Introduction to Hydrometeorology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080117140, 9781483135823

Introduction to Hydrometeorology

1st Edition

Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies

Authors: J. P. Bruce R. H. Clark
eBook ISBN: 9781483135823
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 334
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Description

Introduction to Hydrometeorology is the study of the hydrolic cycle, which is the circulation of water from the seas, into the atmosphere, and back to either land or sea.
This book describes hydrometeorology or the application of meteorology to problems that pertain to hydrology, and then discusses the approach, through meteorology, to the solution of hydrologic problems. This text outlines observation methods on the subject and discusses the applications of hydrometeorology to problems encountered in the study of river and lake behaviors. Topics include precipitation, melting of ice, streamflows, lakes, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The frequently used methods in analysis, such as employing statistics to hydrometereological problems, precipitation analysis, and streamflow routing are explained. This text also shows how extending streamflow records can be helpful in predicting the regime or course of a stream in the future. Records of seasonal and annual flow, flood runoff, peak discharge, as well as seasons of low flow and drought become useful tools in estimating the frequency and magnitude of streamflows. After which, the book discusses possible engineering designs in irrigation, storm sewers, and reservoirs. The text looks into the ways how human has influenced the hydrologic cycle through induced precipitation, melting of ice covers, and urbanization. Lastly, some climactic trends and cycles that bring about climate change and water resource development are discussed.
This text can be used by students studying hydrology and those with meteorology majors. This book can also be read by meteorologists, environmentalists, and people working in general earth sciences.

Table of Contents


Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

Hydrometeorology

Objectives

Plan of Text—Units, Problems

2 Precipitation

Stability of Air

Lifting Mechanisms—Fronts, Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Orography, Air Mass Showers, Hurricanes

Cloud Physics

Sources of Moisture for Precipitation

3 Melting of Snow and Ice

Metamorphosis of a Snow Pack

Melting Factors

Total Melt Computations

4 Streamflow

Sources of Streamflow

The Runoff Process

Infiltration

The Components of Streamflow

Drainage Area Determination

Variations in Runoff Régimes

5 Evaporation and Evapotranspiration

Mass Transfer Approach

Energy Balance Approach

Application of Energy Balance Equation

Influence of Surface

Eddy Fluctuation Approach

Evaporation from Snow and Ice

6 Observational Methods and Networks

Precipitation and Precipitation Intensity—Problems in Measuring Point Precipitation, Non-Recording and Recording Precipitation Gauges, Weather Radar

Streamflow—Measurement of Water Levels, Selection of Gauge Site, Discharge Measurements, Computation of Streamflow Data

Evaporation—Evaporation Measurements, Indirect Methods

Snow Cover

Other Parameters—Well-Water Levels, Water Temperatures, Soil Moisture, Meteorological Factors

Gauge Networks—Precipitation Stations, Streamflow Stations

7 Lakes and Reservoirs

Water Balance

Wind Effects—Set-up, Seiches, Waves, Currents and Littoral Drift

Temperature Régime of Lakes and Reservoirs—Energy Balance, Temperature versus Depth, Surface Temperatures

Ice Formation and Dissipation

8 Frequently Used Analysis Methods

Statistical Analysis—Some Useful Statistical Terms, Correlation Analysis, Extreme Value Frequency Analysis, Double Mass Curve Analysis

Precipitation Analysis—Areal Precipitation from Point Values, Depth-Area-Duration Analysis of Storm Precipitation, Point Rainfall Analysis, Relationship of Point to Areal Rainfall

Streamflow Analysis—The Hydrograph, Base Flow Recession, Hydrograph Separation, The Unit Hydrograph, The Distribution Graph, The S-Curve Hydrograph, Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

Streamflow Routing

9 Extending Streamflow Records

Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Flow Volumes—Record Extension by Streamflow Data, Record Extension by Meteorological Data

Flood Runoff and Peak Discharge

Extending or Synthesizing the Daily Flow Record

Low Flow and Drought

10 Applications in Engineering Design Problems

Reservoir Design—Storage Capacity, Design Floods, Design Storms, Snowmelt Contributions to Probable Maximum Floods, Conversion of Critical Meteorological Conditions to Design Floods

Irrigation Water Requirements

Storm Sewer and Local Drainage Design

Design of Lake Structures

11 River Forecasting

Headwaters and Small Rivers—Development of Correlations, Forecasts Involving Snowmelt, Time Distribution of Runoff, Further Development of Headwater Forecasting Techniques

Large Rivers—Peak Stage Relations, Hydrograph Translation

Water Supply

Forecasting Ice Formation and Dissipation—Frazil Ice, Sheet Ice

12 Man's Influence on the Hydrologic Cycle

Changes in Vegetation—Drainage-Basin Studies, Present State of Knowledge

Induced Precipitation

Induced Melting of Snow and Ice Covers

Evaporation Control

Effects of Urbanization—Effects on Climate, Effects on Streamflow

13 Climatic Trends and Cycles

Long Term Climatic Trends

Recent Climatic Trends

Theories of Climatic Changes

Implications in Water Resource Development

Appendix A Table of Conversion Factors

Appendix B Problems

Appendix C Bibliography

Index


Details

No. of pages:
334
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483135823

About the Author

J. P. Bruce

R. H. Clark