Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124081338, 9780124167100

Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology

1st Edition

Authors: S. K. Haldar
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124081338
eBook ISBN: 9780124167100
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 20th November 2013
Page Count: 354
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Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology presents the essentials of both disciplines through an approach accessible to industry professionals, academic researchers, and students.

Mineralogy and petrology stand as the backbone of the geosciences. Detailed knowledge of minerals and rocks and the process of formation and association are essential for practicing professionals and advanced students. This book is designed as an accessible, step-by-step guide to exploring, retaining, and implementing the core concepts of mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, mining, and extraction. Each topic is fully supported by working examples, diagrams and full-color images. The inclusion of petroleum, gas, metallic deposits and economic aspects enhance the book’s value as a practical reference for mineralogy and petrology.

Authored by two of the world’s premier experts, this book is a must for any young professional, researcher, or student looking for a thorough and inclusive guide to mineralogy and petrology in a single source.

Key Features

  • Authored by two of the world’s experts in mineralogy and petrology, who have more than 70 years of experience in research and instruction combined
  • Addresses the full scope of the core concepts of mineralogy and petrology, including crystal structure, formation and grouping of minerals and soils, definition, origin, structure and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
  • Features more than 150 figures, illustrations, and color photographs to vividly explore the fundamental principles of mineralogy and petrology
  • Offers a holistic approach to both subjects, beginning with the formation of geologic structures followed by the hosting of mineral deposits and concluding with the exploration and extraction of lucrative, usable products to improve the health of global economies


The book is primarily aimed at economic geologists, mineralogists, petrologists, professional researchers, and government and private institution professionals.

A secondary audience includes instructors and students taking coursework in Pure and Applied Geology, Geography, Mining, Petroleum Engineering, Soil Geochemistry and Mineralogy and Petrology.

Table of Contents



List of Acronyms used in this Book




About the Author

Chapter 1. Rocks and Minerals


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Importance of Minerals and Rocks to Society

1.3 Minerals

1.4 Rocks

1.5 Mineral Resources

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Basic Mineralogy


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Internal Structure of Crystals and Their Properties

2.3 Chemical and Physical Properties of Minerals

2.4 Polymorphism and Isomorphism

2.5 Overview of the Main Rock Forming Minerals

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Basic Petrology


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Structure of the Earth

3.3 Classification of Rocks

3.4 Origin of Earth and Theory of Plate Tectonics

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Igneous Rocks


4.1 Origin of Igneous Rocks

4.2 Classification of Igneous Rocks

4.3 Main Group of Igneous Rocks and Their Composition

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Sedimentary Rocks


5.1 Function, Significance, Classification and Transformation

5.2 Sedimentary Rock Formation

5.3 Texture and Structure of Sedimentary Rocks

5.4 Classification of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

5.5 Clastic Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

5.6 Volcaniclastic Rock

5.7 Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Metamorphic Rocks


6.1 Origin and Structure of Metamorphic Rocks

6.2 Types of Metamorphism and Classification of Metamorphic Rocks

6.3 Rocks of Dynamic Metamorphism

6.4 Rocks of Contact Metamorphism

6.5 Rocks of Regional Metamorphism

6.6 Rocks of Plutonic Metamorphism

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Precipitation Systems of Major Sedimentary Bodies—Collector Rocks of Oil and Gas


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Main Forms of Collector Sedimentary Bodies in Clastites

7.3 Main Forms of Collector Sedimentary Bodies in Carbonate Rocks

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Mineral Deposits: Host Rocks and Origin


8.1 Definition

8.2 Classification of Minerals and Mineral Deposits

8.3 Host Rocks

8.4 Genetic Model

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Resource Assessment and Economic Parameters


9.1 Definition

9.2 Parameters

9.3 Estimation Procedure

9.4 Resource Classification

9.5 Mineral Economics

9.6 Overview

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Hazards of Minerals–Rocks and Sustainable Development


10.1 Definition

10.2 Natural Hazards

10.3 Hazards of Minerals

10.4 Hazards of Rocks

10.5 Hazards of Exploration

10.6 Hazards of Mining

10.7 Hazards of Mineral Beneficiation

10.8 Hazards of Smelting

10.9 Hazards of Refining

10.10 Sustainable Mineral Development

Further Reading




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About the Author

S. K. Haldar

1. Academic qualification: B. Sc (Hons) 1963, and M. Sc (Geology) 1965, Calcutta University, D. Sc, 1983, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. 2. Professional Affiliation: Life Member of Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India, Indian Geological Congress and Indian Society of Earth Sciences. 3. Work Experiences: 50 Yrs Professional and Academic Experience in oil and base-noble metal exploration and mining at various capacities at ESSO, Hindustan Copper Ltd, Hindustan Zinc Ltd, Anglo American (P) Ltd, Gold Stream Mining NL/ IMX Resource Ltd, Australia and BIL Infratech Ltd, Guest Faculty Sukhadia University Udaipur. 4. Exploration Projects and Mines visited abroad: His profession has often required visits and interaction with experts of zinc, lead, gold, tin, chromium, nickel and platinum mines and exploration camps of Australia-Tasmania, Canada, USA, Germany, Portugal, UK, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bangladesh and Nepal. 5. Research Projects as Principal Investigator (i) DST project in Geostatistical Applications, numerical processing, software development and derivation of parameters for mine planning of base metal deposits at IIT Kharagpur (1979-80) leading to PhD Degree (1983). (ii) DST project: HR/UR/22/2002 on “Exploration modeling for base / noble metals with special reference to sediment hosted Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag deposits in the northwestern Indian Shield” at Presidency College Kolkata (2003-06). (iii) DST Project: HR/UR/29/2007 on “Geology of Platinum-Nickel-Chromium mineralization: Resource evaluation and future potential”, at Presidency College, Kolkata (2008-2010). 6. Examination conducted: (i) Regular question papers for Mineral Exploration, Geo-statistics and Mining Geology for M. Sc Applies Geology of Sukharia University, Udaipur, Presidency University, Calcutta University, Indian School of Mines and Institution of Engineers. (ii) Examined 4 M. Sc Thesis of Delhi and Calcutta University. (iii) Examined including Viva of 5 PhD Thesis in Geostatistical Applications of Mineral Deposits at Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, IIT Mumbai and Kharagpur. 7. Current Assignments: Since 2003, Emeritus Scientist, Post Graduate Applied Geology teaching of Mineral Exploration at Presidency and Calcutta University, Kolkata, and industry related teaching at Indian school of Mines, Dhanbad. 8. Recipient: Dr. J. Coggin Brown Memorial (Gold) Medal for Geological Sciences (1993-94) by Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India. 9. Authored 3 books and 40 publications: 1. Haldar, SK. Exploration Modeling of Base Metal Deposits, Elsevier Publication; 2007, p. 227. 2. Haldar, SK, Mineral Exploration - Principles and Applications, Elsevier Publication; 2013, p. 374. 3. Haldar, SK and Josip Tišljar, Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology, Elsevier Publication; 2013, p. 356. Dr Haldar has a unique professional blend of mineral exploration, evaluation and mineral economics with an essence of classroom teaching of postgraduate students of two celebrity Universities over the last 1 decade. Annexure- I 1. Haldar, S. K., 2011, Platinum–Nickel-Chromium: Resource Evaluation and Future Potential Targets, IGC International Congress on New Paradigms of Exploration and Sustainable Mineral Development on Vision 2050, p. 67 - 82. 2. Haldar. S. K., 2010, Geostatistical Applications in Base Metal Deposits - A case Study, Science and Economics of Rocks - A Primer on Mineral geostatiscs, ed: Sarkar, B. C., pp. 95-109. 3. Haldar, S. K., 2009, The First Fifty Year’s Record and A New Beginning in Mineral Discovery in India with special Reference to Base Metals, in Shrivastava, K. L., eds., Economic Mineralization, Scientific Publisher (India), Jodhpur, pp. 442-450. 4. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Resource prediction model – Application of Zipf’s Law, National Seminar, Ore Body Modeling for Genesis, Predictive Metallogeny and Resource Analysis”, Udaipur, (Abstract), pp. 10-11 5. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Investment, Risk and Sensitivity Analyses in Exploration Regime, Executive Development Program, ISM University, Dhanbad. 6. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Base and noble metals in northwestern Indian Shield : Essence of stratigraphy and tectonics in mineral search, International conference on tectonics of the Indian Subcontinent (TOIS), Indian Association for Gondwana Research Conference Series 5, Institute of Technology, Mumbai, (Abstract Volume, pp 90-91. 7. Haldar, S. K., 2007, Exploration Optimisation Using Geostatistics - A Case Study of Sequential Evaluation, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, pp 88-94. 8. Haldar, S. K., 2007, Orebody Modelling : Geostatistical assessment of Mine sub-block and grade forecast system – A case study, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, pp.80-87, 9. Haldar, S. K., 2006, Concepts of deposit – orebody modelling with case study of Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Rajasthan, (Abstract), National Seminar on “Evaluation of Mineral Resources of India”, 8th National Convention of Association of Economic Geologists, at Visakapatnam in March ’06, pp. 2. 10. Haldar, S. K., 2005c, Exploration Modeling for Base and Noble Metals with special reference to Sediment hosted lead-zinc-copper gold Deposits in the Northwestern Indian Shield, DST Project HR/ UR/2002,176p. 11. Haldar, S. K., 2005b, Exploration Modeling for sediment hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits in the Northwestern Indian shield – A logical dynamic approach, National seminar on “Mineral exploration, mining and mineral beneficiation : A road map to VISION 2020”, Mining Engineers’ Association of India, Tamilnadu Chapter, pp. 66–84. 12. Haldar, S. K., 2005a, Exploration Modeling of Proterozoic sediment hosted Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation – logical dynamic approach with case study of Rampura Agucha deposit, Rajasthan, Journal of Economic Geology and Georesource Management, v. 2, no. 1 & 2, pp. 47-70. 13. Haldar, S. K., 2004, Grade and Tonnage Relationships in Sediment-hosted Lead-Zinc Suphide Deposits of Rajasthan, India, in Deb, M., and Goodfellow, W. D., eds., Sediment hosted Lead-Zinc Sulphide Deposits : attributes and models of some major deposits in India, Australia and Canada: Narosa Publishing House, N. Delhi, pp. 264–272. 14. Haldar, S.K., 2001, Grade Tonnage Model for Lead-Zinc Deposits of Rajasthan, India, International Workshop on Deposit Modeling Program by UNESCO-IUGS, New Delhi, December 2001, pp.153-160. 15. Haldar, S.K., & Dev,M., 2001, Geology and Mineralisation of Rajpura-Dariba-Lead-Zinc Belt, Rajasthan, International Workshop on Deposit Modeling Program by UNESCO-IUGS, New Delhi, December 2001, pp.177-188. 16. Choudhary, K.S, & Haldar, S.K., 2001, Sindesar Khurd- A New Mine in Rajpura Dariba Belt, HINDZINC TECH, January 2001, pp.3-11. 17. Haldar, S.K., 1999, Environmental Implications of Mineral Exploitations, Proceedings National Conference on Dimensions of Environmental Stress in India, M.S. University, VADODARA, pp. 227-228. 18. Haldar, S.K., 1998, Deposit Modelling – An Overview, IVth Refresher Course on Concepts in the Formation of Mineral Deposits and Prospect Targeting, GSI, 14 – 27th July ’98, 7p. 19. Haldar, S.K., 1996, Computer –Based Geostatistical Assessment for Exploration Data for Optimisation, Estimation of Mine Sub-Block and Grade Forecast System at Rampura Agucha Mine, India, International Course on “Modern Technologies for Mineral Resources Assessment and Management”, I.G.C., U.O.R., Roorkee, December ’95-January’96, 8p. 20. Haldar, S.K., 1995, Computer Based Technical Computing in Geology and Mine Planning – Hardware and Software Scenario in National and International Area, VIIIth National Convention of Mining Engineers, Ins. of Eng., 24-26th Nov.’95, pp.1-3. 21. Lahiri, D., Haldar, S.K., 1993, Technical Computing in Geology, Mining and Beneficiation at Hindustan Zinc Limited -An overview, Indian Conference on Computer Applications in Mineral Industry, ICCAMI-93, P.147-154. 22. Krishnamurty, G.R., Upmanyu, K.G., Haldar, S.K., 1992, Computer & Communication in Hindustan Zinc Limited- An overview, HINDZINC TECH, v. 4, no. 2, 20p. 23. Haldar, S.K., Paliwal, H.V., Bhatnagar, S.N., 1992, Computerised Geostatistical assessment of Exploration Data for Sample Optimisation and Estimation of Mine Subblock - A case study of Rampura-Agucha Lead-Zinc Deposit, India; in Sarkar, S. C., eds., Metallogeny Related to Tectonics of the Proterozoic Mobile Belts, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd., pp. 339-360. 24. Haldar, Swapan K., Chaudhry Manoj, 1991, Computer Aided Orebody Modelling - An Integrated Approach for Mine Planning at Hindustan Zinc Limited, 1992, Computer society of India, National Conference, CAMPI-92, pp. B28-B35. 25. Haldar, S.K., 1991, Orebody modelling of Rampura-Agucha mine- A key note address, Regional Workshop on Mineral Deposit Modelling, ISM, Dhanbad, December 1991. 26. Bhatnagar, S.N., Mathur, S.B., Haldar, S.K., 1990, Exploration Practices at HZL, HINDZINC TECH, v. 2, no. 2, pp. 4-23. 27. Haldar, S.K., Bhatnagar, S.N., Paliwal, H.V., 1990, Application of geostatistics to exploration data for sample optimisation, mine sub-block estimation and grade forecast system at Rampura-Agucha lead-zinc mine, India, XXII APCOM-90, 11 P., Berlin, West Germany. 28. Bhatnagar, S.N., Haldar, S.K., Chaudhry, M., 1989, Computer based ore reserve system - mine sub-block geostatistics related to large tonnage mechanised lead-zinc mines of Hindustan Zinc Limited, International Conference on Base Metals Technology, February 1989, Jamshedpur, India, pp. 21-34. 29. Viswanath, U., Jani, S.R., Haldar, S.K., 1988, Exploration and exploitation problems of the cross folded lead deposit of Bandalamottu, Guntur district (AP), ILZIC Silver Jubilee Conference, New Delhi, pp. 341-348. 30. Bhatnagar, S.N., Haldar, S.K., 1988, Planning for base metal exploration - A case history of Rampura-Agucha Lead-Zinc Deposit, Diamond Jubilee National Symposium on Development of India's mineral and fuel resources: Geological and Environment Aspects, ISM Dhanbad. 31. Bhatnagar, S.N., Haldar, S.K., 1987, Sequential evaluation model of phased exploration data leading to sample optimisation - A case study of Rampura-Agucha Zinc-Lead Deposit, India, CIM Bulletin, v. 80, no. 906, pp. 56-60. 32. Paliwal, H.V., Bhatnagar, S.N., & Haldar, S.K., 1986, Lead-Zinc Resources Prediction in India-An application of Zipf's Law; Mathematical Geology, v.18, no.6, pp. 539-549 33. Bhatnagar, S.N., Khamesra, G.S., & Haldar, S.K., 1984, Lead-Zinc resources and development in India; Symposium on Significant Discoveries of Geology for Mineral Industries, Min. Geo. and Meta. Inst. of India, Calcutta, pp. II 42-59. 34. Haldar, S.K., Rao., N.V.R.S., 1983, Sequential evaluation of exploration data by statistical and geostatistical modelling leading to optimisation; Proceedings of Workshop on Geo-modelling, IIT, Bombay, pp. 222-231. 35. Haldar, S. K., 1982, A Study of the Balaria Base Metals Deposit, Zawar Group of Mines, Rajasthan, Using Numerical Procedures with Special Reference to Derivation of Parameters for Mine Planning, Unpublished PhD Thesis, IIT, Kharagpur, 641p. 36. Haldar, S.K., Roy, R.N., and Sen, R., 1981, Distinctive features in the geological set-up of the Indian base metal deposits; Frieb Orsch. - H.C. 364, Herg, Recter Der Bergakedemie Freiberg Leipzig: Veb Deutscher Verlag Fur Grundstoff Industrie 1981, Topical report of Iagod, v. X-1980, pp.25- 31. 37. Kala, P.P., & Haldar, S.K., 1981, Computer based ore reserve system at Zawar Mines, International Seminar on Lead, Zinc and Cadmium, Nov. 1981, Indian Lead Zinc Information Centre, New Delhi, pp. A17-A24.H 38. Haldar, S.K., 1980, Selection of cut-off during mine planning and its relation to techno- economic modeling; Indian Jour. of Earth Science, v. 7, no. 1, pp. 76-81. 39. Haldar, S.K., 1967, Geology of the chromite deposits occurring in the area around Sukarangi, Cuttack District, Orissa, Geol., Mining and Metallurgical Society of India, v.39, no.1, pp.59-61. 40. Haldar, S. K., 1965, Geology of the Area around Sukarangi, Cuttack District, Orissa, with Special Reference to its Economic Resources, Unpublished M. Sc Thesis, Calcutta University, 94p.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Scientist, Department of Applied Geology and Environmental System Management, Presidency College, Kolkata, India, and Exploration Consultant, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Hindustan Copper Limited, and ESSO Standard Eastern Inc.