Language Functions and Brain Organization - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126356403, 9781483295367

Language Functions and Brain Organization

1st Edition

Editors: S. Segalowitz
eBook ISBN: 9781483295367
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1983
Page Count: 375
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Description

Language Functions and Brain Organization explores the question of how language is represented in the human brain. The discussions are organized around the following themes: whether language is a mental organ or a mental complex; the brain base for language; the requirements of a developmental theory of lateralization; and whether brain lateralization is a single construct.

Comprised of 15 chapters, this volume begins with an assessment of the semantic and syntactic aspects of aphasic deficits and how these components can be selectively disrupted by focal brain damage, followed by a review of evidence for hemispheric asymmetries in processing phonological information. The reader is then introduced to pragmatic aspects of communication; the right hemisphere's contribution to language; and right-left asymmetries in the cerebral cortex and their implications for functional asymmetries. Subsequent chapters focus on left-hemisphere language specialization from the perspective of motor and perceptual functions; evidence for hemisphere asymmetry for language functioning in the thalamus; some difficulties in building a brain theory for visual experience; speech lateralization in infancy; and the relationship between cerebral functional asymmetries, maturation rate, and cognitive skills through the mediation of sex chromosomes. The book also considers language dysfunction in dementia and its connection to brain functioning, along with the variations produced in cases of bilingualism and the factors that may be critical for this issue.

This monograph is addressed to researchers and students of the neuropsychology of language, whether they call themselves psychologists, neuropsychologists, neurologists, or linguists.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

I. Language as a Mental Organ or a Mental Complex

Introduction

Language as a Set of Neuropsychological Skills

References

1. Language Functions: Syntax and Semantics

Introduction

Semantic Deficits in Aphasia

Syntactic Deficits in Aphasia

Conclusion

References

2. Hemisphere Processing of Phonological Information

Introduction

Dichotic Listening with Brain-Damaged Populations

Electrophysiological Correlates of Speech Perception

Summary

References

3. Pragmatic Aspects of Communication in Brain-Damaged Patients

Introduction

Vehicles of Communication

Pragmatic Structures

Other Linguistic Forms

Conclusion

References

4. The Right Hemisphere's Contribution to Language: A Review of the Evidence from Brain-Damaged Subjects

Introduction

Lesion Studies

Commissurotomy

Regional Cerebral Blood Flow

Neurosurgical Studies

Sodium Amytal (Wada Test) 109

Conclusion

References

II. What Should Be the Brain Base for Language?

Introduction

References

5. Bumps on the Brain: Right-Left Asymmetry as a Key to Functional Lateralization

Introduction

Nature of Hemisphere Specialization

Unresolved Issues

Limitations of Neurocognitive Methods

Neuroanatomical Asymmetry

Problems in Relating Planum Asymmetry and Functional Lateralization

Asymmetries in Vivo and Functional Lateralization

Planum Asymmetry and Speech Lateralization

Implications of a Neuroanatomical Substrate of Cerebral Dominance

References

6. Motor and Perceptual Functions of the Left Hemisphere and Their Interaction

Introduction

Auditory Perceptual Functions of the Left Hemisphere

Evidence for Lateralized Manual Motor Control

Evidence for Lateralized Oral Movement Control

Traditional Localization of Oral Motor Control

Perceptual Studies

Production Studies

Neurophysiological Studies Suggesting an Overlap in Perception and Production

Behavioral Studies

Theories Regarding the Motor-Perceptual Link

Summary and Conclusion

References

7. Thalamic Mechanisms in Language and Memory

Introduction

Anatomical Review

Alterations in Language and Memory After Thalamic Lesions: Evidence from Spontaneously Occurring Lesions

Language Changes Associated with Stereotaxic Thalamic Lesions

The Role of the Left Thalamus in Language: Evidence from Electrical Stimulation

The Role of Thalamic Motor Functions in Speech

Summary

Other Subcortical Areas

References

8. The Placement of Experience in the Brain

Introduction

Logical Problems of Localizing Experience

The Nature of Place

Methodological Problems of Localization

The Nature of Qualia

References

III. On the Requirements of a Developmental Theory of Lateralization

Confusing Maturation with Development

Neurophysiological Changes

Psychological Changes

Changes in Cerebral Asymmetries with Age

Conclusions

References

9. Cerebral Asymmetries for Speech in Infancy

Introduction

Evidence for Speech Lateralization in Infancy

What Is Lateralized in Infancy?

Implications for a Developmental Model of Lateralization

References

10. Hemispheric Specialization and Integration in Child Development

Introduction

The Input-Output Problem and the Two-Compartment Black Box

Development as a Nonlinear Sequence

The Study of the Developing Brain: The Soviet Electrophysiological Approach

Conclusions

References

11. Relationships Among Brain Organization, Maturation Rate, and the Development of Verbal and Nonverbal Ability

Introduction

Sex-Related Biological Factors and Intellectual Ability

Growth, the X Chromosome, and Cerebral Organization

Conclusion

References

12. Language and Brain Dysfunction in Dementia

Introduction

Cortical and Subcortical Dementias

Language Form and Semantics

Conclusion: Language and Neuropsychological Behavior

References

IV. Is Brain Lateralization a Single Construct?

Introduction

References

13. Cerebral Specialization in Deaf Individuals

Introduction

Cerebral Specialization in Deaf Individuals: Overview

Speculations on the Cerebral Lateralization of Sign Language

Clinical Evidence Concerning the Cerebral Lateralization of Sign Language

Experimental Evidence Concerning Cerebral Specialization in Deaf Individuals: Tachistoscopic Studies

General Discussion

References

14. Bilingualism and Brain Lateralization

Introduction

Clinical Evidence

Experimental Evidence

Language-Specific Factors

Language-Acquisitional Factors

Age of Second Language Acquisition

Discussion

References

15. Individual Differences in Hemispheric Representation of Language

Introduction

Differences in Brain Morphology

Early Experiences and Psycholinguistic Strategy

The Problem of Task Demands

Evidence for the Importance of Hemisphericity

Handedness and Language Lateralization

Sex Differences and Neurolinguistic Organization

Getting a Measure of Intrasubject Variance

Coping with Individual Differences in Neurolinguistic Organization

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
375
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483295367

About the Editor

S. Segalowitz

Affiliations and Expertise

Brock University