Introduction to Carbon Science

Introduction to Carbon Science

1st Edition - October 30, 1989

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  • Authors: Ian A. S. Edwards, Harry Marsh, Rosa Menendez
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140599

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Introduction to Carbon Science deals with various aspects of carbon science, from polymer science and prosthetics to crystallography, carbonization, spectroscopy, and surface science. Topics covered include the mechanisms of formation of isotropic and anisotropic carbons, physical properties of pitch relevant to the fabrication of carbon materials; kinetics and catalysis of carbon gasification; and porosity in carbons and graphites. Carbon fibers, cokes and composites, and coal to coke transformations are also discussed. This book is comprised of nine chapters and begins with an overview of the basic structural features of carbon materials, along with definitions of the various carbon forms encountered in carbon science. The principal techniques for studying the structure of solid carbons are also considered. The reader is then introduced to the mechanisms underlying the formation of isotropic and anisotropic carbons; the physicochemical changes that take place when pitch is pyrolyzed to carbon; and kinetics and catalysis of carbon gasification reactions. The following chapters explore various types of porosity in carbons and graphites; manufacture, properties, structure, and applications of carbon fibers; and mechanical properties of cokes and composites. This text concludes by describing the conversion of coal to coke. This monograph will be of interest to carbon scientists, technologists, and engineers, as well as those entering the field of carbon science for the first time.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    An Introduction to Authors

    Chapter 1 Structure in Carbons and Carbon Forms


    1 Introduction - Setting the Scene

    1.1 The Element Carbon

    1.2 Bonding in Carbon Materials

    1.3 Diamond and Graphite - Perfect Structure

    2 Order/Disorder

    2.1 More-ordered Structures

    2.2 Less-ordered Structures

    2.3 Range of Order

    3 Carbon Forms

    3.1 Graphitic Carbons (Natural and Synthetic Graphites)

    3.2 Non-graphitic Carbons and Graphitization

    3.3 Graphitizable and Non-graphitizable Carbons

    3.4 Pitches

    3.5 Cokes

    3.6 Coals

    3.7 Carbon Fibers

    3.8 Other Carbon Materials

    4 Composites

    4.1 Graphitic Composites

    4.2 Carbon Electrodes

    4.3 Carbon/Carbon Composites

    5 Methods of Studying Carbon Structure

    5.1 Optical Microscopy

    5.2 Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM)

    5.3 X-ray Diffraction

    5.4 Raman Spectroscopy

    5.5 Surface Techniques

    6 Factors in Carbon Structures

    7 Conclusions

    7.1 The Diversity of Carbon


    Chapter 2 Mechanisms of Formation of Isotropic and Anisotropic Carbons


    1 Introduction

    2 Isotropic Carbon

    3 Graphitizable Carbon - The Problem

    3.1 Background

    3.2 Mesophase: Early Recognition

    3.3 Nematic Liquid Crystals

    3.4 Structure in Liquid Crystals

    3.5 Nucleation of Mesophase

    3.6 Structure within Mesophase

    4 Chemistry and Viscosity of Pyrolysis Systems

    4.1 Growth and Properties of Mesophase: Summary

    4.2 Aspects of Mesophase Chemistry

    4.3 Mesophase Growth and Coalescence

    4.4 Carbons/Cokes from Mesophase from Pitch

    5 Mesophase from Coal

    5.1 Metallurgical Coke

    5.2 Coal Chemistry

    5.3 Mesophase Formation during Coal Pyrolysis


    Chapter 3 Physical Properties of Pitch Relevant to the Fabrication of Carbon Materials


    1 Introduction

    2 Origins and Composition of Pitch

    2.1 Coal-tar Pitch

    2.2 Petroleum Pitch

    2.3 Solubility as a Characterization Technique

    2.4 Chemical Characteristics

    2.5 Mesogenic Character of Pitch

    3 Structure of Pitch

    3.1 Pitch as a Glassy Solid

    3.2 Pitch as a Colloidal System

    3.3 Paniculate Inclusions

    4 Rheological Properties of Pitch

    4.1 Newtonian and non-Newtonian Flow

    4.2 Effect of Temperature on the Viscosity Coefficient

    4.3 Measurement of the Glass Transition Temperature

    4.4 Factors Determining the Glass Transition Temperature and other Reference Temperatures

    4.5 Effect of Particulate Matter on Rheology

    4.6 Mesophase Rheology

    5 Pyrolysis of Pitch

    5.1 Transformation Diagrams

    5.2 Uses of the Transformation Diagram

    5.3 Experimental Diagram

    6 Pitch as a Binder and Matrix Material in Engineering Materials

    6.1 Effect on Porosity

    6.2 Surface Activity of Pitch

    7 Electrical Conductivity


    Chapter 4 Kinetics and Catalysis of Carbon Gasification


    1 Introduction

    2 The Nature of Carbon Surfaces

    3 Reactivity of Carbon

    3.1 Selective Gasification

    4 Reaction Kinetics and Mechanisms

    4.1 Chemical and Diffusion Control of Rate

    4.2 Reaction Rates

    4.3 Chemisorption and Desorption

    4.4 Importance of Active Surface Area (ASA) to Reactivity

    4.5 Concept of Reactivity

    5 The Carbon-Molecular Oxygen Reaction

    6 The Carbon-Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    7 The Carbon-Steam Reaction

    8 The Carbon-Oxides of Nitrogen Reaction

    9 The Carbon-Hydrogen Reaction

    10 Comparison of Carbon Gasification Reactions

    11 Catalysis of Oxidation Reactions

    11.1 Effects of Catalysts on Reaction Kinetics

    11.2 Mechanisms of Catalysis

    11.3 Understanding of Catalysis by Oxygen-transfer Reactions

    11.4 Topography of Catalytic Gasification

    12 Inhibition of the Gas-Carbon Reaction


    Chapter 5 Porosity in Carbons and Graphites


    1 Introduction

    1.1 Classifications of Porosity

    1.2 Some Examples of Porosity in Carbons and Graphites

    2 Effects of Porosity on Properties of Carbons

    3 Densities of Carbons

    4 Surface Areas from Gas Adsorption

    4.1 Experimental Methods

    4.2 The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Theory

    4.3 Fractal Surfaces of Carbons

    5 Surface Areas from Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    5.1 The Debye Equation

    5.2 The Porod Law

    5.3 The Guinier Equation

    6 Microporous Carbons

    6.1 Adsorption in Microporous Carbons

    6.2 Calculations of Adsorption Potentials

    6.3 Application of the BET Equation to Microporous Carbons

    6.4 The Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) Equation

    6.5 Estimations of the Dimensions of Micropores

    7 Mesoporous Carbons

    7.1 The Kelvin Equation

    7.2 Limitations of the Kelvin Equation

    8 Macroporous Carbons

    8.1 Mercury Porosimetry

    8.2 Fluid Transport in Pores

    8.3 Image Analysis


    Chapter 6 Carbon Fibers: Manufacture, Properties, Structure and Applications


    1 Introduction

    1.1 History

    1.2 General Properties

    2 Preparation

    2.1 Carbon Fibers from PAN

    2.2 Carbon Fibers from Mesophase Pitch

    3 Tensile Properties

    3.1 Tensile Modulus

    3.2 Tensile Strength

    3.3 Practical Properties of Carbon Fibers

    4 Structure

    4.1 Wide-angle X-ray Diffraction

    4.2 Small-angle X-ray Diffraction

    4.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy

    4.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy

    4.5 Micro-structure

    5 Fracture Mechanisms

    5.1 Tensile Failure

    5.2 Flexural Failure

    5.3 Compressive Strength

    6 Applications

    6.1 Composite Properties

    6.2 Aerospace Uses

    6.3 Non-aerospace Uses

    6.4 Future Trends


    Chapter 7 Mechanical Properties of Cokes and Composites


    1 Introduction

    2 Nature of Cokes and Composites

    2.1 Types of Cokes

    2.2 Influence of Production Conditions on Coke Properties

    2.3 Types of Composites

    3 Mechanical Properties

    3.1 Deformation and Elastic Properties

    3.2 Failure

    3.3 Brittle Fracture

    3.4 Fatigue

    3.5 Abrasion and Wear

    3.6 Effects of Temperature

    3.7 Effects of rate of loading

    4 Test Procedures

    5 Composite Materials

    6 Theoretical Considerations

    6.1 The Griffith Concept

    6.2 Interfacial Aspects

    6.3 Statistical Aspects

    7 Structural Considerations

    7.1 Influence of Porosity in Cokes

    7.2 Carbon Texture in Cokes

    7.3 Micro-structure and Fracture in Cokes and Composites

    7.4 Fractography

    8 Conclusions


    Chapter 8 The Nature of Coal Material


    1 Introduction

    2 Occurrence of Coal

    2.1 Distribution

    2.2 Coal Seam Properties

    3 Bulk Properties and Chemical Structure

    3.1 Chemistry

    3.2 Thermal and Fluid Properties

    3.3 Coking Properties

    3.4 Chemical Structure

    4 Coal Composition

    4.1 The Maceral Concept

    4.2 Vitrinite Macerals

    4.3 Liptinite Macerals

    4.4 Inertinite Macerals

    5 Coal Rank

    5.1 Coalification

    5.2 Commercial Classifications by Rank

    6 Problems Peculiar to Coal as a Material

    6.1 Sampling

    6.2 Mineral Matter

    6.3 Weathering


    Chapter 9 Coal to Coke Transformation


    1 Introduction

    1.1 History of Coke Making

    1.2 The by-product Battery

    1.3 By-products from Coking

    2 Theories of Carbonization

    2.1 Solvent Extraction Theory

    2.2 Transient Fusion Theory

    2.3 Precursors of the Metaplast Theory

    2.4 Metaplast Theory

    2.5 Liquid Crystal Theory

    2.6 Liquefaction Theory

    3 Origin of Coal

    4 Coal Classification

    5 Coking in a Single Coal Particle

    5.1 Coke Cenosphere

    5.2 Mesophase Concept

    5.3 Role of Plastic Layer in Coking

    5.4 Thermal Transformation of Coal Macerals(Anthrathermotics)

    6 Rheological Properties of Coal

    7 Coal Petrography

    8 Coke Strength Prediction

    9 Coke Petrography

    10 Coke Pore and Wall Structure

    11 Coal Blends for Coke Making and Blast Furnace Coke Properties

    11.1 Coal Blend

    11.2 Carbonization Variables

    11.3 Coke Strength Determinations

    11.4 Coking Pressure

    12 Coke in the Blast Furnace

    12.1 Coke Reactivity

    12.2 Petrographic Strength Predictions for Foundry Coke

    12.3 Formed Coke

    12.4 Pre-heating

    12.5 Co-carbonization


Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1989
  • Published: October 30, 1989
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140599

About the Authors

Ian A. S. Edwards

Harry Marsh

Affiliations and Expertise

North Shields, UK

Rosa Menendez

About the Editor

Harry Marsh

Affiliations and Expertise

North Shields, UK

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