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Laser Annealing of Semiconductors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125588201, 9780323145428

Laser Annealing of Semiconductors

1st Edition

Editor: J Poate
eBook ISBN: 9780323145428
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 576
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Laser Annealing of Semiconductors deals with the materials science of surfaces that have been subjected to ultrafast heating by intense laser or electron beams. This book is organized into 13 chapters that specifically tackle transient annealing of compound semiconductors. After briefly dealing with an overview of laser annealing, this book goes on discussing the concepts of solidification and crystallization pertinent to the field. These topics are followed by discussions on the main mechanisms of interaction of photon and electron beams with condensed matter; the calculation of thermophysical properties of crystalline materials; and high-speed crystal growth by laser annealing of ion-implanted silicon. The subsequent chapters describe the microstructural and topographical properties of annealed semiconductor layers and the epitaxy of ion-implanted silicon irradiated with a laser or electron beam single pulse. This text also explores the electronic and surface properties and the continuous-wave beam processing of semiconductors. The concluding chapters cover various reactions in metal-semiconductor systems, such as fast and laser-induced melting, solidification, mixing, and quenching. Laser-induced interactions in metal-semiconductor systems and the factors involved in control of the heat treatment process are also discussed in these chapters. Materials scientists and researchers and device engineers will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1. Introduction

I. Directed Energy Processing of Semiconductors

II. Energy Deposition and Heat Flow

III. Interfaces and Surfaces

IV. Epitaxy and Alloying

V. Surface Crystallization and Alloying—Perspectives

List of Symbols

Chapter 2. Crystallization Processes

I. Introduction

II. Concepts of Crystal Growth

III. Concepts of Nucleation

IV. Phase Transformations of Elemental Silicon

V. Nonequilibrium Impurity Incorporation during Crystal Growth

List of Symbols


Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Energy Deposition

I. Introduction

II. Laser Beams

III. Electron Beams

IV. Heating by Laser and Electron Beams

V. Conclusions


Chapter 4. Heat Flow Calculations

I. Introduction

II. The Mathematical Problem

III. The Role of the Absorption Coefficient

IV. Amorphous Silicon

V. Liquid-Solid Interface Velocity

VI. Other Semiconductors

VII. Impurity Redistribution

VIII. Continuum Lasers

Appendix A. Heat Transport

Appendix B. Mass Transport

List of Symbols


Chapter 5. Supersaturated Alloys, Solute Trapping, and Zone Refining

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Approach

III. Model Calculations for Dopant Redistribution

IV. Results

V. Conclusions


Chapter 6. Microstructure and Topography

I. Introduction

II. Annealing of Ion-Implanted Semiconductors

III. Annealing of Metal Films on Semiconductors

IV. Annealing of Other Semiconductors Layers


Chapter 7. Epitaxy by Pulsed Annealing of Ion-Implanted Silicon

I. Introduction

II. Phase Transitions Induced by Laser or Electron Beam Pulses

III. Coupling of the Incident Beam with the Matrix

IV. Defects in Pulsed Annealing of Disordered Layers

V. Amorphous-to-Liquid Transition: Undercooling Effects


Chapter 8. Epitaxy of Deposited Si

I. Introduction

II. Homoepitaxy

III. Heteroepitaxy

IV. Lateral Si Epitaxy on Amorphous Substrates

V. Explosive Crystallization


Chapter 9. Surface Properties of Laser-Annealed Semiconductors

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Approach

III. Preparation of Atomically Clean Surfaces

IV. Surface Structure of Laser-Annealed, Single-Crystal Semiconductor Surfaces

V. Surface Characterization of Ion-Implanted, Laser-Annealed Silicon

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 10. Solid Phase Regrowth

I. Solid Phase Regrowth and Diffusion Processes

II. Temperature Distributions and Solid Phase Reaction Rates Induced by a Scanning cw Laser

III. Experimental Analysis of cw Beam-Processed Semiconductor Materials

IV. Dopant Incorporation and Metastable Phases

V. Future Directions


Chapter 11. Compound Semiconductors

I. Introduction

II. Ion-Implanted Layers: Solid Phase Regrowth

III. Ion-Implanted Layers: Liquid Phase Regrowth

IV. GaAs Contacts and Deposited Layers

V. Other Compound Semiconductors

VI. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 12. Suicides and Metastable Phases

I. Introduction

II. Solid State Reactions—Suicide Formation

III. Melting, Mixing, and Quenching

IV. Experimental Results


Chapter 13. Factors Influencing Applications

I. Introduction

II. Modes of Beam Processing

III. Changes in Materials Parameters

IV. Control of the Heat Treatment Process

V. Processing Single-Phase Structures

VI. Processing Multiphase Structures

VII. Processing Large Areas




No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1982
28th January 1982
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

J Poate

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