Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology

Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology

1st Edition - May 31, 2011

Write a review

  • Author: D. Pavlov
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080931685

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (Mobi, EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology presents a comprehensive overview of the theory of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on battery performance parameters. It summarizes the current knowledge about the technology of lead-acid battery production and presents it in the form of an integral theory. This theory is supported by ample illustrative material and experimental data, thus allowing technologists and engineers to control the technological processes in battery plants and providing university lecturers with a toll for clear and in-depth presentation of the technology of lead-acid battery production in their courses. The relationship between the technological processes and the performance characteristics of the batteries is disclosed too.

Key Features

  • Disclosure of the structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses, ensuring reversibility of the processes during charge and discharge and thus long cycle life of the battery
  • Proposal of optimum conditions for individual technological processes which would yield appropriate structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses
  • Disclosure of the influence of H2SO4 concentration on battery performance parameters
  • Discussion of the processes involved in the closed oxygen cycle in VRLAB and the thermal phenomena leading to thermal runaway (TRA)
  • Elucidation of the relationship between technology of battery manufacture and battery capacity and cycle life performance


Technologists and engineers in the battery industry, university lecturers and students, research scientists with interests in the field of electrochemistry and electrochemical power sources

Table of Contents

  • 1. Invention and Development of the Lead–Acid Battery
    1.1. A Prelude
    1.2. Gaston Planté – The Inventor of the Lead–Acid Battery
    1.3. What Pains Had the Lead–Acid Battery to Go Through
    1.4. The Lead–Acid Battery in the Twentieth Century – Second Stage in its Development
    1.5. Applications of Lead–Acid Batteries
    1.6. Challenges Calling for a New Stage in the Development of the Lead–Acid Battery

    2. Fundamentals of Lead–Acid Batteries
    2.1. Thermodynamics of the Lead–Acid Battery
    2.2. Electrode Systems Formed During Anodic Polarization of Pb in H2SO4 Solution
    2.3. The Pb/PbSO4/H2SO4 Electrode
    2.4. H2/H+ Electrode on Pb Surface
    2.5. The Pb/PbO/PbSO4 Electrode System
    2.6. The Pb/PbO2/PbSO4 Electrode System
    2.7. Electrochemical Preparation of the Me/PbO2 Electrode
    2.8. Electrochemical Behaviour of the Pb/PbO2/H2SO4 Electrode
    2.9. Hydration and Amorphization of Active Mass PbO2 Particles and Impact on the Discharge Processes
    2.10. The H2O/O2 Electrode System
    2.11. Anodic Corrosion of Lead and Lead Alloys in the Lead Dioxide Potential Region
    2.12. The Lead–Acid Cell

    3. H2SO4 Electrolyte – An Active Material in the Lead–Acid Cell
    3.1. H2SO4 Solutions Used as Electrolytes in the Battery Industry
    3.2. Purity of H2SO4 Used in Lead–Acid Batteries
    3.3. Dissociation of H2SO4
    3.4. Electrical Conductivity of H2SO4 Solutions
    3.5. Dependence of the Electromotive Force of a Lead–Acid Cell on Electrolyte Concentration and Its Influence on Charge Voltage
    3.6. Correlation Between H2SO4 Amount and Cell Capacity
    3.7. Utilization of the Active Materials in the Lead–Acid Battery and Battery Performance
    3.8. Correlation Between the Electrochemical Activity of PbO2/PbSO4 Electrode and H2SO4 Electrolyte Concentration
    3.9. Correlation Between Solubility of PbSO4 Crystals and Electrolyte Concentration
    3.10. Influence of H2SO4 Electrolyte Concentration on Battery Performance
    3.11. Additives to Electrolyte
    3.12. Contaminants (Impurities) in Electrolyte Solution
    3.13. Influence of Electrolyte Stratification on Battery Performance

    4. Lead Alloys and Grids. Grid Design Principles
    4.1. Battery Industry Requirements to Lead Alloys
    4.2. Purity Specifications for Lead Used in the Battery Industry
    4.3. Lead–Antimony Alloys
    4.4. Lead–Calcium Alloys
    4.5. Lead–Calcium–Tin Alloys
    4.6. Lead–Tin Alloys
    4.7. Grid Design Principles
    4.8. Grid/Spine Casting
    4.9. Continuous Plate Production Process
    4.10. Tubular Positive Plates
    4.11. Copper-Stretch-Metal Negative Grids

    5. Leady Oxide
    5.1. Physical Properties of Lead Oxide and Red Lead
    5.2. Mechanism of Thermal Oxidation of Lead
    5.3. Production of Leady Oxide
    5.4. Characteristics of Leady Oxide
    5.5. Influence of Leady Oxide Properties on Battery Performance Characteristics

    6. Pastes and Grid Pasting
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Fundamentals
    6.3. Technology of Paste Preparation

    7. Additives to the Pastes for Positive and Negative Battery Plates
    7.1. Additives to the Pastes for Negative Plate Manufacture
    7.2. Additives to the Positive Paste

    8. Curing of Battery Plates
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Fundamentals
    8.3. Technology of Plate Curing

    9. Soaking of Cured Plates Before Formation
    9.1. Technological Procedures Involved in the Formation of Lead–Acid Battery Plates
    9.2. H2SO4 Electrolyte During Soaking and Formation
    9.3. Processes During Soaking of 3BS Cured Plates
    9.4. Soaking of 4BS Cured Pastes
    9.5. Influence of the Soaking Process on Battery Performance

    10. Formation of Positive Lead–Acid Battery Plates
    10.1. Equilibrium Potentials of the Electrode Systems Formed During the Formation Process
    10.2. Formation of PAM from 3BS-Cured Pastes
    10.3. Formation of Plates Prepared with 4BS Cured Pastes
    10.4. Mechanisms of the Crystallization Processes During Formation of Positive Plates with 4BS Paste
    10.5. Structure of the Formed Interface Grid/Corrosion Layer/Active Mass [14]
    10.6. Influence of the H2SO4/LO Ratio on the Proportion Between β- and α-PbO2 in PAM and on Plate Capacity
    10.7. Structure of the Positive Active Mass
    10.8. Influence of Grid Alloying Additives on the Electrochemical Activity of PbO2 Binders

    11. Processes During Formation of Negative Battery Plates
    11.1. Equilibrium Potentials of the Electrochemical Reactions of Formation
    11.2. Reactions During Formation of Negative Plate
    11.3. Zonal Processes
    11.4. Structure of Negative Active Mass
    11.5. Effect of Expander on the Processes of Formation of NAM Structure and Factors Responsible for Expander Disintegration

    12. Technology of Formation
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Influence of Active Mass Structure on Plate Capacity
    12.3. Initial Stages of Formation of Lead–Acid Batteries
    12.4. Formation of Positive and Negative Active Materials from Cured Pastes
    12.5. Influence of PbO2 Crystal Modifications on the Capacity of Positive Plates. Formation Parameters that Affect the α/β-PbO2 Proportion
    12.6. Criteria Indicating End of Formation
    12.7. Influence of Current-Collector Surface on Formation of PbSO4 Crystals at Grid/PAM Interface
    12.8. Method for Shortening the Duration of the Formation Process

    13. Processes After Formation of the Plates and During Battery Storage
    13.1. State of Battery Plates After Formation
    13.2. Dry-Charged Batteries
    13.2.7. Summary
    13.3. Wet-Charged Batteries

    14. Methods to Restore the Water Decomposed During Charge and Overcharge of Lead–Acid Batteries. VRLA Batteries
    14.1. Recombination of Hydrogen and Oxygen into Water Using Catalytic Plugs
    14.2. Recombination of Hydrogen and Oxygen to Water on Auxiliary Catalytic Electrodes
    14.3. Valve-Regulated Lead–Acid Batteries (VRLAB)

    15. Calculation of the Active Materials for Lead–Acid Cells
    15.1. Basic Units of Electricity and Equivalents for Electricity and Mass
    15.2. Electrochemical Equivalent Weights of Active Materials in a Lead–Acid Cell per Ah of Electric Charge (Electricity)
    15.3. Parameters Accounting for the Degree of Active Material Utilization During Current Generation and Correlation Between These Parameters
    15.4. Amount of H2SO4 in a Lead–Acid Cell
    15.5. An Example for Calculating the Active Materials in a 50Ah SLI Cell at ηPAM = 50% and ηNAM = 45%
    15.6. An Exemplary Calculation of Paste Composition
    15.7. Measuring of Electrode Potentials

Product details

  • No. of pages: 656
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2011
  • Published: May 31, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080931685

About the Author

D. Pavlov

D. Pavlov
Detchko Pavlov is Professor of Electrochemistry and, since 1997, Full Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. He is one of the founders of the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (CLEPS) (now IEES) at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and has been Head of the Lead Acid Batteries Department at this Institute for over 45 years since its establishment in 1967. His major scientific achievements are in the field of electrochemistry of lead; disclosing the structure of the lead and lead dioxide active masses; elucidating the mechanism of the processes involved in the technology of lead-acid battery manufacture and operation, as well as of the oxygen cycle reactions in VRLAB. His recent research efforts have been focused on evaluation of the effects of carbon additives to the negative plates and identification of the mechanism(s) of their action.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lead-Acid Batteries Department, Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems (IEES), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

Latest reviews

(Total rating for all reviews)

  • LawrenceCarlson Mon Oct 01 2018

    Lead-Acid Batteries- Science and Technology

    I've never seen or read a better work on the subject and would consider it as the authoritarian work on this particular science. Most comprehensive and thorough and extremely well-written with loads of data!