Language Functions and Brain Organization

Language Functions and Brain Organization

1st Edition - April 28, 1983

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  • Editor: S. Segalowitz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483295367

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Description

Language Functions and Brain Organization explores the question of how language is represented in the human brain. The discussions are organized around the following themes: whether language is a mental organ or a mental complex; the brain base for language; the requirements of a developmental theory of lateralization; and whether brain lateralization is a single construct. Comprised of 15 chapters, this volume begins with an assessment of the semantic and syntactic aspects of aphasic deficits and how these components can be selectively disrupted by focal brain damage, followed by a review of evidence for hemispheric asymmetries in processing phonological information. The reader is then introduced to pragmatic aspects of communication; the right hemisphere's contribution to language; and right-left asymmetries in the cerebral cortex and their implications for functional asymmetries. Subsequent chapters focus on left-hemisphere language specialization from the perspective of motor and perceptual functions; evidence for hemisphere asymmetry for language functioning in the thalamus; some difficulties in building a brain theory for visual experience; speech lateralization in infancy; and the relationship between cerebral functional asymmetries, maturation rate, and cognitive skills through the mediation of sex chromosomes. The book also considers language dysfunction in dementia and its connection to brain functioning, along with the variations produced in cases of bilingualism and the factors that may be critical for this issue. This monograph is addressed to researchers and students of the neuropsychology of language, whether they call themselves psychologists, neuropsychologists, neurologists, or linguists.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    I. Language as a Mental Organ or a Mental Complex

    Introduction

    Language as a Set of Neuropsychological Skills

    References

    1. Language Functions: Syntax and Semantics

    Introduction

    Semantic Deficits in Aphasia

    Syntactic Deficits in Aphasia

    Conclusion

    References

    2. Hemisphere Processing of Phonological Information

    Introduction

    Dichotic Listening with Brain-Damaged Populations

    Electrophysiological Correlates of Speech Perception

    Summary

    References

    3. Pragmatic Aspects of Communication in Brain-Damaged Patients

    Introduction

    Vehicles of Communication

    Pragmatic Structures

    Other Linguistic Forms

    Conclusion

    References

    4. The Right Hemisphere's Contribution to Language: A Review of the Evidence from Brain-Damaged Subjects

    Introduction

    Lesion Studies

    Commissurotomy

    Regional Cerebral Blood Flow

    Neurosurgical Studies

    Sodium Amytal (Wada Test) 109

    Conclusion

    References

    II. What Should Be the Brain Base for Language?

    Introduction

    References

    5. Bumps on the Brain: Right-Left Asymmetry as a Key to Functional Lateralization

    Introduction

    Nature of Hemisphere Specialization

    Unresolved Issues

    Limitations of Neurocognitive Methods

    Neuroanatomical Asymmetry

    Problems in Relating Planum Asymmetry and Functional Lateralization

    Asymmetries in Vivo and Functional Lateralization

    Planum Asymmetry and Speech Lateralization

    Implications of a Neuroanatomical Substrate of Cerebral Dominance

    References

    6. Motor and Perceptual Functions of the Left Hemisphere and Their Interaction

    Introduction

    Auditory Perceptual Functions of the Left Hemisphere

    Evidence for Lateralized Manual Motor Control

    Evidence for Lateralized Oral Movement Control

    Traditional Localization of Oral Motor Control

    Perceptual Studies

    Production Studies

    Neurophysiological Studies Suggesting an Overlap in Perception and Production

    Behavioral Studies

    Theories Regarding the Motor-Perceptual Link

    Summary and Conclusion

    References

    7. Thalamic Mechanisms in Language and Memory

    Introduction

    Anatomical Review

    Alterations in Language and Memory After Thalamic Lesions: Evidence from Spontaneously Occurring Lesions

    Language Changes Associated with Stereotaxic Thalamic Lesions

    The Role of the Left Thalamus in Language: Evidence from Electrical Stimulation

    The Role of Thalamic Motor Functions in Speech

    Summary

    Other Subcortical Areas

    References

    8. The Placement of Experience in the Brain

    Introduction

    Logical Problems of Localizing Experience

    The Nature of Place

    Methodological Problems of Localization

    The Nature of Qualia

    References

    III. On the Requirements of a Developmental Theory of Lateralization

    Confusing Maturation with Development

    Neurophysiological Changes

    Psychological Changes

    Changes in Cerebral Asymmetries with Age

    Conclusions

    References

    9. Cerebral Asymmetries for Speech in Infancy

    Introduction

    Evidence for Speech Lateralization in Infancy

    What Is Lateralized in Infancy?

    Implications for a Developmental Model of Lateralization

    References

    10. Hemispheric Specialization and Integration in Child Development

    Introduction

    The Input-Output Problem and the Two-Compartment Black Box

    Development as a Nonlinear Sequence

    The Study of the Developing Brain: The Soviet Electrophysiological Approach

    Conclusions

    References

    11. Relationships Among Brain Organization, Maturation Rate, and the Development of Verbal and Nonverbal Ability

    Introduction

    Sex-Related Biological Factors and Intellectual Ability

    Growth, the X Chromosome, and Cerebral Organization

    Conclusion

    References

    12. Language and Brain Dysfunction in Dementia

    Introduction

    Cortical and Subcortical Dementias

    Language Form and Semantics

    Conclusion: Language and Neuropsychological Behavior

    References

    IV. Is Brain Lateralization a Single Construct?

    Introduction

    References

    13. Cerebral Specialization in Deaf Individuals

    Introduction

    Cerebral Specialization in Deaf Individuals: Overview

    Speculations on the Cerebral Lateralization of Sign Language

    Clinical Evidence Concerning the Cerebral Lateralization of Sign Language

    Experimental Evidence Concerning Cerebral Specialization in Deaf Individuals: Tachistoscopic Studies

    General Discussion

    References

    14. Bilingualism and Brain Lateralization

    Introduction

    Clinical Evidence

    Experimental Evidence

    Language-Specific Factors

    Language-Acquisitional Factors

    Age of Second Language Acquisition

    Discussion

    References

    15. Individual Differences in Hemispheric Representation of Language

    Introduction

    Differences in Brain Morphology

    Early Experiences and Psycholinguistic Strategy

    The Problem of Task Demands

    Evidence for the Importance of Hemisphericity

    Handedness and Language Lateralization

    Sex Differences and Neurolinguistic Organization

    Getting a Measure of Intrasubject Variance

    Coping with Individual Differences in Neurolinguistic Organization

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 375
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: April 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483295367

About the Editor

S. Segalowitz

Affiliations and Expertise

Brock University

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