This is the first major review of the developments in clinical laboratory science in the 20th century presented in the words of the original inventors and discoverers. Introductory comments by the editor help place the works within the historical context.
Landmark Papers addresses: The origin of the home pregnancy test available today in every drugstore The woman who invented a billion dollar technology, refused to patent it and went on to win a Nobel Prize The scientists who worked on the US Government’s crash program at the start of WWII to find a substitute for the malaria drug quinine The blood test used to monitor the effectiveness of cholesterol lowering drugs that today are taken by over 20 million patients The graduate student who invented a technology for testing for infectious diseases, took it to Africa to screen people for malaria for the first time and which is now used to test for HIV infection world-wide The invention of molecular diagnostics by Linus Pauling and the road to individualized medicine *The development of the glucose meter used by diabetics up to six times a day to monitor their metabolic control
First book of this kind dedicated to clinical chemistry Thirty-nine articles that have shaped the field today *A survey of the major developments in the field clinical chemistry in the 20th century
Students and workers in the clinical laboratory field; Teachers in the clinical laboratory field; Clinical Chemists; Clinical Pathologists; Medical Laboratory Technologists; Industries that have commercialized the technologies (i.e., Abbott, Beckman, Pharmacia, etc...)
Preface Section I IMMUNOASSAY TECHNOLOGY RIA (Radioimmunoassay)1. Yalow, R.S., Berson, S.A. (1960: Assay of plasma insulin in man.
FPIA (Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay)2. Dandliker, W.B., Feigen, G.A. (1961): Quantification of the antigen-antibody reaction by the polarization of fluorescence.
CPB (Competitive Protein Binding)3. Murphy, B.E.P., Pattee, C.J. (1964): Determination of thyroxine utilizing the property of protein-binding.
ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)4. Engvall, E., Perlmann, P. (1972): Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA. III.
EMITä (Enzyme Immunoassay Technique)5. Rubenstein, K.E., Schneider, R. S., Ullman, E.F. (1972): "Homogeneous" enzyme immunoassay.
Section II THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING (TDM) Bromide6. Wuth, O. (1927): Rational bromide treatment.
Sulfonamides7. Bratton, A.C., Marshall, E.K., Jr., (1939): A New Coupling Component for Sulfanilamide Determination.
Quinine and Quinidine8. Brodie, B.B., Udenfriend, S. (1943): The estimation of quinine in human plasma with a note on the estimation of quinidine.
Digoxin9. Smith, T.W., Butler, V.P., Haber, E. (1969): Determination of therapeutic and toxic serum digoxin concentrations by radioimmunoassay.
Theophylline10. Thompson, R.D., Nagasawa, H.T., Jenne, J.W. (1974): Determination of theophylline and its metabolites in human urine and serum by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
Section III ENZYMOLOGY ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase, EC 188.8.131.52))11. Bessey, O.A., Lowry, O.H., Brock, M.J. (1946): A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphatase with five cubic millimeters of serum.
AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase, EC 184.108.40.206)12. Karmen, A., Wroblewski, F., LaDue, J.S. (1955): Transaminase activity in human blood.
CK (Creatine Kinase, EC 220.127.116.11)13. Mercer, D.W. (1974): Separation of tissue and serum creatine kinase isoenzymes by ion-exchange column chromatography.
Section IV SPECIFIC ANALYTES Colorimetric Analysis with the Duboscq14. Folin, O., Wu, H. (1919): A system of blood analysis.
Blood Gases by Manometer15. Van Slyke, D.D. (1924): The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement. I.
Bilirubin, Total and Direct With the Filter Photometer16. Malloy, H.T., Evelyn, K.A. (1937): The determination of bilirubin with the photometric colorimeter.
Proteins by the Biuret Reaction17. Gornall, A. G., Bardawill, C. J., David, M. M. (1949): Determination of serum proteins by means of the Biuret reaction.
Methods for Pediatric and Neonatal Samples18. Natelson, S. (1951): Routine use of ultramicro methods in the clinical laboratory.
Enzymatic Glucose19. Huggett, A.S., Nixon, D.A. (1957): Use of glucose oxidase, peroxidase, and o-dianisidine in determination of blood and urinary glucose.
HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) by Immunoassay20. Wide, L., Gemzell, C.A. (1960): An immunological pregnancy test.
Hemoglobin A1c21. Rahbar, S. (1968): An Abnormal Hemoglobin in Red Cells of Diabetics.
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol by Calculation22. Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S. (1972): Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.
Section V INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES Paper Electrophoresis23. Durrum, E.L. (1950): A microelectrophoretic and microionophoretic technique.
Automated Analyzer24. Skeggs, L.T. (1957): An automatic method for colorimetric analysis.
Enzymatic Glucose, Dry Reagents on Pads25. Free, A.H., Adams, E.C., Kercher, M.L., Free, H. M., Cook, M. H., (1957): Simple Specific Test for Urine Glucose.
Blood Gas Elelctrodes26. Severinghaus, J., Bradley, A.F. (1958): Electrodes for blood pO2 and pCO2 determination.
Specific Ion Electrodes
- Friedman, S.M., Nakashima, M. (1961): Single sample analysis with the sodium electrode.
- Anderson, N.G. (1969): Analytical techniques for cell fractions. XII. A multiple-cuvet rotor for a new microanalytical system. Immunoassays on Membranes
- Glad, C., Grubb, A.O. (1978): Immunocapillary migration- A new method for immunochemical quantitation. Western Blots
- Towbin, H., Stachelin, T., Gordon, J. (1979): Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: Procedure and some applications. Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)
- Jorgenson, J.W., Lukacs, K. DeA. (1981): Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries.
Section VI CHEMOMETRICS Quality Control Charts32. Levey, S., Jennings, E.R. (1950): The Use of Control Charts in the Clinical Laboratory.
Interferences in Analytical Accuracy33. Caraway, W. (1962): Chemical and Diagnostic Specificity of Laboratory Tests.
Predictive Value Theory34. Vecchio, T.J. (1966): Predictive value of a single diagnostic test in unselected populations.
Standards and Calibrators35. Radin, N. (1967): What is a standard?
Test Kits36. Barnett, R.N., Cash, A.D., Junghams, S.P. (1968): Performance of "kits" used for clinical chemical analysis of cholesterol.
Section VII MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS Biochemical Genetics37. Pauling, L., Itano, H.A., Singer, S.J., Wells., I.C. (1949): Sickle cell anemia, a molecular disease.
Nucleic Acid Probes38. Hyypia, T., Jalava, A., Larsen, S.H., Terho, P., Hukkanene, V. (1985): Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in clinical specimens by nucleic acid spot hybridization.
Microarrays39. Maskos, U., Southern, E.M. (1992): Oligonucleotide hybridizations on glass supports: A novel linker for oligonucleotide synthesis and hybridization properties of oligonucleotide synthesized in situ.
Acknowledgments Author Index Subject Index
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- © Elsevier Science 2006
- 15th November 2005
- Elsevier Science
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Following a 25-year career in clinical chemistry, R M Rocco currently teaches graduate courses in the biomedical laboratory sciences at San Francisco State University. Landmark Papers grew out of a graduate seminar in landmark papers in biotechnology. Dr Rocco has extensive experience in directing pharmaceutical and clinical chemistry research and development groups.
Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, California, USA
"With these landmark papers, an interested reader can easily trace the origins of the techniques that are being used in clinical laboratories today and the analytes being measured with them." --Carl A. Burtis, Chief Clinical Chemistry, Health Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN "...highlights the extensive and varied scientific basis of the discipline we call clinical chemistry. Of particular importance, it rekindles memories of the giants who have placed this discipline for taking care of people in our hands." --Amadeo J. Pesce, Director of Clinical Toxicology Laboratory, University of Cincinnati Hospital, OH