Introduction to Hydrometeorology

Introduction to Hydrometeorology

Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Authors: J. P. Bruce, R. H. Clark
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135823

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Description

Introduction to Hydrometeorology is the study of the hydrolic cycle, which is the circulation of water from the seas, into the atmosphere, and back to either land or sea. This book describes hydrometeorology or the application of meteorology to problems that pertain to hydrology, and then discusses the approach, through meteorology, to the solution of hydrologic problems. This text outlines observation methods on the subject and discusses the applications of hydrometeorology to problems encountered in the study of river and lake behaviors. Topics include precipitation, melting of ice, streamflows, lakes, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The frequently used methods in analysis, such as employing statistics to hydrometereological problems, precipitation analysis, and streamflow routing are explained. This text also shows how extending streamflow records can be helpful in predicting the regime or course of a stream in the future. Records of seasonal and annual flow, flood runoff, peak discharge, as well as seasons of low flow and drought become useful tools in estimating the frequency and magnitude of streamflows. After which, the book discusses possible engineering designs in irrigation, storm sewers, and reservoirs. The text looks into the ways how human has influenced the hydrologic cycle through induced precipitation, melting of ice covers, and urbanization. Lastly, some climactic trends and cycles that bring about climate change and water resource development are discussed. This text can be used by students studying hydrology and those with meteorology majors. This book can also be read by meteorologists, environmentalists, and people working in general earth sciences.

Table of Contents


  • Acknowledgments

    1 Introduction

    Hydrometeorology

    Objectives

    Plan of Text—Units, Problems

    2 Precipitation

    Stability of Air

    Lifting Mechanisms—Fronts, Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Orography, Air Mass Showers, Hurricanes

    Cloud Physics

    Sources of Moisture for Precipitation

    3 Melting of Snow and Ice

    Metamorphosis of a Snow Pack

    Melting Factors

    Total Melt Computations

    4 Streamflow

    Sources of Streamflow

    The Runoff Process

    Infiltration

    The Components of Streamflow

    Drainage Area Determination

    Variations in Runoff Régimes

    5 Evaporation and Evapotranspiration

    Mass Transfer Approach

    Energy Balance Approach

    Application of Energy Balance Equation

    Influence of Surface

    Eddy Fluctuation Approach

    Evaporation from Snow and Ice

    6 Observational Methods and Networks

    Precipitation and Precipitation Intensity—Problems in Measuring Point Precipitation, Non-Recording and Recording Precipitation Gauges, Weather Radar

    Streamflow—Measurement of Water Levels, Selection of Gauge Site, Discharge Measurements, Computation of Streamflow Data

    Evaporation—Evaporation Measurements, Indirect Methods

    Snow Cover

    Other Parameters—Well-Water Levels, Water Temperatures, Soil Moisture, Meteorological Factors

    Gauge Networks—Precipitation Stations, Streamflow Stations

    7 Lakes and Reservoirs

    Water Balance

    Wind Effects—Set-up, Seiches, Waves, Currents and Littoral Drift

    Temperature Régime of Lakes and Reservoirs—Energy Balance, Temperature versus Depth, Surface Temperatures

    Ice Formation and Dissipation

    8 Frequently Used Analysis Methods

    Statistical Analysis—Some Useful Statistical Terms, Correlation Analysis, Extreme Value Frequency Analysis, Double Mass Curve Analysis

    Precipitation Analysis—Areal Precipitation from Point Values, Depth-Area-Duration Analysis of Storm Precipitation, Point Rainfall Analysis, Relationship of Point to Areal Rainfall

    Streamflow Analysis—The Hydrograph, Base Flow Recession, Hydrograph Separation, The Unit Hydrograph, The Distribution Graph, The S-Curve Hydrograph, Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

    Streamflow Routing

    9 Extending Streamflow Records

    Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Flow Volumes—Record Extension by Streamflow Data, Record Extension by Meteorological Data

    Flood Runoff and Peak Discharge

    Extending or Synthesizing the Daily Flow Record

    Low Flow and Drought

    10 Applications in Engineering Design Problems

    Reservoir Design—Storage Capacity, Design Floods, Design Storms, Snowmelt Contributions to Probable Maximum Floods, Conversion of Critical Meteorological Conditions to Design Floods

    Irrigation Water Requirements

    Storm Sewer and Local Drainage Design

    Design of Lake Structures

    11 River Forecasting

    Headwaters and Small Rivers—Development of Correlations, Forecasts Involving Snowmelt, Time Distribution of Runoff, Further Development of Headwater Forecasting Techniques

    Large Rivers—Peak Stage Relations, Hydrograph Translation

    Water Supply

    Forecasting Ice Formation and Dissipation—Frazil Ice, Sheet Ice

    12 Man's Influence on the Hydrologic Cycle

    Changes in Vegetation—Drainage-Basin Studies, Present State of Knowledge

    Induced Precipitation

    Induced Melting of Snow and Ice Covers

    Evaporation Control

    Effects of Urbanization—Effects on Climate, Effects on Streamflow

    13 Climatic Trends and Cycles

    Long Term Climatic Trends

    Recent Climatic Trends

    Theories of Climatic Changes

    Implications in Water Resource Development

    Appendix A Table of Conversion Factors

    Appendix B Problems

    Appendix C Bibliography

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 334
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135823

About the Authors

J. P. Bruce

R. H. Clark

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