Introductory Organic Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122807503, 9780323140911

Introductory Organic Chemistry

1st Edition

Authors: J.T. Gerig
eBook ISBN: 9780323140911
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 422
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Description

Introductory Organic Chemistry provides a descriptive overview of organic chemistry and how modern organic chemistry is practiced. Organic compounds such as alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, cycloalkenes, and alkynes are covered, along with aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds derived from water and hydrogen sulfide, and compounds derived from ammonia. This book also explores organic reaction mechanisms and describes the use of molecular spectroscopy in studying the chemical structure of organic complexes. This text consists of 15 chapters and begins with a discussion on some fundamental ideas about organic chemistry, from the electronic structure of atoms to molecular structure, molecular orbitals, hybridization of atomic orbitals in carbon, chemical equilibrium, enthalpy, and acids and bases. The chapters that follow focus on the compounds of carbon such as alkanes and cycloalkanes; benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons; amines and other heterocyclic molecules; aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids and their derivatives; nucleic acids; amino acids; peptides; and proteins. The use of instrumentation methods in organic chemistry, particularly mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is also considered. An account of the mechanisms of an organic reaction is presented, paying particular attention to displacement and elimination reactions. This book concludes with a commentary on how most of the amino acids, sugars, heterocyclic molecules, and fatty acids necessary for life processes could have been formed on Earth. This book is intended for nonmajors taking an introductory organic chemistry course of two quarters or one semester in length.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 A Review of Some Fundamental Ideas

Atoms

The Electronic Structure of Atoms

Molecular Structure

Molecular Orbitals

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals in Carbon

Chemical Equilibrium

Estimating Enthalpy Differences

Chemical Dynamics

Acids and Bases

Determination of the Structure of Organic Molecules

Problems

Suggested Readings

2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Alkanes

Structural Isomers

Nomenclature of Alkanes

Molecular Models

Conformational Isomers

Cyclohexanes

Conformations of Cyclohexane

Cis-Trans Geometrical Isomers in Cycloalkanes

Polycyclic Alkanes

Functional Groups

Physical Properties of Alkanes

Reactions of Alkanes

Problems

Suggested Readings

3 Alkenes, Cycloalkenes, and Alkynes

Alkenes

Cis-Trans Isomerization in Alkenes

Nomenclature for the Alkenes

Cycloalkenes

Nomenclature for the Cycloalkenes

Reactions

Addition Reactions

Reduction

Oxidation

Polymerization

Alkynes

Nomenclature for the Alkynes

Reactions of Alkynes

Problems

Suggested Readings

4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene

Nomenclature

Resonance Structures

Larger Aromatic Molecules

Reactions

Reduction and Oxidation

Electrophilic Substitution

Substituent Effects on Electrophilic Substitution

Problems

5 Molecular Spectroscopy and Chemical Structure I

Mass Spectrometry

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetism

Interaction of Molecules with Light

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra

The Chemical Shift

Quantitative Analysis

Spin-Coupling Constants

Problems

Suggested Readings

6 Compounds Derived from Water and Hydrogen Sulfide

Alcohols

Nomenclature

Phenols

Physical Properties

Reactions

Alcohols as Acids and Bases

Oxidation of Alcohols

Formation of Alkyl Halides

Elimination Reactions

Ethers

Reactions of Ethers

Peroxides

Derivatives of Hydrogen Sulfide

Thiols

Sulfides

Disulfides

Problems

Suggested Readings

7 Compounds Derived from Ammonia; Heterocyclic Molecules

Amines

Nomenclature

Physical Properties

Amines as Bases

Some Reactions of Amines

Nucleophilic Displacements

Nitrous Acid

Azo Compounds and Hydrazines

Heterocycles

Oxygen Heterocycles

Nitrogen Heterocycles

Reactions of Heterocycles

Alkaloids

Problems

Suggested Readings

8 Organic Reaction Mechanisms: Displacement and Elimination Reactions

Types of Organic Reactions

How are Mechanisms Determined?

Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

SN1 Reactions

SN2 Reactions

Elimination Reactions

α-Elimination

β-Elimination

Catalysis

Problems

Suggested Readings

9 Aldehydes and Ketones

Classes of Carbonyl Compounds

Nomenclature

Properties and Occurrence of Aldehydes and Ketones

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Additions

Addition with Elimination

Reduction Reactions

Oxidation of Aldehydes

Condensation Reactions

Halogenation

Quinones

Problems

Suggested Readings

10 Carbohydrates

Optical Isomerism

Asymmetric Carbon Atoms

Meso Compounds

Optical Rotation

Absolute Configuration

Specifying the Configuration of Asymmetric Atoms

Racemization

Diastereomers

Resolution

Monosaccharides

Reactions of Monosaccharides

Cyclic Forms of Glucose

Other Monosaccharide Derivatives

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

Celluose

Starch

Other Polysaccharides

Problems

Suggested Readings

11 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

Carboxylic Acids

Nomenclature

Substituent Effects on Acidity

Salts of Carboxylic Acids

Naturally Occurring Carboxylic Acids

Esters

Nomenclature

Occurrence of Esters

Amides

Nomenclature

Occurrence of Amides

Acid Halides

Acid Anhydrides

Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

Preparation of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

Inter conversion of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

Hydrolysis

Reduction Reactions

Condensation Reactions

Other Acids

Lipids

Waxes

Fats and Oils

Phospholipids

Problems

Suggested Readings

12 Molecular Spectroscopy and Chemical Structure II

Review of the Principles of Spectroscopy

Infrared Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy

Optical Rotatory Dispersion

X-Ray Crystallography

Problems

Suggested Readings

13 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

α-Amino Acids

Reactions of Amino Acids

Peptides

Cis-Trans Isomers at the Peptide Bond

Nomenclature

Structural Studies of Peptides

Synthesis of Polypeptides

Proteins

Classification of Proteins

Structural Studies of Proteins

Amino Acid Side Chain Interactions

Denaturation

Enzyme Action

Problems

Suggested Readings

14 Nucleic Acids

Purines and Pyrimidines

Some Reactions of Purines and Pyrimidines

Heterocycles Found in the Nucleic Acids

Nucleosides

Nucleotides

Nucleic Acids

Structural Features of DNA's

Structural Features of RNA's

The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis

Problems

Suggested Readings

15 Chemical Evolution

Amino Acids

Sugars

Purines, Pyrimidines, Porphyrins

Other Heterocycles

Fatty Acids

Dehydration and Polymerization

Formation of Proteins

Nucleic Acids

The Development of Complexity: Toward the Cell

Suggested Readings

Index


Details

No. of pages:
422
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323140911

About the Author

J.T. Gerig