Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding

Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding

2nd Edition - September 21, 1992

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  • Author: Kenneth Easterling
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483141664

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Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding deals primarily with the welding of steels, which reflects the larger volume of literature on this material; however, many of the principles discussed can also be applied to other alloys. The book is divided into four chapters, in which the middle two deal with the microstructure and properties of the welded joint, such as the weld metal and the heat-affected zone. The first chapter is designed to provide a wider introduction to the many process variables of fusion welding, particularly those that may influence microstructure and properties, while the final chapter is concerned with cracking and fracture in welds. A comprehensive case study of the Alexander Kielland North Sea accommodation platform disaster is also discussed at the end. The text is written for undergraduate or postgraduate courses in departments of metallurgy, materials science, or engineering materials. The book will also serve as a useful revision text for engineers concerned with welding problems in industry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the 1st Edition

    Preface to the 2nd Edition


    1. Fusion Welding - Process Variables

    Fusion Welding

    Principles of Consumable Development

    Absorption of Gases in the Weld Metal

    Nitrogen Absorption

    Hydrogen Absorption

    Composition of Welds

    Summary of Process Variables

    The Weld Thermal Cycle

    Heat-Flow Equations

    The Thermal Cycle of the Base Metal

    Refinements to Rosenthal's Heat Flow Equation

    Further Refinements to the Heat-Flow Equations

    Heat Flow in Electroslag Welding

    Weld Simulation

    Summary of Weld Thermal Cycle Results

    Residual Stresses in Welds

    Stresses and Strains Generated by Changes in Temperature

    Stresses Generated by the γ→α Phase Transformation

    Measurement of Residual Stresses in Welds

    Numerical Methods of Estimating Residual Stresses in Welds

    Summary of Residual Stress Work


    Further Reading

    2. The Weld Metal

    Characteristics of Weld Solidification

    Thermal Gradients and Turbulence in the Melt

    Geometry of the Weld Melt

    Epitaxial Solidification

    Crystal Growth and Segregation

    No Diffusion in Solid; Perfect Mixing in Liquid

    No Diffusion in Solid; Diffusional Mixing in Liquid

    Cellular and Dendritic Solidification in Welds

    Dendritic Growth in Single Crystal Welds of Stainless Steel

    Refining Weld Structures

    Phase Transformations during Cooling of the Weld Metal

    Kinetics of Phase Transformations

    Transformations in Duplex Stainless Steel Welds

    Transformations in Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Welds

    Role of Slag Inclusions in Transformation Kinetics

    Modeling the Microstructure and Properties of Weld Metals

    Weld Metal Toughness


    Further Reading

    3. The Heat-Affected Zone

    The Base Material

    The Base Metal's Carbon Equivalent

    The Heating Cycle


    The α→γ Phase Transformation

    Precipitate Stability

    Precipitate Coarsening during a Weld Thermal Cycle

    Precipitate Dissolution during a Weld Thermal Cycle

    Grain Growth

    Kinetics of Grain Growth

    Grain Growth during Welding, Assuming Particle Dissolution

    Grain Growth during Welding, Assuming Particle Coarsening

    Practical Considerations of Grain Growth and Grain Growth Control in the HAZ

    Reactions at the Fusion Line

    Transformations during Cooling

    Grain Growth Zone

    Grain Refined Zone

    Partially Transformed Zone

    Zone of Spheroidized Carbides

    Zone of 'Unchanged' Base Material

    The Heat-Affected Zone Microstructure of Oxide-Dispersed Steels

    Predicting the Microstructure and Properties of the HAZ

    Weld Simulation

    Hardness Measurements

    Weld CCT Diagrams

    Hardness Changes in Aluminum Alloy Welds

    Weld Microstructure Diagrams

    Grain Growth Diagrams

    Multi-Run Welds

    The Weld Metal

    The HAZ

    PC Software for Weldability Prediction


    Further Reading

    4. Cracking and Fracture in Welds

    Fracture Toughness

    Fracture Toughness Testing

    Solidification Cracking

    Solidification Structure


    Residual Stresses and Joint Geometry

    Mechanism of Solidification Cracking

    Liquation Cracking

    Lamellar Tearing

    Mechanism of Lamellar Tearing

    Cold Cracking

    Role of Hydrogen

    Role of Stress

    Role of Microstructure

    Mechanism of Cold Cracking

    Reheat Cracking

    Effect of Reheating on the Microstructure of a 0.5 Cr-Mo-V Alloy

    Mechanism of Reheat Cracking

    Case Study: The Alexander Kielland Disaster

    Construction of the Alexander Kielland

    The Construction and Fitting of the Sonar Flange Plate

    Capsize of the Alexander Kielland

    Metallographic Examination of the Sonar Flange Plate Welds

    Possible Effects of the Weld Thermal Cycle on the Bracing and Flange Plate Materials

    Mechanism of Failure: Main Conclusions


    Further Reading

    Appendix: Weld Cracking Tests and Weldability Formula


Product details

  • No. of pages: 282
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1992
  • Published: September 21, 1992
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483141664

About the Author

Kenneth Easterling

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