2.1.1 Coupled-Mode Equations
    2.1.2 Low-Power CW Beams
    2.1.3 Linear Pulse Switching
    2.2 Nonlinear Effects
    2.2.1 Quasi-CW Switching
    2.2.2 Experimental Results
    2.2.3 Nonlinear Supermodes
    2.2.4 Modulation Instability
    2.3 Ultrashort Pulse Propagation
    2.3.1 Nonlinear Switching of Optical Pulses
    2.3.2 Variational Approach
    2.3.3 Coupler-Paired Solitons
    2.3.4 Higher-Order Effects
    2.4 Other Types of Couplers
    2.4.1 Asymmetric Couplers
    2.4.2 Active Couplers
    2.4.3 Grating-Assisted Couplers
    2.4.4 Birefringent Couplers
    2.5 Multicore Fiber Couplers
    2.5.1 Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers
    2.5.2 Multicore Fibers

    3 Fiber Interferometers
    3.1 Fabry–Perot and Ring Resonators
    3.1.1 Transmission Resonances
    3.1.2 Optical Bistability
    3.1.3 Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos
    3.1.4 Modulation Instability
    3.1.5 Cavity Solitons and their applications
    3.2 Sagnac Interferometers
    3.2.1 Nonlinear Transmission
    3.2.2 Nonlinear Switching
    3.2.3 Applications
    3.3 Mach–Zehnder Interferometers
    3.3.1 Nonlinear Characteristics
    3.3.2 Applications
    3.4 Michelson Interferometers

    4 Fiber Amplifiers
    4.1 Basic Concepts
    4.1.1 Pumping and Gain Coefficient
    4.1.2 Amplifier Gain and Bandwidth
    4.1.3 Amplifier Noise
    4.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
    4.2.1 Gain Spectrum
    4.2.2 Amplifier Gain
    4.2.3 Amplifier Noise
    4.3 Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects
    4.3.1 Maxwell–Bloch Equations
    4.3.2 Ginzburg–Landau Equation
    4.4 Modulation Instability
    4.4.1 Distributed Amplification
    4.4.2 Periodic Lumped Amplification
    4.4.3 Noise Amplification
    4.5 Amplifier Solitons
    4.5.1 Properties of Autosolitons
    4.5.2 Maxwell–Bloch Solitons
    4.6 Pulse Amplification
    4.6.1 Anomalous-Dispersion Regime
    4.6.2 Normal-Dispersion Regime
    4.6.3 Higher-Order Effects
    4.7 Fiber-Optic Raman Amplifiers
    4.7.1 Pulse Amplification through Raman Gain
    4.7.2 Self-Similar Evolution and Similariton Formation

    5 Fiber Lasers
    5.1 Basic Concepts
    5.1.1 Pumping and Optical Gain
    5.1.2 Cavity Design
    5.1.3 Laser Threshold and Output Power
    5.2 CW Fiber Lasers
    5.2.1 Nd-Doped Fiber Lasers
    5.2.2 Yb-Doped Fiber Lasers
    5.2.3 Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers
    5.2.4 DFB Fiber Lasers
    5.2.5 Self-Pulsing and Chaos
    5.3 Short-Pulse Fiber Lasers
    5.3.1 Q-Switched Fiber Lasers
    5.3.2 Physics of Mode Locking
    5.3.3 Active Mode Locking
    5.3.4 Harmonic Mode Locking
    5.4 Passive Mode Locking
    5.4.1 Saturable Absorbers
    5.4.2 Nonlinear Fiber-Loop Mirrors
    5.4.3 Nonlinear Polarization Rotation
    5.4.4 Hybrid Mode Locking
    5.4.5 Other Mode-Locking Techniques
    5.5 Role of Fiber Nonlinearity and Dispersion
    5.5.1 Saturable-Absorber Mode Locking
    5.5.2 Additive-Pulse Mode Locking
    5.5.3 Spectral Sidebands and Pulse Width
    5.5.4 Phase Locking and Soliton Collision
    5.5.5 Polarization Effects

    6 Pulse Compression
    6.1 Physical Mechanism
    6.2 Grating-Fiber Compressors
    6.2.1 Grating Pair
    6.2.2 Optimum Compressor Design
    6.2.3 Practical Limitations
    6.2.4 Experimental Results
    6.3 Soliton-Effect Compressors
    6.3.1 Compressor Optimization
    6.3.2 Experimental Results
    6.3.3 Higher-Order Nonlinear Effects
    6.4 Fiber Bragg Gratings
    6.4.1 Gratings as a Compact Dispersive Element
    6.4.2 Grating-Induced Nonlinear Chirp
    6.4.3 Bragg-Soliton Compression
    6.5 Chirped-Pulse Amplification
    6.5.1 Chirped Fiber Gratings
    6.5.2 Photonic Crystal Fibers
    6.6 Dispersion-Managed Fibers
    6.6.1 Dispersion-Decreasing Fibers
    6.6.2 Comb-like Dispersion Profiles
    6.7 Other Compression Techniques
    6.7.1 Cross-Phase Modulation
    6.7.2 Gain Switching in Semiconductor Lasers
    6.7.3 Optical Amplifiers
    6.7.4 Fiber-Loop Mirrors and Other Devices

    7 Fiber-Optic Communications
    7.1 System Basics
    7.1.1 Loss Management
    7.1.2 Dispersion Management
    7.2 Impact of Fiber Nonlinearities
    7.2.1 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
    7.2.2 Stimulated Raman Scattering
    7.2.3 Self-Phase Modulation
    7.2.4 Cross-Phase Modulation
    7.2.5 Four-Wave Mixing
    7.3 Solitons in Optical Fibers
    7.3.1 Properties of Optical Solitons
    7.3.2 Loss-Managed Solitons
    7.3.3 Dispersion-Managed Solitons
    7.3.4 Timing Jitter
    7.4 Pseudo-Linear Lightwave Systems
    7.4.1 Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
    7.4.2 Intrachannel XPM
    7.4.3 Intrachannel FWM
    7.5 Coherent Detection
    7.5.1 Symbols, Baud, and Modulation Formats
    7.5.2 Heterodyne Detection
    7.5.3 Impact of Nonlinear Effects
    7.6 Space-Division Multiplexing
    7.6.1 Multicore Fibers
    7.6.2 Multimode Fibers

    8 Optical Signal Processing
    8.1 Wavelength Conversion
    8.1.1 XPM-Based Wavelength Converters
    8.1.2 FWM-Based Wavelength Converters
    8.2 Ultrafast Optical Switching
    8.2.1 XPM-Based Sagnac-Loop Switches
    8.2.2 Polarization-Discriminating Switches
    8.2.3 FWM-Based Ultrafast Switches
    8.3 Applications of Time-Domain Switching
    8.3.1 Channel Demultiplexing
    8.3.2 Data-Format Conversion
    8.3.3 All-Optical Sampling
    8.4 Optical Regenerators
    8.4.1 SPM- and XPM-Based Regenerators
    8.4.2 FWM-Based Regenerators
    8.4.3 Phase-Preserving Regenerators
    8.4.4 Multichannel Optical Regenerators
    8.4.5 Optical 3R Regenerators

    9 Highly Nonlinear Fibers
    9.1 Microstructured Fibers
    9.1.1 Design and Fabrication
    9.1.2 Nonlinear and Dispersive Properties
    9.2 Wavelength Shifting and Tuning
    9.2.1 Raman-Induced Frequency Shifts
    9.2.2 Four-Wave Mixing
    9.3 Supercontinuum Generation
    9.3.1 Multichannel Telecommunication Sources
    9.3.2 Nonlinear Microscopy and Spectroscopy
    9.3.3 Optical Coherence Tomography
    9.3.4 Optical Frequency Metrology
    9.4 Kerr Frequency Combs
    9.4.1 Fiber-based Ring Cavities
    9.4.2 Properties of Cavity Solitons
    9.5 Photonic Bandgap Fibers
    9.5.1 Properties of Hollow-Core PCFs
    9.5.2 Applications of Air-Core PCFs
    9.5.3 Fluid-Filled Hollow-core PCFs

    10 Quantum Applications
    10.1 Quantum Theory of Pulse Propagation
    10.1.1 Quantum Nonlinear Schr¨odinger Equation
    10.1.2 Quantum Theory of Self-Phase Modulation
    10.1.3 Generalized NLS Equation
    10.1.4 Quantum Solitons
    10.2 Squeezing of Quantum Noise
    10.2.1 Physics behind Quadrature Squeezing
    10.2.2 FWM-Induced Quadrature Squeezing
    10.2.3 SPM-Induced Quadrature Squeezing
    10.2.4 SPM-Induced Amplitude Squeezing
    10.2.5 Polarization Squeezing
    10.3 Quantum Nondemolition Schemes
    10.3.1 QND Measurements through Soliton Collisions
    10.3.2 QND Measurements through Spectral Filtering
    10.4 Quantum Sources
    10.4.1 Single-Photon Sources
    10.4.2 Photon-Pair Sources
    10.4.3 Impact of spontaneous Raman scattering
    10.4.4 Heralded Single-Photon Sources
    10.5 Quantum Entanglement
    10.5.1 Polarization Entanglement
    10.5.2 Time-Bin Entanglement
    10.5.3 Continuous-Variable Entanglement
    10.6 Applications of Quantum States
    10.6.1 Quantum Cryptography
    10.6.2 Quantum Networks

Product details

  • No. of pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2020
  • Published: August 11, 2020
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128170410
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128170403

About the Author

Govind Agrawal

Govind P. Agrawal received his B.Sc. degree from the University of Lucknow in 1969 with honours. He was awarded a gold medal for achieving the top position in the university. Govind joined the Indian Institute of Technology at New Delhi in 1969 and received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in 1971 and 1974, respectively. After holding positions at the Ecole Polytechnique (France), the City University of New York, and the Laser company, Quantel, Orsay, France, Dr. Agrawal joined in 1981 the technical staff of the world-famous AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J., USA, where he worked on problems related to the development of semiconductor lasers and fiber-optic communication systems. He joined in 1989 the faculty of the Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester where he is a Professor of Optics. His research interests focus on quantum electronics, nonlinear optics, and optical communications. In particular, he has contributed significantly to the fields of semiconductor lasers, nonlinear fiber optics, and optical communications. He is an author or co-author of more than 250 research papers, several book chapters and review articles, and four books. He has also edited the books "Contemporary Nonlinear Optics" (Academic Press, 1992) and "Semiconductor Lasers: Past, Present and Future" (AIP Press, 1995). The books authored by Dr. Agrawal have influenced an entire generation of scientists. Several of them have been translated into Chinese, Japanese, Greek, and Russian.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, NY, USA

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