Isotope Chronostratigraphy

Isotope Chronostratigraphy

Theory and Methods

1st Edition - June 28, 1988

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  • Authors: Douglas F. Williams, Ian Lerche, W. E. Full
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220611

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Description

Isotope Chronostratigraphy: Theory and Methods covers the concept of isotope chronostratigraphy. The book discusses the principles of interpretation, the methodology, as well as the synthesis of the oxygen and carbon isotope records of the Tertiary. The text also describes the detailed studies of the tertiary delta 18O and delta 13 C records by epoch; the stable isotopic evidence for and against sea level changes during the cenozoic; and the prospects for applying isotope chronostratigraphy to exploration wells. The paleobathymetric models using the delta 18O of foraminifera; the empirical approaches to isotope chronostratigraphy; and the quantitative methods of analysis are also considered. The book further tackles the semblance methods; the filter and deconvolution techniques; the frequency domain methods; and the maximum entropy and Q-model methods. Petroleum geologists and stratigraphers will find the text invaluable.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    I. Rationale for a New Chemical Stratigraphy

    II. The Model of Isotope Chronostratigraphy

    III. The Format of This Synthesis

    2. Principles of Interpretation

    I. An Empirical Approach for Establishing Interwell Correlations and Zonations

    II. Integration of Isotope Chronostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy

    III. Effects of Diagenesis on Isotope Records

    IV. Species Effects

    3. Methodology

    I. Generation of the Stable Isotope Data

    II. Preparation of Well Samples for Isotopic Analyses

    A. Foraminifera or Calcareous Nannofossil Analyses

    B. Analyses of Unspecific Carbonate Phases from Whole Rock (Bulk) Carbonate

    C. Effects of Sample Handling on δ Values

    III. Cost Analysis and Turnaround Time

    IV. New Technological Developments

    4. The Tertiary Oxygen Isotope Record

    I. Development of the Tertiary Isotope Record

    II. Global δ180 Isotopic Changes in Tertiary Marine Carbonates

    III. Comparisons between the Nannofossil and Foraminiferal δ18О Records

    IV. Whole Rock (Bulk Sediment) Analyses and the Tertiary δ18О Record

    5. The Tertiary Carbon Isotope Record

    I. The Foraminiferal δ13C Record

    II. Comparison of the Foraminiferal Nannofossil and Bulk Sediment δ13C Records

    6. Detailed Studies of the Tertiary δ18O and δ13C Records by Epoch

    I. Pleistocene δ18O Records

    A. The Late Pleistocene δ18O Record (0-1.0 MYBP)

    B. Extension of δ18O Stratigraphy into the Pliocene

    C. Specific Application to the Gulf of Mexico

    D. Summary

    II. Pliocene Isotope Records

    Pliocene Carbon Isotope Records

    III. Miocene Isotope Records

    Miocene Carbon Isotope Records

    IV. Eocene and Oligocène Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Records

    A. Eocene-Oligocene Boundary Event

    B. Results from the Gulf of Mexico

    V. Isotope Records for the Paleocene and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary

    7. Stable Isotopic Evidence for and against Sea Level Changes during the Cenozoic

    I. Introduction

    II. Oxygen Isotopic Model for Cenozoic Sea Levels

    A. Timing of Global δ180 Events

    B. Magnitude of δ180 Inferred Sea Level Events

    C. Rates of δ180 and Sea Level Change

    III. δ180 Chronostratigraphy, Gulf Coast Regional Unconformities, and Eustatic Sea Levels of the Plio-Pleistocene of Offshore Gulf of Mexico

    IV. Conclusions and Recommendations

    8. Prospects for Applying Isotope Chronostratigraphy to Exploration Wells

    I. Neogene Examples

    A. The Gulf of Mexico

    B. Offshore California—The Miocene Monterey Formation

    II. Paleogene Examples

    A. Offshore California

    B. The Gulf of Mexico

    III. Mesozoic and Paleozoic Examples

    A. Cretaceous δ13C Events and Black Shales

    B. Correlation of Basinal Clastics in Permian Strata, Delaware Basin, West Texas

    C. Summary

    9. Paleobathymetric Models Using the δ180 of Foraminifera

    I. Basis of the Models

    II. Distinguishing Eustatic from Tectonic Changes in Paleodepth

    III. Distinguishing Uplift, Subsidence, and Progradation Changes in Paleodepth

    IV. Summary

    10. General Overview of the Empirical Approaches to Isotope Chronostratigraphy

    11. Quantitative Methods of Analysis: Theoretical Considerations

    12. Semblance Methods

    13. Filter and Deconvolution Techniques

    I. Least Squares Noise Minimization

    II. The Common Signal Minimization Problem

    III. The Location-Dependent Common Signal Problem

    IV. The Magnitude of the Signal Problem

    V. Maximum Likelihood

    VI. Prediction Filters

    A. The Fourier Transform of a Positive Function

    B. Extrapolating the Fourier Transform

    C. A Numerical Example

    D. Relation to Maximum Entropy

    VII. Relative Rates of Sedimentation

    VIII. Matched Filters

    14. Frequency Domain Methods

    I. Noise Frequency Spectra

    II. Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation Spectral Methods

    A. Autocorrelation Power Spectra

    B. Cross-Correlation Power Spectra

    C. Multiple Cross-Correlation Power Spectra

    III. Spectral Ratio Methods

    IV. Homomorphic Deconvolution

    A. Mathematical Framework

    B. Intrinsic Isotopic Signal Extraction Methods

    V. Phase Sensitive Detection of Isotopic Signals

    A. Basic Arguments

    B. Data Analysis Algorithms

    C. Discrete Time Model and Analysis

    15. Maximum Entropy and Q-Model Methods

    I. Unbiased MEM

    II. Biased MEM

    III. End Members and Linear Unmixing

    IV. Q-Model Types of Analysis

    A. QMODEL Family of Algorithms

    B. Nonconstant Sum

    V. Summary

    16. Numerical Examples and Case Histories

    17. Filter and Deconvolution Methods

    I. A Filter Response

    II. Mapping Function Deconvolution, Noise, and Nonlinearity

    18. Frequency Domain Methods

    I. Linear Interpolation and Power Spectra

    II. Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation in Time

    III. Window Effects on Power Spectra

    IV. Homomorphic Deconvolution

    V. Multispectral Wiener Filtering

    VI. Phase Sensitive Detection—Noise Analysis

    VII. Predictive Wiener Filtering

    19. Maximum Entropy Methods

    I. Unbiased MEM

    II. Biased MEM

    III. QMODEL, EXTENDED QMODEL, and FUZZY QMODEL Unmixing

    IV. End-Member Behaviors for EXTENDED and FUZZY QMODELS

    20. An Integrated Application of Multiple Techniques

    I. Signal Processing Strategy

    II. Brief Explanation of Data Processing Methods Depth-Time Conversions and Interpolative Filters

    III. Formulation of a TYPE Pleistocene δ18O Record with Time

    IV. Comparison of the TYPE Record with Other Pleistocene δ18O Records

    A. Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation

    B. Semblance Methods

    C. Power Spectra, Cross-Spectra, and Spectral Coherency

    V. Summary

    21. Summary

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 358
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1988
  • Published: June 28, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220611

About the Authors

Douglas F. Williams

Ian Lerche

C. Ian Lerche is the author of more than 500 papers and has received numerous awards, including the Levorsen Award of the AAPG, the Nordic Professorship inPetroleum Geology, and the French Academie des Sciences Professorship in Geology. He has been a professor of geology in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of South Carolina since 1984, and was associate chairman of the department 1985–1989. Between 1965–1981 he held positions of research associate, assistant professor, and associate professor at the University of Chicago. From 1981–1984 he worked as a senior scientist at Gulf Research and Development Co. He received a B.Sc. in physics in 1962 and a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1965 from the University of Manchester.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, U.S.A.

W. E. Full

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