Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444528827, 9780080931685

Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology

1st Edition

Authors: D. Pavlov
eBook ISBN: 9780080931685
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444528827
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 24th June 2011
Page Count: 656
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The book presents a comprehensive overview of the theory of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on battery performance parameters. It summarizes the current knowledge about the technology of lead-acid battery production and presents it in the form of an integral theory. This theory is supported by ample illustrative material and experimental data, thus allowing technologists and engineers to control the technological processes in battery plants and providing university lecturers with a toll for clear and in-depth presentation of the technology of lead-acid battery production in their courses. The relationship between the technological processes and the performance characteristics of the batteries is disclosed too.

Key Features

  • Disclosure of the structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses, ensuring reversibility of the processes during charge and discharge and thus long cycle life of the battery
  • Proposal of optimum conditions for individual technological processes which would yield appropriate structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses
  • Disclosure of the influence of H2SO4 concentration on battery performance parameters
  • Discussion of the processes involved in the closed oxygen cycle in VRLAB and the thermal phenomena leading to thermal runaway (TRA)
  • Elucidation of the relationship between technology of battery manufacture and battery capacity and cycle life performance


Technologists and engineers in the battery industry, university lecturers and students as well as research scientists with interests in the field of electrochemistry and electrochemical power sources

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Invention and Development of the Lead–Acid Battery

1.1. A Prelude

1.2. Gaston Planté – The Inventor of the Lead–Acid Battery

1.3. What Pains Had the Lead–Acid Battery to Go Through

1.4. The Lead–Acid Battery in the Twentieth Century – Second Stage in its Development

1.5. Applications of Lead–Acid Batteries

1.6. Challenges Calling for a New Stage in the Development of the Lead–Acid Battery

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Lead–Acid Batteries

2.1. Thermodynamics of the Lead–Acid Battery

2.2. Electrode Systems Formed During Anodic Polarization of Pb in H2SO4 Solution

2.3. The Pb/PbSO4/H2SO4 Electrode

2.4. H2/H+ Electrode on Pb Surface

2.5. The Pb/PbO/PbSO4 Electrode System

2.6. The Pb/PbO2/PbSO4 Electrode System

2.7. Electrochemical Preparation of the Me/PbO2 Electrode

2.8. Electrochemical Behaviour of the Pb/PbO2/H2SO4 Electrode

2.9. Hydration and Amorphization of Active Mass PbO2 Particles and Impact on the Discharge Processes

2.10. The H2O/O2 Electrode System

2.11. Anodic Corrosion of Lead and Lead Alloys in the Lead Dioxide Potential Region

2.12. The Lead–Acid Cell

Chapter 3. H2SO4 Electrolyte – An Active Material in the Lead–Acid Cell

3.1. H2SO4 Solutions Used as Electrolytes in the Battery Industry

3.2. Purity of H2SO4 Used in Lead–Acid Batteries

3.3. Dissociation of H2SO4

3.4. Electrical Conductivity of H2SO4 Solutions

3.5. Dependence of the Electromotive Force of a Lead–Acid Cell on Electrolyte Concentration and Its Influence on Charge Voltage

3.6. Correlation Between H2SO4 Amount and Cell Capacity

3.7. Utilization of the Active Materials in the Lead–Acid Battery and Battery Performance

3.8. Correlation Between the Electrochemical Activity of PbO2/PbSO4 Electrode and H2SO4 Electrolyte Concentration

3.9. Correlation Between Solubility of PbSO4 Crystals and Electrolyte Concentration

3.10. Influence of H2SO4 Electrolyte Concentration on Battery Performance

3.11. Additives to Electrolyte

3.12. Contaminants (Impurities) in Electrolyte Solution

3.13. Influence of Electrolyte Stratification on Battery Performance

Chapter 4. Lead Alloys and Grids. Grid Design Principles

4.1. Battery Industry Requirements to Lead Alloys

4.2. Purity Specifications for Lead Used in the Battery Industry

4.3. Lead–Antimony Alloys

4.4. Lead–Calcium Alloys

4.5. Lead–Calcium–Tin Alloys

4.6. Lead–Tin Alloys

4.7. Grid Design Principles

4.8. Grid/Spine Casting

4.9. Continuous Plate Production Process

4.10. Tubular Positive Plates

4.11. Copper-Stretch-Metal Negative Grids

Chapter 5. Leady Oxide

5.1. Physical Properties of Lead Oxide and Red Lead

5.2. Mechanism of Thermal Oxidation of Lead

5.3. Production of Leady Oxide

5.4. Characteristics of Leady Oxide

5.5. Influence of Leady Oxide Properties on Battery Performance Characteristics

Chapter 6. Pastes and Grid Pasting

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Fundamentals

6.3. Technology of Paste Preparation

Chapter 7. Additives to the Pastes for Positive and Negative Battery Plates

7.1. Additives to the Pastes for Negative Plate Manufacture

7.2. Additives to the Positive Paste

Chapter 8. Curing of Battery Plates

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Fundamentals

8.3. Technology of Plate Curing

Chapter 9. Soaking of Cured Plates Before Formation

9.1. Technological Procedures Involved in the Formation of Lead–Acid Battery Plates

9.2. H2SO4 Electrolyte During Soaking and Formation

9.3. Processes During Soaking of 3BS Cured Plates

9.4. Soaking of 4BS Cured Pastes

9.5. Influence of the Soaking Process on Battery Performance

Chapter 10. Formation of Positive Lead–Acid Battery Plates

10.1. Equilibrium Potentials of the Electrode Systems Formed During the Formation Process

10.2. Formation of PAM from 3BS-Cured Pastes

10.3. Formation of Plates Prepared with 4BS Cured Pastes

10.4. Mechanisms of the Crystallization Processes During Formation of Positive Plates with 4BS Paste

10.5. Structure of the Formed Interface Grid/Corrosion Layer/Active Mass [14]

10.6. Influence of the H2SO4/LO Ratio on the Proportion Between β- and α-PbO2 in PAM and on Plate Capacity

10.7. Structure of the Positive Active Mass

10.8. Influence of Grid Alloying Additives on the Electrochemical Activity of PbO2 Binders

Chapter 11. Processes During Formation of Negative Battery Plates

11.1. Equilibrium Potentials of the Electrochemical Reactions of Formation

11.2. Reactions During Formation of Negative Plate

11.3. Zonal Processes

11.4. Structure of Negative Active Mass

11.5. Effect of Expander on the Processes of Formation of NAM Structure and Factors Responsible for Expander Disintegration

Chapter 12. Technology of Formation

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Influence of Active Mass Structure on Plate Capacity

12.3. Initial Stages of Formation of Lead–Acid Batteries

12.4. Formation of Positive and Negative Active Materials from Cured Pastes

12.5. Influence of PbO2 Crystal Modifications on the Capacity of Positive Plates. Formation Parameters that Affect the α/β-PbO2 Proportion

12.6. Criteria Indicating End of Formation

12.7. Influence of Current-Collector Surface on Formation of PbSO4 Crystals at Grid/PAM Interface

12.8. Method for Shortening the Duration of the Formation Process

Chapter 13. Processes After Formation of the Plates and During Battery Storage

13.1. State of Battery Plates After Formation

13.2. Dry-Charged Batteries

13.2.7. Summary

13.3. Wet-Charged Batteries

Chapter 14. Methods to Restore the Water Decomposed During Charge and Overcharge of Lead–Acid Batteries. VRLA Batteries

14.1. Recombination of Hydrogen and Oxygen into Water Using Catalytic Plugs

14.2. Recombination of Hydrogen and Oxygen to Water on Auxiliary Catalytic Electrodes

14.3. Valve-Regulated Lead–Acid Batteries (VRLAB)

Chapter 15. Calculation of the Active Materials for Lead–Acid Cells

15.1. Basic Units of Electricity and Equivalents for Electricity and Mass

15.2. Electrochemical Equivalent Weights of Active Materials in a Lead–Acid Cell per Ah of Electric Charge (Electricity)

15.3. Parameters Accounting for the Degree of Active Material Utilization During Current Generation and Correlation Between These Parameters

15.4. Amount of H2SO4 in a Lead–Acid Cell

15.5. An Example for Calculating the Active Materials in a 50Ah SLI Cell at ηPAM = 50% and ηNAM = 45%

15.6. An Exemplary Calculation of Paste Composition

15.7. Measuring of Electrode Potentials





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© Elsevier Science 2011
Elsevier Science
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About the Author

D. Pavlov

Detchko Pavlov is Professor of Electrochemistry and, since 1997, Full Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. He is one of the founders of the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (CLEPS) (now IEES) at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and has been Head of the Lead Acid Batteries Department at this Institute for over 45 years since its establishment in 1967. His major scientific achievements are in the field of electrochemistry of lead; disclosing the structure of the lead and lead dioxide active masses; elucidating the mechanism of the processes involved in the technology of lead-acid battery manufacture and operation, as well as of the oxygen cycle reactions in VRLAB. His recent research efforts have been focused on evaluation of the effects of carbon additives to the negative plates and identification of the mechanism(s) of their action.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lead-Acid Batteries Department, Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems (IEES), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria


"The text is very accessible, being just as easy to navigate to specific sections for required information as it is to read in sequence as a textbook. The figures and tables are clearly presented and the text is accompanied by a comprehensive list of references for anyone requiring further information or original sources. This book is an up to date resource for lead-acid batteries and should be an essential on the bookshelf of anyone, academic or industrialist, working in the field or with an interest in the chemistry."--Chemistry World