Laser Annealing of Semiconductors

Laser Annealing of Semiconductors

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Editor: J Poate
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145428

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Laser Annealing of Semiconductors deals with the materials science of surfaces that have been subjected to ultrafast heating by intense laser or electron beams. This book is organized into 13 chapters that specifically tackle transient annealing of compound semiconductors. After briefly dealing with an overview of laser annealing, this book goes on discussing the concepts of solidification and crystallization pertinent to the field. These topics are followed by discussions on the main mechanisms of interaction of photon and electron beams with condensed matter; the calculation of thermophysical properties of crystalline materials; and high-speed crystal growth by laser annealing of ion-implanted silicon. The subsequent chapters describe the microstructural and topographical properties of annealed semiconductor layers and the epitaxy of ion-implanted silicon irradiated with a laser or electron beam single pulse. This text also explores the electronic and surface properties and the continuous-wave beam processing of semiconductors. The concluding chapters cover various reactions in metal-semiconductor systems, such as fast and laser-induced melting, solidification, mixing, and quenching. Laser-induced interactions in metal-semiconductor systems and the factors involved in control of the heat treatment process are also discussed in these chapters. Materials scientists and researchers and device engineers will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1. Introduction

    I. Directed Energy Processing of Semiconductors

    II. Energy Deposition and Heat Flow

    III. Interfaces and Surfaces

    IV. Epitaxy and Alloying

    V. Surface Crystallization and Alloying—Perspectives

    List of Symbols

    Chapter 2. Crystallization Processes

    I. Introduction

    II. Concepts of Crystal Growth

    III. Concepts of Nucleation

    IV. Phase Transformations of Elemental Silicon

    V. Nonequilibrium Impurity Incorporation during Crystal Growth

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Energy Deposition

    I. Introduction

    II. Laser Beams

    III. Electron Beams

    IV. Heating by Laser and Electron Beams

    V. Conclusions


    Chapter 4. Heat Flow Calculations

    I. Introduction

    II. The Mathematical Problem

    III. The Role of the Absorption Coefficient

    IV. Amorphous Silicon

    V. Liquid-Solid Interface Velocity

    VI. Other Semiconductors

    VII. Impurity Redistribution

    VIII. Continuum Lasers

    Appendix A. Heat Transport

    Appendix B. Mass Transport

    List of Symbols


    Chapter 5. Supersaturated Alloys, Solute Trapping, and Zone Refining

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Approach

    III. Model Calculations for Dopant Redistribution

    IV. Results

    V. Conclusions


    Chapter 6. Microstructure and Topography

    I. Introduction

    II. Annealing of Ion-Implanted Semiconductors

    III. Annealing of Metal Films on Semiconductors

    IV. Annealing of Other Semiconductors Layers


    Chapter 7. Epitaxy by Pulsed Annealing of Ion-Implanted Silicon

    I. Introduction

    II. Phase Transitions Induced by Laser or Electron Beam Pulses

    III. Coupling of the Incident Beam with the Matrix

    IV. Defects in Pulsed Annealing of Disordered Layers

    V. Amorphous-to-Liquid Transition: Undercooling Effects


    Chapter 8. Epitaxy of Deposited Si

    I. Introduction

    II. Homoepitaxy

    III. Heteroepitaxy

    IV. Lateral Si Epitaxy on Amorphous Substrates

    V. Explosive Crystallization


    Chapter 9. Surface Properties of Laser-Annealed Semiconductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Approach

    III. Preparation of Atomically Clean Surfaces

    IV. Surface Structure of Laser-Annealed, Single-Crystal Semiconductor Surfaces

    V. Surface Characterization of Ion-Implanted, Laser-Annealed Silicon

    VI. Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Solid Phase Regrowth

    I. Solid Phase Regrowth and Diffusion Processes

    II. Temperature Distributions and Solid Phase Reaction Rates Induced by a Scanning cw Laser

    III. Experimental Analysis of cw Beam-Processed Semiconductor Materials

    IV. Dopant Incorporation and Metastable Phases

    V. Future Directions


    Chapter 11. Compound Semiconductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Ion-Implanted Layers: Solid Phase Regrowth

    III. Ion-Implanted Layers: Liquid Phase Regrowth

    IV. GaAs Contacts and Deposited Layers

    V. Other Compound Semiconductors

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 12. Suicides and Metastable Phases

    I. Introduction

    II. Solid State Reactions—Suicide Formation

    III. Melting, Mixing, and Quenching

    IV. Experimental Results


    Chapter 13. Factors Influencing Applications

    I. Introduction

    II. Modes of Beam Processing

    III. Changes in Materials Parameters

    IV. Control of the Heat Treatment Process

    V. Processing Single-Phase Structures

    VI. Processing Multiphase Structures

    VII. Processing Large Areas



Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145428

About the Editor

J Poate

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