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Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780750603942, 9781483141664

Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding

2nd Edition

Author: Kenneth Easterling
eBook ISBN: 9781483141664
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 21st September 1992
Page Count: 282
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Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding deals primarily with the welding of steels, which reflects the larger volume of literature on this material; however, many of the principles discussed can also be applied to other alloys. The book is divided into four chapters, in which the middle two deal with the microstructure and properties of the welded joint, such as the weld metal and the heat-affected zone. The first chapter is designed to provide a wider introduction to the many process variables of fusion welding, particularly those that may influence microstructure and properties, while the final chapter is concerned with cracking and fracture in welds. A comprehensive case study of the Alexander Kielland North Sea accommodation platform disaster is also discussed at the end. The text is written for undergraduate or postgraduate courses in departments of metallurgy, materials science, or engineering materials. The book will also serve as a useful revision text for engineers concerned with welding problems in industry.

Table of Contents

Preface to the 1st Edition

Preface to the 2nd Edition


1. Fusion Welding - Process Variables

Fusion Welding

Principles of Consumable Development

Absorption of Gases in the Weld Metal

Nitrogen Absorption

Hydrogen Absorption

Composition of Welds

Summary of Process Variables

The Weld Thermal Cycle

Heat-Flow Equations

The Thermal Cycle of the Base Metal

Refinements to Rosenthal's Heat Flow Equation

Further Refinements to the Heat-Flow Equations

Heat Flow in Electroslag Welding

Weld Simulation

Summary of Weld Thermal Cycle Results

Residual Stresses in Welds

Stresses and Strains Generated by Changes in Temperature

Stresses Generated by the γ→α Phase Transformation

Measurement of Residual Stresses in Welds

Numerical Methods of Estimating Residual Stresses in Welds

Summary of Residual Stress Work


Further Reading

2. The Weld Metal

Characteristics of Weld Solidification

Thermal Gradients and Turbulence in the Melt

Geometry of the Weld Melt

Epitaxial Solidification

Crystal Growth and Segregation

No Diffusion in Solid; Perfect Mixing in Liquid

No Diffusion in Solid; Diffusional Mixing in Liquid

Cellular and Dendritic Solidification in Welds

Dendritic Growth in Single Crystal Welds of Stainless Steel

Refining Weld Structures

Phase Transformations during Cooling of the Weld Metal

Kinetics of Phase Transformations

Transformations in Duplex Stainless Steel Welds

Transformations in Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Welds

Role of Slag Inclusions in Transformation Kinetics

Modeling the Microstructure and Properties of Weld Metals

Weld Metal Toughness


Further Reading

3. The Heat-Affected Zone

The Base Material

The Base Metal's Carbon Equivalent

The Heating Cycle


The α→γ Phase Transformation

Precipitate Stability

Precipitate Coarsening during a Weld Thermal Cycle

Precipitate Dissolution during a Weld Thermal Cycle

Grain Growth

Kinetics of Grain Growth

Grain Growth during Welding, Assuming Particle Dissolution

Grain Growth during Welding, Assuming Particle Coarsening

Practical Considerations of Grain Growth and Grain Growth Control in the HAZ

Reactions at the Fusion Line

Transformations during Cooling

Grain Growth Zone

Grain Refined Zone

Partially Transformed Zone

Zone of Spheroidized Carbides

Zone of 'Unchanged' Base Material

The Heat-Affected Zone Microstructure of Oxide-Dispersed Steels

Predicting the Microstructure and Properties of the HAZ

Weld Simulation

Hardness Measurements

Weld CCT Diagrams

Hardness Changes in Aluminum Alloy Welds

Weld Microstructure Diagrams

Grain Growth Diagrams

Multi-Run Welds

The Weld Metal


PC Software for Weldability Prediction


Further Reading

4. Cracking and Fracture in Welds

Fracture Toughness

Fracture Toughness Testing

Solidification Cracking

Solidification Structure


Residual Stresses and Joint Geometry

Mechanism of Solidification Cracking

Liquation Cracking

Lamellar Tearing

Mechanism of Lamellar Tearing

Cold Cracking

Role of Hydrogen

Role of Stress

Role of Microstructure

Mechanism of Cold Cracking

Reheat Cracking

Effect of Reheating on the Microstructure of a 0.5 Cr-Mo-V Alloy

Mechanism of Reheat Cracking

Case Study: The Alexander Kielland Disaster

Construction of the Alexander Kielland

The Construction and Fitting of the Sonar Flange Plate

Capsize of the Alexander Kielland

Metallographic Examination of the Sonar Flange Plate Welds

Possible Effects of the Weld Thermal Cycle on the Bracing and Flange Plate Materials

Mechanism of Failure: Main Conclusions


Further Reading

Appendix: Weld Cracking Tests and Weldability Formula



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1992
21st September 1992
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Kenneth Easterling

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