Introduction to Carbon Science - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408038379, 9781483140599

Introduction to Carbon Science

1st Edition

Authors: Ian A. S. Edwards Harry Marsh Rosa Menendez
Editors: Harry Marsh
eBook ISBN: 9781483140599
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 30th October 1989
Page Count: 348
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Description

Introduction to Carbon Science deals with various aspects of carbon science, from polymer science and prosthetics to crystallography, carbonization, spectroscopy, and surface science. Topics covered include the mechanisms of formation of isotropic and anisotropic carbons, physical properties of pitch relevant to the fabrication of carbon materials; kinetics and catalysis of carbon gasification; and porosity in carbons and graphites. Carbon fibers, cokes and composites, and coal to coke transformations are also discussed. This book is comprised of nine chapters and begins with an overview of the basic structural features of carbon materials, along with definitions of the various carbon forms encountered in carbon science. The principal techniques for studying the structure of solid carbons are also considered. The reader is then introduced to the mechanisms underlying the formation of isotropic and anisotropic carbons; the physicochemical changes that take place when pitch is pyrolyzed to carbon; and kinetics and catalysis of carbon gasification reactions. The following chapters explore various types of porosity in carbons and graphites; manufacture, properties, structure, and applications of carbon fibers; and mechanical properties of cokes and composites. This text concludes by describing the conversion of coal to coke. This monograph will be of interest to carbon scientists, technologists, and engineers, as well as those entering the field of carbon science for the first time.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Acknowledgments

An Introduction to Authors

Chapter 1 Structure in Carbons and Carbon Forms

Summary

1 Introduction - Setting the Scene

1.1 The Element Carbon

1.2 Bonding in Carbon Materials

1.3 Diamond and Graphite - Perfect Structure

2 Order/Disorder

2.1 More-ordered Structures

2.2 Less-ordered Structures

2.3 Range of Order

3 Carbon Forms

3.1 Graphitic Carbons (Natural and Synthetic Graphites)

3.2 Non-graphitic Carbons and Graphitization

3.3 Graphitizable and Non-graphitizable Carbons

3.4 Pitches

3.5 Cokes

3.6 Coals

3.7 Carbon Fibers

3.8 Other Carbon Materials

4 Composites

4.1 Graphitic Composites

4.2 Carbon Electrodes

4.3 Carbon/Carbon Composites

5 Methods of Studying Carbon Structure

5.1 Optical Microscopy

5.2 Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM)

5.3 X-ray Diffraction

5.4 Raman Spectroscopy

5.5 Surface Techniques

6 Factors in Carbon Structures

7 Conclusions

7.1 The Diversity of Carbon

References

Chapter 2 Mechanisms of Formation of Isotropic and Anisotropic Carbons

Summary

1 Introduction

2 Isotropic Carbon

3 Graphitizable Carbon - The Problem

3.1 Background

3.2 Mesophase: Early Recognition

3.3 Nematic Liquid Crystals

3.4 Structure in Liquid Crystals

3.5 Nucleation of Mesophase

3.6 Structure within Mesophase

4 Chemistry and Viscosity of Pyrolysis Systems

4.1 Growth and Properties of Mesophase: Summary

4.2 Aspects of Mesophase Chemistry

4.3 Mesophase Growth and Coalescence

4.4 Carbons/Cokes from Mesophase from Pitch

5 Mesophase from Coal

5.1 Metallurgical Coke

5.2 Coal Chemistry

5.3 Mesophase Formation during Coal Pyrolysis

References

Chapter 3 Physical Properties of Pitch Relevant to the Fabrication of Carbon Materials

Summary

1 Introduction

2 Origins and Composition of Pitch

2.1 Coal-tar Pitch

2.2 Petroleum Pitch

2.3 Solubility as a Characterization Technique

2.4 Chemical Characteristics

2.5 Mesogenic Character of Pitch

3 Structure of Pitch

3.1 Pitch as a Glassy Solid

3.2 Pitch as a Colloidal System

3.3 Paniculate Inclusions

4 Rheological Properties of Pitch

4.1 Newtonian and non-Newtonian Flow

4.2 Effect of Temperature on the Viscosity Coefficient

4.3 Measurement of the Glass Transition Temperature

4.4 Factors Determining the Glass Transition Temperature and other Reference Temperatures

4.5 Effect of Particulate Matter on Rheology

4.6 Mesophase Rheology

5 Pyrolysis of Pitch

5.1 Transformation Diagrams

5.2 Uses of the Transformation Diagram

5.3 Experimental Diagram

6 Pitch as a Binder and Matrix Material in Engineering Materials

6.1 Effect on Porosity

6.2 Surface Activity of Pitch

7 Electrical Conductivity

References

Chapter 4 Kinetics and Catalysis of Carbon Gasification

Summary

1 Introduction

2 The Nature of Carbon Surfaces

3 Reactivity of Carbon

3.1 Selective Gasification

4 Reaction Kinetics and Mechanisms

4.1 Chemical and Diffusion Control of Rate

4.2 Reaction Rates

4.3 Chemisorption and Desorption

4.4 Importance of Active Surface Area (ASA) to Reactivity

4.5 Concept of Reactivity

5 The Carbon-Molecular Oxygen Reaction

6 The Carbon-Carbon Dioxide Reaction

7 The Carbon-Steam Reaction

8 The Carbon-Oxides of Nitrogen Reaction

9 The Carbon-Hydrogen Reaction

10 Comparison of Carbon Gasification Reactions

11 Catalysis of Oxidation Reactions

11.1 Effects of Catalysts on Reaction Kinetics

11.2 Mechanisms of Catalysis

11.3 Understanding of Catalysis by Oxygen-transfer Reactions

11.4 Topography of Catalytic Gasification

12 Inhibition of the Gas-Carbon Reaction

References

Chapter 5 Porosity in Carbons and Graphites

Summary

1 Introduction

1.1 Classifications of Porosity

1.2 Some Examples of Porosity in Carbons and Graphites

2 Effects of Porosity on Properties of Carbons

3 Densities of Carbons

4 Surface Areas from Gas Adsorption

4.1 Experimental Methods

4.2 The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Theory

4.3 Fractal Surfaces of Carbons

5 Surface Areas from Small Angle X-ray Scattering

5.1 The Debye Equation

5.2 The Porod Law

5.3 The Guinier Equation

6 Microporous Carbons

6.1 Adsorption in Microporous Carbons

6.2 Calculations of Adsorption Potentials

6.3 Application of the BET Equation to Microporous Carbons

6.4 The Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) Equation

6.5 Estimations of the Dimensions of Micropores

7 Mesoporous Carbons

7.1 The Kelvin Equation

7.2 Limitations of the Kelvin Equation

8 Macroporous Carbons

8.1 Mercury Porosimetry

8.2 Fluid Transport in Pores

8.3 Image Analysis

References

Chapter 6 Carbon Fibers: Manufacture, Properties, Structure and Applications

Summary

1 Introduction

1.1 History

1.2 General Properties

2 Preparation

2.1 Carbon Fibers from PAN

2.2 Carbon Fibers from Mesophase Pitch

3 Tensile Properties

3.1 Tensile Modulus

3.2 Tensile Strength

3.3 Practical Properties of Carbon Fibers

4 Structure

4.1 Wide-angle X-ray Diffraction

4.2 Small-angle X-ray Diffraction

4.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy

4.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy

4.5 Micro-structure

5 Fracture Mechanisms

5.1 Tensile Failure

5.2 Flexural Failure

5.3 Compressive Strength

6 Applications

6.1 Composite Properties

6.2 Aerospace Uses

6.3 Non-aerospace Uses

6.4 Future Trends

References

Chapter 7 Mechanical Properties of Cokes and Composites

Summary

1 Introduction

2 Nature of Cokes and Composites

2.1 Types of Cokes

2.2 Influence of Production Conditions on Coke Properties

2.3 Types of Composites

3 Mechanical Properties

3.1 Deformation and Elastic Properties

3.2 Failure

3.3 Brittle Fracture

3.4 Fatigue

3.5 Abrasion and Wear

3.6 Effects of Temperature

3.7 Effects of rate of loading

4 Test Procedures

5 Composite Materials

6 Theoretical Considerations

6.1 The Griffith Concept

6.2 Interfacial Aspects

6.3 Statistical Aspects

7 Structural Considerations

7.1 Influence of Porosity in Cokes

7.2 Carbon Texture in Cokes

7.3 Micro-structure and Fracture in Cokes and Composites

7.4 Fractography

8 Conclusions

References

Chapter 8 The Nature of Coal Material

Summary

1 Introduction

2 Occurrence of Coal

2.1 Distribution

2.2 Coal Seam Properties

3 Bulk Properties and Chemical Structure

3.1 Chemistry

3.2 Thermal and Fluid Properties

3.3 Coking Properties

3.4 Chemical Structure

4 Coal Composition

4.1 The Maceral Concept

4.2 Vitrinite Macerals

4.3 Liptinite Macerals

4.4 Inertinite Macerals

5 Coal Rank

5.1 Coalification

5.2 Commercial Classifications by Rank

6 Problems Peculiar to Coal as a Material

6.1 Sampling

6.2 Mineral Matter

6.3 Weathering

References

Chapter 9 Coal to Coke Transformation

Summary

1 Introduction

1.1 History of Coke Making

1.2 The by-product Battery

1.3 By-products from Coking

2 Theories of Carbonization

2.1 Solvent Extraction Theory

2.2 Transient Fusion Theory

2.3 Precursors of the Metaplast Theory

2.4 Metaplast Theory

2.5 Liquid Crystal Theory

2.6 Liquefaction Theory

3 Origin of Coal

4 Coal Classification

5 Coking in a Single Coal Particle

5.1 Coke Cenosphere

5.2 Mesophase Concept

5.3 Role of Plastic Layer in Coking

5.4 Thermal Transformation of Coal Macerals(Anthrathermotics)

6 Rheological Properties of Coal

7 Coal Petrography

8 Coke Strength Prediction

9 Coke Petrography

10 Coke Pore and Wall Structure

11 Coal Blends for Coke Making and Blast Furnace Coke Properties

11.1 Coal Blend

11.2 Carbonization Variables

11.3 Coke Strength Determinations

11.4 Coking Pressure

12 Coke in the Blast Furnace

12.1 Coke Reactivity

12.2 Petrographic Strength Predictions for Foundry Coke

12.3 Formed Coke

12.4 Pre-heating

12.5 Co-carbonization

References

Details

No. of pages:
348
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483140599

About the Author

Ian A. S. Edwards

Harry Marsh

Affiliations and Expertise

North Shields, UK

Rosa Menendez

About the Editor

Harry Marsh

Affiliations and Expertise

North Shields, UK