Introduction to Food Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126463804, 9780323138123

Introduction to Food Engineering

1st Edition

Authors: Paul Singh
eBook ISBN: 9780323138123
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th October 1984
Page Count: 318
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Introduction to Food Engineering deals with the engineering concepts in food processing employing a unit operations approach. The book focuses on mass and energy balances, fluid flow, energy utilization, refrigeration, heat transfer, food freezing, evaporation, dehydration, and psychometrics. It is in line with primary topics recommended by the Institute of Food Technologists of the U.S.A. The text reviews some concepts related to food science such as the equation of state and perfect gas law, laws of thermodynamics, and conservation of mass. The book also discusses the transport of liquid foods and the three types of utilities used in food processing: 1) steam generation and utilization; 2) natural gas utilization; and 3) electric power utilization. The text explains how to determine the properties of food and the different approaches that can be used to obtain the food's thermal properties prior to using the proper heat-exchange equipment. Food preservation also involves freezing (direct or indirect contact systems), evaporation, dehydration, and psychometrics (involving thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures). The book is suitable for nutritionists, food technologists, advanced under-graduate and beginning graduate students in food science and technology, and professionals whose works are in the food processing, research, and preservation industry.

Table of Contents



1. Introduction

1.1 Dimensions

1.2 Engineering Units

1.3 System

1.4 Properties

1.5 Equation of State and Perfect

1.6 Phase Diagram of Water

1.7 Pressure

1.8 Enthalpy

1.9 Laws of Thermodynamics

1.10 Conservation of Mass

1.11 Energy

1.12 Conservation of Energy

1.13 Density

1.14 Work

1.15 Power


List of Symbols


2. Transport of Liquid Foods

2.1 Liquid Transport Systems

2.2 Properties of Liquids

2.3 Flow Characteristics

2.4 Mechanical Energy Balance

2.5 Flow Measurement


List of Symbols


3. Energy for Food Processing

3.1 Generation of Steam

3.2 Fuel Utilization

3.3 Electric Power Utilization


List of Symbols


4. Heat Transfer in Food Processing

4.1 Systems for Heating and Cooling Food Products

4.2 Thermal Properties of Foods

4.3 Modes of Heat Transfer

4.4 Applications of Steady-State Heat Transfer

4.5 Unsteady-State Heat Transfer


List of Symbols


5. Refrigeration

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Selection of a Refrigerant

5.3 Components of Refrigeration System

5.4 Pressure-Enthalpy Charts

5.5 Mathematical Expressions Useful in the Analysis of Vapor-Compression Refrigeration


List of Symbols


6. Food Freezing

6.1 Freezing Systems

6.2 Freezing Time

6.3 Frozen-Food Storage


List of Symbols


7. Evaporation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Boiling-Point Elevation

7.3 Types of Evaporators

7.4 Design of a Single-Effect Evaporator

7.5 Design of a Multiple-Effect Evaporator

7.6 Vapor Recompression Systems


List of Symbols


8. Psychrometrics

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Properties of Dry Air

8.3 Properties of Water Vapor

8.4 Properties of Air-Vapor Mixtures

8.5 The Psychrometric Chart


List of Symbols


9. Food Dehydration

9.1 Basic Drying Processes

9.2 Dehydration Systems

9.3 Dehydration System Design


List of Symbols



A.1 SI System of Units and Conversion Factors

Table A.1.1 SI Prefixes

Table A.1.2 Useful Conversion Factors

Table A.1.3 Conversion Factors for Pressure

A.2 Physical Properties of Foods

Table A.2.1 Specific Heats of Foods

Table A.2.2 Thermal Conductivity of Selected Food Products

Table A.2.3 Thermal Diffusivity of Some Foodstuffs

Table A.2.4 Viscosity of Liquid Foods

Table A.2.5 Properties of Ice as a Function of Temperature

Table A.2.6 Approximate Heat Evolution Rates of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables When Stored at Temperatures Shown

Table A.2.7 Enthalpy of Frozen Foods

A.3 Physical Properties of Nonfood Materials

Table A.3.1 Physical Properties of Metals

Table A.3.2 Physical Properties of Nonmetals

A.4 Physical Properties of Water and Air

Table A.4.1 Physical Properties of Water at the Saturation Pressure

Table A.4.2 Properties of Saturated Steam

Table A.4.3 Properties of Superheated Steam (Steam Table)

Table A.4.4 Physical Properties of Dry Air at Atmospheric Pressure

A.5 A Psychrometric Chart

A. 6 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 12




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© Academic Press 1984
Academic Press
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About the Author

Paul Singh

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