Ion Exchange in Analytical Chemistry

Ion Exchange in Analytical Chemistry

International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Authors: William Rieman, Harold F. Walton
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483186511

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Description

Analytical Chemistry, Volume 38: Ion Exchange in Analytical Chemistry provides a broad survey of the important role that ion exchange can and should play in chemical analysis. This book focuses on the plate-equilibrium theory of chromatography, which is less difficult theoretically than the mass-transfer theory. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the earliest recorded application of ion exchange. This text then examines how high temperature affects ion-exchange resins. Other chapters consider the exchange of ions between a solid ion-exchanging material and a solution, which is a typically reversible reaction. This book describes as well the relatively simple separations and other applications of ion exchange to analytical chemistry. The final chapter deals with the interesting nature of the metal complexes formed within the exchanger and describe the use of ion-exchange distribution studies to determine the stability and nature of complexes existing in the solution. This book is a valuable resource for analytical chemists.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    A. History of Ion Exchange

    B. Synthesis of Ion-Exchange Resins

    I. Synthesis of Cation-Exchange Resins

    II. Synthesis of Anion-Exchange Resins

    III. Polyfunctionality of Polystyrene Resins

    C. List of Ion-Exchange Resins

    References

    Chapter 2 General Properties of Ion-exchange Resins

    A. Stability

    I. Thermal Stability

    II. Resistance to Reagents

    III. Resistance to Radiation

    IV. Mechanical Stability

    B. Equivalence of Exchange Reactions

    C. Reversibility of Ion-Exchange Reactions

    D. Conversion of the Resin from One Form to Another

    E. Titration Curves and Capacity

    I. Procedure for the Titration of a Resin

    II. Procedure for the Determination of Capacity

    F. Crosslinking and Swelling

    I. Measurement of Swelling

    II. Flotation Test for Uniformity of Crosslinking

    G. Donnan Equilibrium

    I. Sulphonated Polystyrene Resins

    II. Measurement of Donnan Invasion

    III. Strong-Base Anion-Exchange Resins

    H. Absorption of Nonelectrolytes

    I. Absorption or Adsorption

    I. Catalysis by Ion-Exchange Resins

    References

    Chapter 3 Ion-Exchange Equilibrium

    A. The Equilibrium Distribution

    I. The Selectivity Coefficient

    II. Partition Ratios

    III. Electroselectivity

    B. Thermodynamics of Ion Exchange

    I. The Equilibrium Constant

    II. Enthalpy and Entropy

    C. Ionic Selectivity

    I. Experimental Data

    II. Theoretical Treatment

    III. Resins as Nonaqueous Solvents

    D. Experimental Methods

    I. Shaking

    II. Tracer-Pulse and Concentration-Pulse Methods

    References

    Chapter 4 Ion-exchange Kinetics

    A. The Rate-Controlling Step

    B. Experimental Methods

    I. Shallow-Bed Method

    II. Limited-Bath Method

    III. Indicator Method

    C. Conditions that Influence the Rate

    I. Particle Size

    II. Diffusion Coefficient Inside the Resin

    III. Diffusion Coefficient in the Aqueous Film

    IV. Stirring

    V. Concentration of the Solution

    References

    Chapter 5 Nonchromatographic Applications

    A. Preparation, Care, and Use of an Ion-Exchange Column

    I. The Tube

    II. The Resin

    B. Preparation and Purification of Reagents

    I. Deionization

    II. Miscellaneous Ion-Exchange Methods for the Preparation and Purification of Reagents

    C. Removal of Interfering Constituents

    I. Removal of Interfering Cations

    II. Removal of Interfering Anions

    III. Miscellaneous Analytical Separations

    D. Determination of Total Salt

    I. Sources of Error

    II. Applications

    E. Dissolving Insoluble Salts

    I. Applications

    F. Concentrating Trace Constituents

    I. From Solutions Containing no Electrolyte in Large Concentration

    II. From Solutions Containing Large Concentrations of Electrolytes

    III. Microqualitative Spot Tests

    References

    Chapter 6 Theory of Ion-exchange Chromatography

    A. Subdivisions of Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    I. Ion-Exchange Elution Chromatography

    II. Ion-Exchange Frontal Chromatography

    III. Ion-Exchange Displacement Chromatography

    IV. Relative Advantages of the Three Methods

    B. Importance of Theoretical Considerations

    C. Plate Theory of Ion-Exchange Elution Chromatography

    I. History of the Plate Theory

    II. Assumptions of the Plate Theory

    III. Equation for the Peak Volume of an Elution Curve

    IV. Effect of Concentration of Eluent

    V. Effect of pH of Eluent

    VI. Effect of Complexing Agents in the Eluent

    VII. Equation of the Elution Curve

    VIII. Calculation of U* if the Eluent is Changed during the Elution

    IX. Width of Elution Curves

    X. Procedure for Developing a Method of Separation by Ion-Exchange Elution Chromatography

    D. Mass-Transfer or Continuous-Flow Plate Theory

    I. The Model of Glueckauf

    E. Tracer-Pulse and Concentration-Pulse Methods

    I. Relation Between Elution Volume and Partition Ratio

    II. The Tracer-Pulse Method

    III. The Concentration-Pulse Method

    References

    Chapter 7 Technique of Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    A. Preparation of the Column

    I. Size of Resin

    II. Evenness of Packing

    III. Determination of Void Volume and Exchange Capacity

    B. Performing the Elution

    I. Applying the Sample to the Column

    II. Maintenance of Flow Rate

    C. Analyzing the Effluent

    I. Fraction Collectors

    II. Chemical Analysis

    References

    Chapter 8 Applications of Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    A. Separation of Inorganic Ions

    I. Metals

    II. Nonmetals

    B. Separation of Organic Compounds

    I. Cations

    II. Anions

    III. Uncharged Molecules

    References

    Chapter 9 Salting-Out Chromatography and Related Methods

    A. Ion Exclusion

    B. Separations by Elution with Water or Dilute Aqueous Buffer Solutions

    C. Salting-Out Elution Chromatography

    I. Theory of Salting-Out Elution Chromatography

    II. Applications of Salting-Out Elution Chromatography

    D. Elution Chromatography with Mixed Solvents

    I. Elution Solubilization Chromatography

    II. Elutions of Very Hydrophilic Nonelectrolytes with Mixed Solvents

    III. Elutions with Dilute Buffers in Nonaqueous or Mixed Solvents

    IV. Salting-Out Elution Chromatography with Mixed Solvents

    E. Comparison with Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    I. Advantages of Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    II. Advantages of Chromatography Through Ion-Exchange Resins

    F. Frontal Liquid-Resin Chromatography

    References

    Chapter 10 Less Common Ion Exchangers

    A. Porous Resins

    I. Dowex 21K

    II. Macroreticular Resins

    III. Applications of Porous Resins

    B. Resins with Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    C. Ion-Retardation Resins

    D. Ion-Exchange Membranes

    I. Preparation of Ion-Exchange Membranes

    II. Properties of Ion-Exchange Membranes

    III. Applications of Ion-Exchange Membranes

    E. Inorganic Ion Exchangers

    I. Hydrous Oxides

    II. Salts of Multivalent Metals

    III. Salts of Heteropoly Acids

    IV. Molecular Sieves

    V. Other Inorganic Exchangers

    F. Liquid Ion Exchangers

    I. Liquid Anion Exchangers

    II. LiquiDd Cation Exchangers

    III. Desirable Properties

    IV. Comparison with Ion-Exchange Resins

    V. Theory

    VI. Applications of Liquid Ion Exchangers

    G. Ion-Exchange Paper

    I. Theory of Chromatography with Ion-Exchange Paper

    II. Ion-Exchange Cellulose

    III. Ion-Exchange-Resin Paper

    IV. Paper Impregnated with Inorganic Exchangers

    V. Paper Impregnated with Liquid Ion Exchangers

    VI. Comparison of Paper Chromatography with Column Chromatography

    H. Ion-Exchange Materials from Carbohydrates

    I. Preparation of Cellulosic Ion Exchangers

    II. Applications of Cellulosic Ion Exchangers

    I. Thin-Layer Chromatography

    I. Cellulosic Exchangers

    II. Ion-Exchange Resins

    III. Other Exchangers

    J. Chromatographic Resolution of Racemic Substances

    I. Optically Active Anion-Exchange Materials

    II. Optically Inactive Resins with Optically Active Counterions

    III. Chromatographic Separation of Diastereoisomers with an Optically Inactive Stationary Phase

    References

    Chapter 11 Study of Complex Ions

    A. Separation of Kinetically Stable Complexes

    B. Measurement of Stability Constants by Ion Exchange

    I. Equilibrium Studies with Cation-Exchange Resins

    II. Stability Constants by Paper Chromatography

    III. Resin Membranes

    IV. Anion-Exchange Resins

    C. Anionic Chloride Complexes

    D. Metal-Ammonia and Metal-Amine Complexes

    References

    Appendix. List of Symbols

    Table A.1

    Name Index

    Subject Index

    Other Titles in the Series

Product details

  • No. of pages: 310
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483186511

About the Authors

William Rieman

Harold F. Walton

About the Editors

R. Belcher

H. Freiser

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