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Introduction to Hydrometeorology is the study of the hydrolic cycle, which is the circulation of water from the seas, into the atmosphere, and back to either land or sea.
This book describes hydrometeorology or the application of meteorology to problems that pertain to hydrology, and then discusses the approach, through meteorology, to the solution of hydrologic problems. This text outlines observation methods on the subject and discusses the applications of hydrometeorology to problems encountered in the study of river and lake behaviors. Topics include precipitation, melting of ice, streamflows, lakes, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The frequently used methods in analysis, such as employing statistics to hydrometereological problems, precipitation analysis, and streamflow routing are explained. This text also shows how extending streamflow records can be helpful in predicting the regime or course of a stream in the future. Records of seasonal and annual flow, flood runoff, peak discharge, as well as seasons of low flow and drought become useful tools in estimating the frequency and magnitude of streamflows. After which, the book discusses possible engineering designs in irrigation, storm sewers, and reservoirs. The text looks into the ways how human has influenced the hydrologic cycle through induced precipitation, melting of ice covers, and urbanization. Lastly, some climactic trends and cycles that bring about climate change and water resource development are discussed.
This text can be used by students studying hydrology and those with meteorology majors. This book can also be read by meteorologists, environmentalists, and people working in general earth sciences.
Plan of Text—Units, Problems
Stability of Air
Lifting Mechanisms—Fronts, Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Orography, Air Mass Showers, Hurricanes
Sources of Moisture for Precipitation
3 Melting of Snow and Ice
Metamorphosis of a Snow Pack
Total Melt Computations
Sources of Streamflow
The Runoff Process
The Components of Streamflow
Drainage Area Determination
Variations in Runoff Régimes
5 Evaporation and Evapotranspiration
Mass Transfer Approach
Energy Balance Approach
Application of Energy Balance Equation
Influence of Surface
Eddy Fluctuation Approach
Evaporation from Snow and Ice
6 Observational Methods and Networks
Precipitation and Precipitation Intensity—Problems in Measuring Point Precipitation, Non-Recording and Recording Precipitation Gauges, Weather Radar
Streamflow—Measurement of Water Levels, Selection of Gauge Site, Discharge Measurements, Computation of Streamflow Data
Evaporation—Evaporation Measurements, Indirect Methods
Other Parameters—Well-Water Levels, Water Temperatures, Soil Moisture, Meteorological Factors
Gauge Networks—Precipitation Stations, Streamflow Stations
7 Lakes and Reservoirs
Wind Effects—Set-up, Seiches, Waves, Currents and Littoral Drift
Temperature Régime of Lakes and Reservoirs—Energy Balance, Temperature versus Depth, Surface Temperatures
Ice Formation and Dissipation
8 Frequently Used Analysis Methods
Statistical Analysis—Some Useful Statistical Terms, Correlation Analysis, Extreme Value Frequency Analysis, Double Mass Curve Analysis
Precipitation Analysis—Areal Precipitation from Point Values, Depth-Area-Duration Analysis of Storm Precipitation, Point Rainfall Analysis, Relationship of Point to Areal Rainfall
Streamflow Analysis—The Hydrograph, Base Flow Recession, Hydrograph Separation, The Unit Hydrograph, The Distribution Graph, The S-Curve Hydrograph, Synthetic Unit Hydrographs
9 Extending Streamflow Records
Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Flow Volumes—Record Extension by Streamflow Data, Record Extension by Meteorological Data
Flood Runoff and Peak Discharge
Extending or Synthesizing the Daily Flow Record
Low Flow and Drought
10 Applications in Engineering Design Problems
Reservoir Design—Storage Capacity, Design Floods, Design Storms, Snowmelt Contributions to Probable Maximum Floods, Conversion of Critical Meteorological Conditions to Design Floods
Irrigation Water Requirements
Storm Sewer and Local Drainage Design
Design of Lake Structures
11 River Forecasting
Headwaters and Small Rivers—Development of Correlations, Forecasts Involving Snowmelt, Time Distribution of Runoff, Further Development of Headwater Forecasting Techniques
Large Rivers—Peak Stage Relations, Hydrograph Translation
Forecasting Ice Formation and Dissipation—Frazil Ice, Sheet Ice
12 Man's Influence on the Hydrologic Cycle
Changes in Vegetation—Drainage-Basin Studies, Present State of Knowledge
Induced Melting of Snow and Ice Covers
Effects of Urbanization—Effects on Climate, Effects on Streamflow
13 Climatic Trends and Cycles
Long Term Climatic Trends
Recent Climatic Trends
Theories of Climatic Changes
Implications in Water Resource Development
Appendix A Table of Conversion Factors
Appendix B Problems
Appendix C Bibliography
- No. of pages:
- © Pergamon 1966
- 1st January 1966
- eBook ISBN:
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