Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing

Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing

Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications

1st Edition - January 20, 2014

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  • Editor: Matthieu Baudelet
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092731

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Description

Laser spectroscopy is a valuable tool for sensing and chemical analysis. Developments in lasers, detectors and mathematical analytical tools have led to improvements in the sensitivity and selectivity of spectroscopic techniques and extended their fields of application. Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing examines these advances and how laser spectroscopy can be used in a diverse range of industrial, medical, and environmental applications. Part one reviews basic concepts of atomic and molecular processes and presents the fundamentals of laser technology for controlling the spectral and temporal aspects of laser excitation. In addition, it explains the selectivity, sensitivity, and stability of the measurements, the construction of databases, and the automation of data analysis by machine learning. Part two explores laser spectroscopy techniques, including cavity-based absorption spectroscopy and the use of photo-acoustic spectroscopy to acquire absorption spectra of gases and condensed media. These chapters discuss imaging methods using laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopies before focusing on light detection and ranging, photothermal spectroscopy and terahertz spectroscopy. Part three covers a variety of applications of these techniques, particularly the detection of chemical, biological, and explosive threats, as well as their use in medicine and forensic science. Finally, the book examines spectroscopic analysis of industrial materials and their applications in nuclear research and industry. The text provides readers with a broad overview of the techniques and applications of laser spectroscopy for sensing. It is of great interest to laser scientists and engineers, as well as professionals using lasers for medical applications, environmental applications, military applications, and material processing.

Key Features

  • Presents the fundamentals of laser technology for controlling the spectral and temporal aspects of laser excitation
  • Explores laser spectroscopy techniques, including cavity-based absorption spectroscopy and the use of photo-acoustic spectroscopy to acquire absorption spectra of gases and condensed media
  • Considers spectroscopic analysis of industrial materials and their applications in nuclear research and industry

Readership

Laser scientists and engineers; Professionals using lasers for medical applications, environmental applications, military applications, and material processing; Defense contractors; Federally funded research and development centers and universities who are interested in developing laser based sensing technologies for chemical, biological, and explosive threats; Scientists and researchers in the field of laser sensing including laser spectroscopy, laser development, optical and hypersectral detection of environmental species, and applications of laser sensors for industrial and process control

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials

    Introduction

    Dedication

    Part I: Fundamentals of laser spectroscopy for sensing

    1. Fundamentals of optical spectroscopy

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Radiative processes and spectral broadening mechanisms

    1.3 Atomic spectroscopy

    1.4 Molecular spectroscopy

    1.5 Conclusion

    1.6 Acknowledgments

    1.7 References

    2. Lasers used for spectroscopy: fundamentals of spectral and temporal control

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Laser basics

    2.3 Emission linewidth and emission cross-section

    2.4 Cavity conditions

    2.5 Spectral and temporal control

    2.6 References

    3. Fundamentals of spectral detection

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Selectivity requirements for sensing applications

    3.3 Approaches to improve sensitivity

    3.4 System stability and signal averaging

    3.5 Conclusion

    3.6 References

    4. Using databases for data analysis in laser spectroscopy

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Definition of a database

    4.3 Atomic spectroscopy databases on the Internet

    4.4 Building your own database

    4.5 Putting your database online

    4.6 Conclusion

    4.7 Disclaimer

    4.8 References

    5. Multivariate analysis, chemometrics, and machine learning in laser spectroscopy

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Preliminary notes: terminology and use of data

    5.3 Feature extraction and data pre-processing

    5.4 Data analysis and algorithm development: extracting information from data

    5.5 Performance evaluation

    5.6 Conclusion

    5.7 Future trends

    5.8 Sources of further information and advice

    5.9 Acknowledgments

    5.10 References

    Part II: Laser spectroscopy techniques

    6. Cavity-based absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Enhancement of sensitivity in absorption spectroscopy

    6.3 Gas-phase cavity-ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) and related methods

    6.4 Other forms of gas-phase CRDS and related cavity-based techniques

    6.5 Scope of cavity-based spectroscopy: progress and prospects

    6.6 Conclusion

    6.7 References

    7. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Fundamental sensitivity limitations

    7 3 General considerations for photo-acoustic spectroscopy (PAS) based sensing

    7.4 Practical design of photo-acoustic detectors: gas phase

    7.5 Impact of energy transfer processes

    7.6 Conclusion

    7. 7 References

    7.8 Appendix: abbreviations

    8. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF)

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Lasers and coherence

    8.3 Spectral resolution

    8.4 Temporal resolution

    8.5 Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging and spatial resolution

    8.6 LIF sensitivity

    8.7 Conclusion and future trends

    8.8 Sources of further information and advice

    8.9 references

    9. Laser-induced phosphorescence spectroscopy: development and application of thermographic phosphors (TP) for thermometry in combustion environments

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Thermometry methods using thermographic phosphors (TP)

    9.3 Applications of TP

    9.4 Conclusion and future trends

    9.5 Acknowledgements

    9.6 References

    10. Lidar (light detection and ranging)

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Atmospheric spectroscopy and attenuation properties

    10.3 Lidar equation and remote sensing sensitivity

    10.4 Different lidar types

    10.5 Lidar remote sensing examples

    10.6 Conclusion and future trends

    10.7 References

    11. Photothermal spectroscopy

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Principles of photothermal spectroscopy

    11.3 Methods of photothermal spectroscopy

    11.4 Flow photothermal detectors

    11.5 Photothermal spectroscopy in applied chemistry

    11.6 Photothermal spectroscopy of solids and interfaces

    11.7 Biophotothermal spectroscopy

    11.8 Conclusion and future trends

    11.9 References

    12. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction: the historical ‘terahertz gap’

    12.2 Terahertz (THz) systems based on ultrafast lasers

    12.3 Terahertz sources and detectors

    12.4 Applications of terahertz spectroscopy

    12.5 Other terahertz applications

    12.6 Conclusion and sources of further information

    12.7 Acknowledgments

    12.8 References

    Part III: Applications of laser spectroscopy and sensing

    13. Laser spectroscopy for the detection of chemical, biological and explosive threats

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    13.3 Fluorescence

    13.4 Raman

    13.5 Conclusion

    13.6 References

    14. Laser spectroscopy for medical applications

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction to spectroscopy

    14.2 Energy levels in atoms, molecules and solid-state materials

    14.3 Radiation processes

    14.4 Absorption and emission spectra

    14.5 Interplay between absorption and scattering in turbid media

    14.6 Absorption and scattering spectroscopy of tissue

    14.7 Fluorescence spectroscopy

    14.8 Raman spectroscopy

    14.9 Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS)

    14.10 Conclusion and future trends

    14.11 Acknowledgments

    14. 12 References

    15. Applications of laser spectroscopy in forensic science

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Research applications of laser techniques: laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)

    15.3 Research applications of laser techniques: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    15.4 Research applications of laser techniques: Raman

    15.5 Conclusion

    15.6 References

    16. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of secondary materials in industrial production

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of industrial materials

    16.3 LIBS of secondary materials in industrial production

    16.4 Conclusion and future trends

    16.5 Acknowledgments

    16.6 References

    17. Applications of laser spectroscopy in nuclear research and industry

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Interest of laser spectroscopy for sensing in nuclear research and industry

    17.3 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for in situ analysis and material identification

    17.4 Cavity ringdown spectroscopy for ultratrace analysis in gaseous samples

    17.5 Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for analysis and speciation of actinides

    17.6 Conclusion and future trends

    17.7 References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 592
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: January 20, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092731

About the Editor

Matthieu Baudelet

Dr. Baudelet is currently the Senior Research Scientist for the Townes Laser Institute at the University of Central Florida (Orlando, FL). His panel covers the fundamentals of laser-induced plasmas, the application of laser spectroscopies such as LIBS, Fluorescence, Raman, FTIR, as fundamental diagnostics as well as sensing techniques for defense, industrial, environmental, biomedical applications and the study of propagation of ultrashort laser pulses for sensing purposes at distances up to the kilometer range. As Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the National Center for Forensic Science at the University of Central Florida, his research focuses on the application of laser-based spectroscopy for forensic analysis: atomic spectroscopy with laser ablation techniques (LIBS and LA-ICP-MS) as well as molecular with Raman spectroscopy. A large part of his research focuses also on the quantification of interferences in spectroscopic signals.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Central Florida, USA

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