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Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128235348

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products

1st Edition

Fundamental Strategies and Technological Advancements

Authors: Mihir Purkait Dibyajyoti Haldar
Paperback ISBN: 9780128235348
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 2nd August 2021
Page Count: 240
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Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products: Fundamental Strategies and Technological Advancements focuses on fundamental and advanced topics surrounding technologies for the conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass. Each and every concept related to the utilization of biomass in the process of conversion is elaborately explained, with importance given to minute details. Advanced level technologies involved in the conversion of biomass into biofuels, like bioethanol and biobutanol, are addressed, along with the process of pyrolysis. Readers of this book will become fully acquainted with the field of lignocellulosic conversion, from its basics to current research accomplishments.

The uniqueness of the book lies in the fact that it covers each and every topic related to biomass and its conversion into value-added products. Technologies involved in the major areas of pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation are explained precisely. Additional emphasis is given to the analytical part, especially the established protocols for rapid and accurate quantification of total sugars obtained from lignocellulosic biomass.

Key Features

  • Includes chapters arranged in a flow-through manner
  • Discusses mechanistic insights in different phenomena using colorful figures for quick understanding
  • Provides the most up-to-date information on all aspects of the conversion of individual components of lignocellulosic biomass


Undergraduate students, senior undergraduate students, academicians, industry professionals, researchers, and scientists from biotechnology, chemical engineering, and biochemical engineering backgrounds

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    1.1. Overview on lignocellulosic biomass
    1.1.1. Cellulose
    1.1.2. Hemicellulose
    1.1.3. Lignin
    1.2. Literature review
    1.3. Brief history on lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion process
    1.4. Scope of the book
    2. Compositional aspects of lignocellulosic biomass
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Literature review
    2.3. Crystallinity and amorphicity of cellulose
    2.4. Hemicellulose solubilization
    2.5. Lignin barrier
    2.6. Particle size of biomass
    2.7. Compositional aspect of other common biomasses
    2.7.1. Solid waste
    2.7.2. Microalgae
    2.8. Summary
    3. Conventional pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass
    3.1. Overview on pretreatment process
    3.2. Literature review
    3.3. Strategies to conduct pretreatment with aid of physical methods
    3.3.1. Pretreatment using ball milling
    3.3.2. Pretreatment using extrusion
    3.3.3. Pretreatment with aid of irradiation
    3.4. Strategies of pretreatment with aid of chemicals
    3.4.1. Acid pretreatment
    3.4.2. Alkali pretreatment
    3.4.3. Ionic liquid pretreatment
    3.4.4. Organosolv pretreatment
    3.5. Strategies of physico-chemical pretreatment methods
    3.5.1. Steam explosion pretreatment
    3.5.2. Liquid hot water pretreatment
    3.5.3. Wet oxidation pretreatment
    3.5.4. Carbon-di-oxide pretreatment
    3.6. Pretreatment using biological agents
    3.7. Integrated pretreatment processes
    3.8. Summary
    4. Emerging and advanced techniques in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
    4.1. Literature review
    4.2. Pretreatment using microwave and ultrasound
    4.3. Pretreatment using gamma ray and irradiation of electron beam
    4.4. Application of pulsed electric field in the pretreatment
    4.5. Application of high hydrostatic pressure
    4.6. High pressure homogenization in the pretreatment of biomass
    4.7. Natural deep eutectic solvents for biomass pretreatment process
    4.8. Summary
    5. Formation and detoxification of inhibitors
    5.1. Overview on inhibitors
    5.2. Literature review
    5.3. Mechanistic formation of various inhibitors
    5.3.1. Formation of furfural
    5.3.2. Formation of hydroxymethyl furfural
    5.3.3. Formation of acetic acid
    5.3.4. Formation of formic acid
    5.3.5. Formation of levulinic acid
    5.4. Strategies to detoxify the formation of inhibitors
    5.4.1. Microbial ability to detoxify inhibitors
    5.4.2. Application of enzymes for the detoxification of hydrolysates
    5.4.3. Chemical aided detoxification processes
    5.5. Summary
    6. Enzymatic hydrolysis: Mechanistic insight and advancement
    6.1. Overview on enzymatic hydrolysis
    6.2. Literature review
    6.3. Enzymatic system
    6.3.1. Active site of enzyme
    6.3.2. Substrate binding site
    6.3.3. Biochemistry involved in cellulase enzyme from T. reesei
    6.4. Mechanism of enzymatic reactions
    6.4.1. Enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase enzyme
    6.4.2. Enzymatic hydrolysis with hemicellulase enzyme
    6.4.3. Enzymatic hydrolysis with combination of enzymes
    6.5. Product inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass
    6.5.1. Competitive inhibition
    6.5.2. Non-competitive inhibition
    6.5.3. Un-competitive inhibition
    6.6. Summary
    7. Strategies towards an improvement in enzymatic production
    7.1. Overview
    7.2. Literature review
    7.3. Optimum reaction conditions
    7.3.1. Effect of pH, temperature, solid loading and enzyme concentration
    7.4. Impact of additives on enzymatic hydrolysis
    7.4.1. Addition of surfactants
    7.4.2. Chemical addition
    7.4.3. Presence of metal ions
    7.4.4. Effect of polymer addition
    7.5. Strategies to improve enzymatic yield of biomass
    7.6. Summary
    8. Analytical methods for quantification of sugars and characterization of biomass
    8.1. Overview
    8.2. Literature review
    8.3. DNS method for analysis of total reducing sugars
    8.3.1. Preparation of DNS reagent
    8.3.2. Preparation of sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle salt) solution
    8.3.3. DNS method with standardization of glucose
    8.4. Phenol sulphuric acid method for quantification of total sugars
    8.4.1. Reagents of phenol sulphuric acid method
    8.4.2. Phenol sulphuric acid method with standardization of glucose
    8.5. Anthrone method for the determination of total carbohydrates
    8.5.1. Preparation of anthrone reagent with thiourea in 75% sulphuric acid
    8.5.2. Quantification of total carbohydrates using conventional anthrone method
    8.5.3. Criticalities involved with conventional anthrone method Comparative analysis for total sugars using conventional anthrone method Concentration of individual sugars observed through uv-visible spectrophotometer at 620 nm using conventional anthrone method Scanning observations of individual sugars at 620 nm using uv-visible spectrophotometer Reaction mechanism of conventional anthrone method Reaction mechanism of galactose and mannose with anthrone Reaction mechanism of xylose and arabinose with anthrone
    8.5.4 Modifications in conventional anthrone method OD variation at 620 nm for different sugars in 98% sulphuric acid at different reaction times Effect of thiourea in anthrone reagent prepared in 98% sulphuric acid Modified protocol based on conventional anthrone method Comparative assessment on the validation of the proposed model
    8.6. HPLC analysis for identification and quantification of individual sugars
    8.6.1. Inability of H column in separating galactose and mannose from sugar mixture
    8.7. SEM analysis of biomass
    8.8. FTIR analysis of biomass
    8.9. XRD analysis of biomass
    8.10. Summary
    9. Value-added products derived from lignocellulosic biomass
    9.1. Overview
    9.2. Literature review
    9.3. Derivatives from cellulose
    9.3.1. Pulp and paper
    9.3.2. Fibers and textiles
    9.3.3. Nanocellulose
    9.4. Lignocellulosic enzymes
    9.4.1. Cellulase produced from lignocellulosic biomass
    9.4.2. Xylanase produced from lignocellulosic biomass
    9.5. Organic acid from fermentable sugars
    9.5.1. Citric acid
    9.5.2. Succinic acid
    9.6. Formation of polysaccharides from biomass
    9.6.1. Xanthan
    9.6.2. Chitosan
    9.7. Summary
    10. Valorization of lignin into high value products
    10.1. Overview
    10.2. Literature review
    10.3. Structure and characterization of different types of lignin
    10.4. Strategies to extract lignin from biomass
    10.4.1. Lignin obtained from kraft process
    10.4.2. Lignin obtained from sulphite process
    10.4.3. Soda process for lignin extraction
    10.4.4. Organosolv process for lignin extraction
    10.5. Synthesis of functionally modified lignin
    10.6. Industrial applications of lignin
    10.7. Strategies to synthesize lignin based nanoparticles (LNPs) for various applications
    10.7.1. LNPs as composite materials
    10.7.2. LNPs as carrier in drug delivery system
    10.7.3. LNPs in tissue engineering and other application
    10.8. Summary
    11. Bioenergy from biomass
    11.1. Overview on bioenergy from biomass
    11.2. Literature review
    11.3. Bioethanol from biomass
    11.3.1. Potential lignocellulosic wastes towards bioethanol production
    11.3.2. strategies undertaken in sustainable technologies towards the production of bioethanol
    11.3.3. Challenges persisting with the production process of bioethanol
    11.4. Biobutanol from biomass
    11.4.1. Superior features of biobutanol over bioethanol as biofuel
    11.4.2. Strategies involved in the production of biobutanol
    11.4.3. Future aspects towards industrial installation of biobutanol
    11.5. Biogas from biomass
    11.5.1. Advancement in technologies with the production of biohydrogen
    11.5.2. Advancement in technologies with the production of biomethane
    11.6. Summary
    12. Pyrolysis of biomass for value-added products
    12.1. Overview on pyrolysis and gasification process
    12.2. Literature review
    12.3. Mechanism of pyrolysis
    12.4. Selection of feedstock for pyrolysis process
    12.4.1. Woody biomass
    12.4.2. Agricultural biomass
    12.4.3. Energy crops
    12.5. Process conditions towards an effective pyrolysis process
    12.5.1. Reaction ambience
    12.5.2. Temperature
    12.5.3. Heating rate
    12.6. Classifications of pyrolysis process
    12.6.1. Fast pyrolysis
    12.6.2. Intermediate pyrolysis
    12.6.3. Slow pyrolysis
    12.7. Summary
    13. Waste to bioenergy in the developed and developing world
    13.1. Overview on bioenergy in the developed and developing world
    13.2. Literature review
    13.3. Strategies undertaken by the developed countries for the conversion of lignocellulosic waste to bioenergy
    13.4. Present scenario of bioenergy in the developing countries using lignocellulosic wastes
    13.5. Summary
    14. Advanced and emerging technologies for the conversion of biomass to bioenergy
    14.1. Overview on advanced technologies for biomass to bioenergy conversion
    14.2. Literature review
    14.3. Strategies to mitigate the limitations of the existing technologies
    14.4. Strategies adopted as advanced technologies in the conversion of biomass to bioenergy
    14.5. Summary
    15. Challenges and future perspectives involved with various unit operations in the production of bioenergy from biomass
    15.1. Bottlenecks in the process of pretreatment of biomass
    15.2. Critical factors to overcome high cost of enzyme during hydrolysis of biomass
    15.3. Present challenges with the commercial adaptation of biofuel production
    15.3.1. Selection of efficient microbes for fermentation
    15.3.2. Proper utilization of sugars as feedstock materials
    15.3.3. Separation of biofuel to improve the performance of fermentation
    15.3.4. Influence on co-formation of other products
    15.3.5. Water requirement in biorefinery and recycling
    15.4 Recommendations on futuristic approach
    15.5. Conclusions


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2021
2nd August 2021
Paperback ISBN:

About the Authors

Mihir Purkait

Dr. Mihir Kumar Purkait is a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Dean of Alumni and External Affairs, and former Head of the Centre for the Environment at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG). Prior to joining as faculty in IITG (2004), he received his PhD and MTech in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (IITKGP), after completing his BTech and BSc (Hons) in Chemistry from the University of Calcutta. He has received several awards, such as the Dr. A.V. Rama Rao Foundation’s Best PhD Thesis and Research Award in Chemical Engineering from IIChE (2007), BOYSCAST Fellow Award (2009–10) from the DST, Young Engineers Award in the Field of Chemical Engineering from the Institute of Engineers (India, 2009), and Young Scientist Medal Award from the Indian National Science Academy (INSA, 2009). Prof. Purkait is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC) UK and Fellow of the Institute of Engineers (FIE) India. He is the director of two incubated companies (namely RD Grow Green India Pvt. Ltd. and Vixudha Bio Products Ltd.). He is also technical advisor of Gammon India Ltd. and Indian Oil Corporation, Bethkuchi, for their water treatment plants. His current research activities are focused on four distinct areas, namely advanced separation technologies, waste to energy, smart materials for various applications, and process intensification. In each of the areas, his goal is to synthesize stimuli-responsive materials and to develop a more fundamental understanding of the factors governing the performance of chemical and biochemical processes. He has more than 20 years of experience in academics and research and has published more than 200 papers in different reputable journals (Citation: 10318, h-index = 58, 10 index = 132). He has eight patents and has completed 24 sponsored and consultancy projects from various funding agencies. Prof. Purkait has guided 20 PhD students. He is the author of six books and several book chapters published in reputed internal publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India

Dibyajyoti Haldar

Dr. Dibyajyoti Haldar is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG), India. He obtained his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology Agartala (NITA), India, and his MTech in Environmental Science and Technology from the National Institute of Technology Durgapur (NITDGP), India. His research work includes conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars, enzymatic hydrolysis and kinetics, biofuels, and formation of value-added products derived from agricultural wastes and processes intensification. He has published 12 scientific research and review papers in various reputable international journals. He is the author of several book chapters and a book published by Elsevier. During his PhD, he received the best oral presentation award in a one-day workshop on “'Current Trends in Scientific Research” at Research Scholars’ Day 2018 organized by the National Institute of Technology Agartala, India. He is a potential reviewer of several international journals. He has attended several conferences of national and international repute.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India

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