Knowledge Processing and Applied Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Processing and Applied Artificial Intelligence

1st Edition - September 17, 1993

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  • Author: Soumitra Dutta
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483183923

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Description

Knowledge Processing and Applied Artificial Intelligence discusses the business potential of knowledge processing and examines the aspects of applied artificial intelligence technology. The book is comprised of nine chapters that are organized into five parts. The text first covers knowledge processing and applied artificial intelligence, and then proceeds to tackling the techniques for acquiring, representing, and reasoning with knowledge. The next part deals with the process of creating and implementing strategically advantageous knowledge-based system applications. The fourth part covers intelligent interfaces, while the last part details alternative approaches to knowledge processing. The book will be of great use to students and professionals of computer or business related disciplines.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    List Of Abbreviations

    Part II

    Chapter 1 — Knowledge Processing and Applied Artificial Intelligence

    The Evolution of Computing in Business

    The Rise of Knowledge Processing

    The Origins of Knowledge Processing

    Philosophy

    Mathematics

    Computing

    The Development of the Field of Artificial Intelligence

    A Shift in Focus

    The Evolving Sub-Fields

    Governmental Funding

    The Nature of Intelligence

    Applied Artificial Intelligence

    Knowledge Processing and Applied Artificial Intelligence

    The Commercialization of Applied Artificial Intelligence

    Consolidation and Growth

    The Commercial Market

    Moving From Data Processing to Knowledge Processing

    Structure and Organization of Book

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Part II — Acquiring, Representing, and Reasoning with Knowledge

    Chapter 2 — Knowledge-Based Systems and the Acquisition of Knowledge

    Digital Equipment Corporation

    American Express

    Campbell Soup

    Structure of Knowledge-Based Systems

    The Process of Building Knowledge-Based Systems

    Expert Systems and Knowledge-Based Systems

    Epistemology and Knowledge-Based Systems

    The Definition of Knowledge

    The Computer Configuration Problem

    The Dimensions of Knowledge

    Stages of Knowledge

    Knowledge in a Knowledge-Based System

    Knowledge Acquisition

    Knowledge Engineer-Guided Knowledge Acquisition

    Planning the Knowledge Acquisition Process

    Automated Tools for Knowledge Acquisition

    Induction

    Steps after Knowledge Acquisition

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Chapter 3 — Representing and Reasoning with Knowledge

    Knowledge Representation Using Rules

    Complex Rules and Structured Rule-Based Systems

    Inference Procedures in Rule-Based Systems

    Forward Chaining

    Backward Chaining

    A Comparison of Backward and Forward Chaining

    Meta-Knowledge in Rule-Based Reasoning

    Rule-Based Reasoning Under Uncertainty

    Prolog: A Simple Rule-Based System

    The Inference Procedure of Prolog

    Benefits And Limitations of Rule-Based Reasoning

    Networked Representations of Knowledge

    Semantic Networks

    Frame Hierarchies

    Structure of Objects

    Behaviors of Objects

    Communication Between Objects

    Comparing Frame Hierarchies and Rules

    Alternative Approaches to Knowledge Representation

    Blackboard Systems

    Case-Based Reasoning

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Part III — Implementing Strategic Knowledge Processing Applications

    Chapter 4 — Creating Knowledge-Based Systems

    Creating Rule-Based Systems

    Problem Description

    Problem Decomposition

    Initial Prototype

    Incremental Evolution

    Customization

    Structured Rule-Based Systems

    Creating Hybrid Knowledge-Based Systems

    Problem Description

    Frame Hierarchy Identification

    Structure and Behavior Identification

    Prototyping and Incremental Evolution

    Customization

    Customizing the User Interface

    Interfaces to Databases

    Tools for Building Knowledge-Based Systems

    Types of Shell Tools

    Hardware Platforms for Shell Tools

    Guidelines For The Selection of Shell Tools

    Commercial Market for Knowledge-Based Products

    The Database and Knowledge-Based Product Markets

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Chapter 5 — Strategic And Organizational Issues in Knowledge Processing

    Levels of Organizational Knowledge

    Managing Knowledge in Organizations

    Knowledge-Based Systems and the Management of Knowledge

    Applications of Knowledge-Based Systems in Organizations

    The Task Perspective

    User Support Types

    The Systems Perspective

    Activity Types

    Organizational Benefits

    Organizational Hazards

    Impact on Industry Structures

    Managing the Development Process in Organizations

    Choosing a Corporate Strategy for Knowledge Processing

    Factors Affecting the Knowledge Processing Strategy

    Identification of Potential Knowledge-Based Applications

    Cost-Benefit Analyses of Potential Applications

    Determining Feasibility of Applications

    Creation of Knowledge-Based Applications

    Deployment of Applications

    Maintenance of Applications

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Part IV — Intelligent Interfaces

    Chapter 6 — Natural Language Processing

    The Securities and Exchange Commission

    Siemens-Nixdorf

    Components of Natural Language Processing

    The Nature of Understanding

    Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    Approaches to Natural Language Understanding

    Keyword Matching

    Syntax and Semantics

    Semantic Analyses

    Combining Syntax and Semantics

    Knowledge-Based

    Conceptual Dependency Diagrams

    Scripts

    Understanding Multiple Sentences and Dialogs

    Machine Translation

    Approaches to Machine Translation

    Pattern-Based Translation

    Using Syntax and Semantics for Translation

    Knowledge-Based Translation

    Machine Translation in Industry

    Evaluating Natural Language Interfaces

    Commercial Tools for Natural Language Processing

    Applications of Natural Language Processing

    The Securities and Exchange Commission

    The Intelligent Banking System at Citibank

    The Direct Labor Management System at Ford

    Content-Based Indexing of News Stories at Reuters

    Patient Medical Records System at Hartford Hospital

    Natural Language Applications at Steelcase

    The Business Impact of Natural Language Processing

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Chapter 7 — Image and Speech Processing

    Computer Vision

    Biological Roots

    Computational Requirements

    Problems And Ambiguities

    Information Processing in Machine Vision

    Signal Processing

    Digitizing And Sampling

    Thresholding

    Smoothing

    Edge Detection

    Image Processing

    Segmentation

    Labeling

    Image Understanding

    Identification

    Interpretation

    Commercial Applications of Machine Vision

    Industrial Vision Applications

    Document Image Processing

    Retirement Fund Processing

    Yellow Pages Advertising Management

    Diagnosing Heart Imagery

    Microfossil Identification

    Speech Processing

    Interpretation Problems

    Speech Recognition

    Speech Understanding

    Speech Processing

    Phonetic Analysis

    Phonological Analysis

    Morphological Analysis

    The Business Impact of Image and Speech Processing

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Part V — Alternative Approaches to Knowledge Processing

    Chapter 8 — Approximate Reasoning Using Fuzzy Logic

    Hitachi: The Sendai Subway Control System

    Yamaichi Securities: Intelligent Trading Programs

    Matshushita: Intelligent Washing Machines

    Rockwell: Modeling Stress on Wings

    Development of Fuzzy Logic

    Fundamentals of Fuzzy Logic Technology

    Representational Concepts

    Representation of Vague Concepts Using Fuzzy Sets

    Linguistic Variables

    Practical Implications of Fuzzy Set Representations

    Reasoning Procedures

    Mathematical Operations on Fuzzy Sets

    Inference With Frizzy Rules

    Comparing Fuzzy and Conventional Rules

    Case Studies of Fuzzy Logic Applications

    The Inverted Pendulum

    Fuzzy Rules for Balancing an Inverted Pendulum

    Properties of Fuzzy Control

    Complex Inverted Pendulum Systems

    Sendai Subway Control

    Commercial Activities in Fuzzy Logic

    Asia

    America

    Europe

    The Business Impacts of Fuzzy Logic Applications

    Enhancing Knowledge-Based Technologies

    Embedded Intelligence

    Intelligent Process Control

    New Product Development Strategies

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Chapter 9 — Connectionist Modeling of Intelligence

    The Connectionist Approach

    History of Connectionism

    Governmental Support

    Neural Networks

    Problem Types Tackled by Neural Networks

    Classification

    Generalization

    Clustering

    Types of Neural Networks

    Selected Neural Network Architectures

    Multi-Layer Perceptrons

    Structure of Neurons

    Training

    Testing

    Learning

    Decision Regions Solved by Perceptrons

    The Hopfield Net

    Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    Designing Applications Using Neural Networks

    Domain and Problem Characteristics

    Designing the Network

    Training and Testing the Network

    Maintaining and Integrating Applications

    Commercial Tools

    Case Study: Using Neural Networks Ffor Bond Rating

    The Problem of Bond Rating

    Use Of Statistical Models for Bond Rating

    Decision Region Required for Bond Rating

    Selection of Variables

    Data Collection

    Neural Network

    Regression

    Results

    Applications of Neural Networks

    Nettalk

    Determining the Secondary Structure of Proteins

    Car Navigation

    Backgammon

    Diagnosis And Treatment Prescription for Hypertension

    Strengths And Limitations of Connectionist Models

    Limitations

    The Future of Symbolic and Connectionist Approaches

    Summary

    Bibliography and Suggested Readings

    Notes

    Appendix 1 — Commercial Applications of Knowledge-Based Systems

    Appendix 2 — Commercial Vendors of Knowledge-Based Products

    Appendix 3 — Commercial Applications of Neural Networks

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 368
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1993
  • Published: September 17, 1993
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483183923

About the Author

Soumitra Dutta

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