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Lifelong Education - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080218144, 9781483188195

Lifelong Education

1st Edition

A Psychological Analysis

Author: A. J. Cropley
eBook ISBN: 9781483188195
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 200
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Lifelong Education: A Psychological Analysis presents an analysis of some of the major theoretical assumptions of lifelong education within the context of its psychological basis. Some of the main features of school curriculum are also examined from the point of view of lifelong education.

Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of modern education and its role in addressing the challenge of change, as well as lifelong education's psychological assumptions the implications of psychology for a lifelong education-oriented system. The discussion then turns to the arguments that have been put forward to support the concept of lifelong education; how psychological knowledge can, and indeed should, be applied to the analysis of lifelong education in order to test whether the principle has any legitimacy; and psychological functioning throughout life. The role of intelligence and cognitive functioning in lifelong education are also considered, along with the concept of socio-affective development and how schooling might be modified in order to enable it to serve the goals of lifelong education. The book concludes with a critical evaluation of lifelong education, with emphasis on the psychological issues.

This monograph is intended for educational psychologists, scholars, instructors, and students.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1: Modern Education and the Challenge of Change

Education for Coping with Change

Educational Needs of Adults

Education and Early Childhood

Genuine Educational Equality

Lifelong Education

The Role of Psychology

Structure of the Present Text

Chapter 2: Basic Concepts in Lifelong Education

What is Lifelong Education?

Difference from Adult Education

Traditional Role of School

Lifelong Education

Why Lifelong Education?


Economic Considerations

Social Factors the Changing Role of the Family

Social Factors Changing Social Roles

Technological Change

Vocational Factors

Needs of Adults

Needs of Young Children

A Changed Conceptualization of Education

The Role of School

Primacy of Schooling

The Contrary View — Vertical and Horizontal Integration

Chapter 3: Lifelong Education and Psychology

Education, Schooling, and Learning

Education and Learning

Schooling and Learning

Education and Schooling

The Concept of Learning

Lifelong Education and Lifelong Learning

Psychological Basis of Education

Assumptions and Beliefs Underlying Schooling

Psychological Factors in the Classroom

Psychological Factors in Educational Goals

Educational Goals in Recent Times

Evaluating Lifelong Education

Education and Ideology

Problems of Evaluating Curricula

Lifelong Education and Psychological Knowledge

Key Concepts

Structure of the Analysis

Chapter 4: The Persistence of Learning throughout Life

Psychological Assumptions of Current Educational Organization

Intelligence and Age

The Growth of Intellectual Abilities

Task-Specificity and the Growth of Abilities

Causes of Task-Specific Deterioration with Age

Role of Motivation and Attitude

Role of Speed

Effects of Education

Longitudinal Studies of Age and Intellectual Functioning

Shifting Baseline Hypothesis

Possible Reasons Why a Base-Line Shift may Occur

Reasons for Intergenerational Changes

Learning Outside Conventional School Ages

Learning Prior to School Age

Learning Beyond Conventional School Age

Factors Inhibiting Continued Learning in Adults

Implications for the Concept of Lifelong Education

Chapter 5: the Vertical Integration of Intellectual Functioning

Cognitive Functioning and Age

Styles of Intellectual Functioning

Differentiation of Abilities

"Fluid" Versus "Crystallized" Intelligence

Style of Cognitive Functioning

Cognitive Styles

Cognitive Styles and the Teacher

The Course of Cognitive Growth

Piaget and the Development of Intel1Igence

Vygotsky's Emphasis On the Role of Language

Bruner and the Building of One's Own "Reality"

Implications for Lifelong Education

Vertical Integration of Development

Implications for Classroom Organization

Chapter 6: Integration of Social, Motivational and Affective Development

Concepts in Socio-Affective Development

The Socio-Affective Domain

Horizontal Integration of Socio Affective Functioning

Vertical Integration

The Curve of Life

Erikson's Stage Theory

Havighurst and "Developmental Tasks"

Adulthood as a Stage of Life

Development During the Different Stages of Life

Social Roles

Aspirations, Goals and Rewards


Interaction in Socio-Affective Development

Factors Influencing Socio-Affective Development

Nature Versus Nurture

Effects of Environmental Factors

the Economic Environment and Psychological Growth

Lifelong Education and the Work Environment

The Social Environment

Lifelong Education and the Cultural Environment

The Family

Lifelong Education and the Family

Schooling and Socio-Affective Development

School as a Socializing Agency

Loss of Confidence in the School

Schooling and Socio-Affective Functioning

Socio-Affective Development and Lifelong Education

Chapter 7: Implications of Lifelong Education for Curriculum

The Lifelong Learner

Can School Develop Lifelong Learners?

Environment and Psychological Development

Plasticity, Critical Periods and Interaction

Modes of Teacher Influence

Importance of Non-Cognitive and Non-School Factors

Implications of Lifelong Education for "Curriculum"

Curriculum for the Very Young

Curriculum for People Beyond

Conventional School Age

Curriculum for Work

Curriculum for Life Itself

School Curriculum in a Lifelong Education Setting

Survival of Schooling

Curriculum and Personal Development

Cognitive Development and Lifelong Education

Role of Teachers in Lifelong Education

the Teacher as Co-Learner

the Teacher as Guide and Facilitator

Guidance and Technology and the Teacher's Role

Broadened Conceptualization of the Teacher

Classroom Implications of Lifelong Education

Educational Ideals Versus Classroom Practice

A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Curriculum

Chapter 8: Criticisms and Future Prospects

Lack of Novelty

Old Wine in New Bottles

The Unifying Role of Recent Theory

Lack of a Rigorous Basis

Unnecessary Sentimentality Failure to Define Key Concepts

Failure to Provide Empirical Evidence

Failure to Deal with the Issues

Failure to Come To Grips with the Real Problem

Failure to Deal Adequately with Economic Issues

Lifelong Education and "The Establishment"

Lifelong Students and Perpetual Dependency

Vested Interests


Lifelong Education as a Radical Concept

Idealized Model of Man

Role of Work

Faith in the Power of School

Future Needs and Prospects

Responding Constructively to Criticism

Necessary Further Research

The Prospects for Lifelong Education




No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1977
1st January 1977
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

A. J. Cropley

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Hamburg, FRG

Ratings and Reviews