Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products

Fundamental Strategies and Technological Advancements

1st Edition - June 17, 2021

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  • Authors: Mihir Purkait, Dibyajyoti Haldar
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128235348
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128235911

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Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products: Fundamental Strategies and Technological Advancements focuses on fundamental and advanced topics surrounding technologies for the conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass. Each and every concept related to the utilization of biomass in the process of conversion is elaborately explained, with importance given to minute details. Advanced level technologies involved in the conversion of biomass into biofuels, like bioethanol and biobutanol, are addressed, along with the process of pyrolysis. Readers of this book will become fully acquainted with the field of lignocellulosic conversion, from its basics to current research accomplishments. The uniqueness of the book lies in the fact that it covers each and every topic related to biomass and its conversion into value-added products. Technologies involved in the major areas of pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation are explained precisely. Additional emphasis is given to the analytical part, especially the established protocols for rapid and accurate quantification of total sugars obtained from lignocellulosic biomass.

Key Features

  • Includes chapters arranged in a flow-through manner
  • Discusses mechanistic insights in different phenomena using colorful figures for quick understanding
  • Provides the most up-to-date information on all aspects of the conversion of individual components of lignocellulosic biomass


Undergraduate students, senior undergraduate students, academicians, industry professionals, researchers, and scientists from biotechnology, chemical engineering, and biochemical engineering backgrounds

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction
     1.1. Overview on lignocellulosic biomass
      1.1.1. Cellulose
      1.1.2. Hemicellulose
      1.1.3. Lignin
     1.2. Literature review
     1.3. Brief history on lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion process
     1.4. Scope of the book
    2. Compositional aspects of lignocellulosic biomass
     2.1. Introduction
     2.2. Literature review
     2.3. Crystallinity and amorphicity of cellulose
     2.4. Hemicellulose solubilization
     2.5. Lignin barrier
     2.6. Particle size of biomass
     2.7. Compositional aspect of other common biomasses
      2.7.1. Solid waste
      2.7.2. Microalgae
     2.8. Summary
    3. Conventional pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass
     3.1. Overview on pretreatment process
     3.2. Literature review
     3.3. Strategies to conduct pretreatment with aid of physical methods
      3.3.1. Pretreatment using ball milling
      3.3.2. Pretreatment using extrusion
      3.3.3. Pretreatment with aid of irradiation
     3.4. Strategies of pretreatment with aid of chemicals
      3.4.1. Acid pretreatment
      3.4.2. Alkali pretreatment
      3.4.3. Ionic liquid pretreatment
      3.4.4. Organosolv pretreatment
     3.5. Strategies of physico-chemical pretreatment methods
      3.5.1. Steam explosion pretreatment
      3.5.2. Liquid hot water pretreatment
      3.5.3. Wet oxidation pretreatment
      3.5.4. Carbon-di-oxide pretreatment
     3.6. Pretreatment using biological agents
     3.7. Integrated pretreatment processes
     3.8. Summary
    4. Emerging and advanced techniques in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
     4.1. Literature review
     4.2. Pretreatment using microwave and ultrasound
     4.3. Pretreatment using gamma ray and irradiation of electron beam
     4.4. Application of pulsed electric field in the pretreatment
     4.5. Application of high hydrostatic pressure
     4.6. High pressure homogenization in the pretreatment of biomass
     4.7. Natural deep eutectic solvents for biomass pretreatment process
     4.8. Summary
    5. Formation and detoxification of inhibitors
     5.1. Overview on inhibitors
     5.2. Literature review
     5.3. Mechanistic formation of various inhibitors
      5.3.1. Formation of furfural
      5.3.2. Formation of hydroxymethyl furfural
      5.3.3. Formation of acetic acid
      5.3.4. Formation of formic acid
      5.3.5. Formation of levulinic acid
     5.4. Strategies to detoxify the formation of inhibitors
      5.4.1. Microbial ability to detoxify inhibitors
      5.4.2. Application of enzymes for the detoxification of hydrolysates
      5.4.3. Chemical aided detoxification processes
     5.5. Summary
    6. Enzymatic hydrolysis: Mechanistic insight and advancement
     6.1. Overview on enzymatic hydrolysis
     6.2. Literature review
     6.3. Enzymatic system
      6.3.1. Active site of enzyme
      6.3.2. Substrate binding site
      6.3.3. Biochemistry involved in cellulase enzyme from T. reesei
     6.4. Mechanism of enzymatic reactions
      6.4.1. Enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase enzyme
      6.4.2. Enzymatic hydrolysis with hemicellulase enzyme
      6.4.3. Enzymatic hydrolysis with combination of enzymes
     6.5. Product inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass
      6.5.1. Competitive inhibition
      6.5.2. Non-competitive inhibition
      6.5.3. Un-competitive inhibition
     6.6. Summary
    7. Strategies towards an improvement in enzymatic production
     7.1. Overview
     7.2. Literature review
     7.3. Optimum reaction conditions
      7.3.1. Effect of pH, temperature, solid loading and enzyme concentration
     7.4. Impact of additives on enzymatic hydrolysis
      7.4.1. Addition of surfactants
      7.4.2. Chemical addition
      7.4.3. Presence of metal ions
      7.4.4. Effect of polymer addition
     7.5. Strategies to improve enzymatic yield of biomass
     7.6. Summary
    8. Analytical methods for quantification of sugars and characterization of biomass
     8.1. Overview
     8.2. Literature review
     8.3. DNS method for analysis of total reducing sugars
      8.3.1. Preparation of DNS reagent
      8.3.2. Preparation of sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle salt) solution
      8.3.3. DNS method with standardization of glucose
     8.4. Phenol sulphuric acid method for quantification of total sugars
      8.4.1. Reagents of phenol sulphuric acid method
      8.4.2. Phenol sulphuric acid method with standardization of glucose
     8.5. Anthrone method for the determination of total carbohydrates
      8.5.1. Preparation of anthrone reagent with thiourea in 75% sulphuric acid
      8.5.2. Quantification of total carbohydrates using conventional anthrone method
      8.5.3. Criticalities involved with conventional anthrone method Comparative analysis for total sugars using conventional anthrone method Concentration of individual sugars observed through uv-visible spectrophotometer at 620 nm using conventional anthrone method Scanning observations of individual sugars at 620 nm using uv-visible spectrophotometer Reaction mechanism of conventional anthrone method Reaction mechanism of galactose and mannose with anthrone Reaction mechanism of xylose and arabinose with anthrone
      8.5.4 Modifications in conventional anthrone method OD variation at 620 nm for different sugars in 98% sulphuric acid at different reaction times Effect of thiourea in anthrone reagent prepared in 98% sulphuric acid Modified protocol based on conventional anthrone method Comparative assessment on the validation of the proposed model
     8.6. HPLC analysis for identification and quantification of individual sugars
      8.6.1. Inability of H column in separating galactose and mannose from sugar mixture
     8.7. SEM analysis of biomass
     8.8. FTIR analysis of biomass
     8.9. XRD analysis of biomass
     8.10. Summary
    9. Value-added products derived from lignocellulosic biomass
     9.1. Overview
     9.2. Literature review
     9.3. Derivatives from cellulose
      9.3.1. Pulp and paper
      9.3.2. Fibers and textiles
      9.3.3. Nanocellulose
     9.4. Lignocellulosic enzymes
      9.4.1. Cellulase produced from lignocellulosic biomass
      9.4.2. Xylanase produced from lignocellulosic biomass
     9.5. Organic acid from fermentable sugars
      9.5.1. Citric acid
      9.5.2. Succinic acid
     9.6. Formation of polysaccharides from biomass
      9.6.1. Xanthan
      9.6.2. Chitosan
     9.7. Summary
    10. Valorization of lignin into high value products
     10.1. Overview
     10.2. Literature review
     10.3. Structure and characterization of different types of lignin
     10.4. Strategies to extract lignin from biomass
      10.4.1. Lignin obtained from kraft process
      10.4.2. Lignin obtained from sulphite process
      10.4.3. Soda process for lignin extraction
      10.4.4. Organosolv process for lignin extraction
     10.5. Synthesis of functionally modified lignin
     10.6. Industrial applications of lignin
     10.7. Strategies to synthesize lignin based nanoparticles (LNPs) for various applications
      10.7.1. LNPs as composite materials
      10.7.2. LNPs as carrier in drug delivery system
      10.7.3. LNPs in tissue engineering and other application
     10.8. Summary
    11. Bioenergy from biomass
     11.1. Overview on bioenergy from biomass
     11.2. Literature review
     11.3. Bioethanol from biomass
      11.3.1. Potential lignocellulosic wastes towards bioethanol production
      11.3.2. strategies undertaken in sustainable technologies towards the production of bioethanol
      11.3.3. Challenges persisting with the production process of bioethanol
     11.4. Biobutanol from biomass
      11.4.1. Superior features of biobutanol over bioethanol as biofuel
      11.4.2. Strategies involved in the production of biobutanol
      11.4.3. Future aspects towards industrial installation of biobutanol
     11.5. Biogas from biomass
      11.5.1. Advancement in technologies with the production of biohydrogen
      11.5.2. Advancement in technologies with the production of biomethane
     11.6. Summary
    12. Pyrolysis of biomass for value-added products
     12.1. Overview on pyrolysis and gasification process
     12.2. Literature review
     12.3. Mechanism of pyrolysis
     12.4. Selection of feedstock for pyrolysis process
      12.4.1. Woody biomass
      12.4.2. Agricultural biomass
      12.4.3. Energy crops
     12.5. Process conditions towards an effective pyrolysis process
      12.5.1. Reaction ambience
      12.5.2. Temperature
      12.5.3. Heating rate
     12.6. Classifications of pyrolysis process
      12.6.1. Fast pyrolysis
      12.6.2. Intermediate pyrolysis
      12.6.3. Slow pyrolysis
     12.7. Summary
    13. Waste to bioenergy in the developed and developing world
     13.1. Overview on bioenergy in the developed and developing world
     13.2. Literature review
     13.3. Strategies undertaken by the developed countries for the conversion of lignocellulosic waste to bioenergy
     13.4. Present scenario of bioenergy in the developing countries using lignocellulosic wastes
     13.5. Summary
    14. Advanced and emerging technologies for the conversion of biomass to bioenergy
     14.1. Overview on advanced technologies for biomass to bioenergy conversion
     14.2. Literature review
     14.3. Strategies to mitigate the limitations of the existing technologies
     14.4. Strategies adopted as advanced technologies in the conversion of biomass to bioenergy
     14.5. Summary
    15. Challenges and future perspectives involved with various unit operations in the production of bioenergy from biomass
     15.1. Bottlenecks in the process of pretreatment of biomass
     15.2. Critical factors to overcome high cost of enzyme during hydrolysis of biomass
     15.3. Present challenges with the commercial adaptation of biofuel production
      15.3.1. Selection of efficient microbes for fermentation
      15.3.2. Proper utilization of sugars as feedstock materials
      15.3.3. Separation of biofuel to improve the performance of fermentation
      15.3.4. Influence on co-formation of other products
      15.3.5. Water requirement in biorefinery and recycling
     15.4 Recommendations on futuristic approach
     15.5. Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 240
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: June 17, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128235348
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128235911

About the Authors

Mihir Purkait

Dr. Mihir Kumar Purkait is a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Dean of Alumni and External Affairs and ex-Head of Centre for the Environment at Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG). Prior to joining as faculty in IITG (2004), he has received his Ph.D and M.Tech in Chemical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (IITKGP) after completing his B.Tech and B.Sc (Hons) in Chemistry from University of Calcutta. His current research activities are focused in four distinct areas viz. i) advanced separation technologies, ii) waste to energy, iii) smart materials for various applications and iv) process intensification. In each of the area, his goal is to synthesis stimuli responsive materials and to develop a more fundamental understanding of the factors governing the performance of the chemical and biochemical processes. Dr. Purkait has also received several awards like; BOYSCAST Fellow award (2009-10) from the DST, Young Engineers Award in the field of Chemical Engineering from the Institute of Engineers (India, 2009), Young Scientist Medal award from the Indian National Science Academy (INSA, 2009).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Dean, Alumni and External Affairs, Chair Professor, National Jal Jeevan Mission, Govt. of India, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Dibyajyoti Haldar

Dr. Dibyajyoti Haldar is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG), India. He obtained his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology Agartala (NITA), India, and his MTech in Environmental Science and Technology from the National Institute of Technology Durgapur (NITDGP), India. His research work includes conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars, enzymatic hydrolysis and kinetics, biofuels, and formation of value-added products derived from agricultural wastes and processes intensification. He has published 12 scientific research and review papers in various reputable international journals. He is the author of several book chapters and a book published by Elsevier. During his PhD, he received the best oral presentation award in a one-day workshop on “'Current Trends in Scientific Research” at Research Scholars’ Day 2018 organized by the National Institute of Technology Agartala, India. He is a potential reviewer of several international journals. He has attended several conferences of national and international repute.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India

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