Internet Congestion Control - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128035832, 9780128036006

Internet Congestion Control

1st Edition

Authors: Subir Varma
eBook ISBN: 9780128036006
Paperback ISBN: 9780128035832
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 17th August 2015
Page Count: 286
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Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms.

The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of application domains such as Data Center Networks, Video Streaming, High Speed Links and Broadband Wireless Networks. When seen through the lens of analytical modeling, there are a number of common threads that run through the design and analysis of congestion control protocols in all these different areas, which are emphasized in this book. The book also cuts a path through the profusion of algorithms in the literature, and puts the topic on a systematic and logical footing.

Internet Congestion Control provides practicing network engineers and researchers with a comprehensive and accessible coverage of analytical models of congestion control algorithms, and gives readers everything needed to understand the latest developments and research in this area.

Key Features

  • Examines and synthesizes the most important developments in internet congestion control from the last 20 years.
  • Provides detailed description on the congestion control protocols used in four key areas; broadband wireless networks, high speed networks with large latencies, video transmission networks, and data center networks.
  • Offers accessible coverage of advanced topics such as Optimization and Control Theory as applied to congestion control systems.


Network engineers and researchers and graduate students in Computer Networking, Telecommunications, and Electrical Engineering.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • About the Author
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Basics of Congestion Control
    • 1.3 Description of TCP Reno
    • 1.4 Network Feedback Techniques
    • 1.5 Delay-Based Congestion Control: TCP Vegas
    • 1.6 Outline of the Rest of the Book
    • 1.7 Further Reading
    • References
  • Part 1: Theory
    • Chapter 2. Analytic Modeling of Congestion Control
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 TCP Throughput Analysis
      • 2.3 A Fluid Flow Model for Congestion Control
      • 2.4 A Stochastic Model for Congestion Control
      • 2.5 Why Does the Square-Root Formula Work Well?
      • 2.6 The Case of Multiple Parallel TCP Connections
      • 2.7 Further Reading
      • Appendix 2.A Derivation of Q=min(1,3/E(W))
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
    • Chapter 3. Optimization and Control Theoretic Analysis of Congestion Control
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Congestion Control Using Optimization Theory
      • 3.3 Generalized TCP–Friendly Algorithms
      • 3.4 Stability Analysis of TCP with Active Queue Management
      • 3.5 The Averaging Principle (AP)
      • 3.6 Implications for Congestion Control Algorithms
      • 3.7 Further Reading
      • Appendix 3.A Linearization of the Fluid Flow Model
      • Appendix 3.B The Nyquist Stability Criterion
      • Appendix 3.C Transfer Function for the RED Controller
      • Appendix 3.D Convex Optimization Theory
      • Appendix 3.E A General Class of Utility Functions
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
  • Part 2: Applications
    • Chapter 4. Congestion Control in Broadband Wireless Networks
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Wireless Access Architecture and Issues
      • 4.3 Split-Connection TCP
      • 4.4 Algorithms to Improve Performance Over Lossy Links
      • 4.5 Link-Level Error Correction and Recovery
      • 4.6 The Bufferbloat Problem in Cellular Wireless Systems
      • 4.7 Some Design Rules
      • 4.8 Further Reading
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
    • Chapter 5. Congestion Control in High-Speed Networks
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Design Issues for High-Speed Protocols
      • 5.3 High Speed TCP (HSTCP) Protocol
      • 5.4 TCP BIC and CUBIC
      • 5.5 The Compound TCP (CTCP) Protocol
      • 5.6 The Fast TCP Protocol
      • 5.7 The eXpress Control Protocol (XCP)
      • 5.8 The Rate Control Protocol (RCP)
      • 5.9 Stability of High-Speed TCP Algorithms
      • 5.10 Further Reading
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
    • Chapter 6. Flow Control for Video Applications
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Video Delivery Over Packet Networks
      • 6.3 HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS)
      • 6.4 The Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) Algorithm
      • 6.5 Description of Some Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) Algorithms
      • 6.6 The Problem with TCP Throughput Measurements
      • 6.7 Interaction Between TCP and ABR
      • 6.8 Further Reading
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
    • Chapter 7. Congestion Control in Data Center Networks
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Data Center Architecture and Traffic Patterns
      • 7.3 Data Center TCP (DCTCP)
      • 7.4 Deadline-Aware Congestion Control Algorithms
      • 7.5 Load Balancing over Multiple Paths with Multipath TCP (MPTCP)
      • 7.6 The Incast Problem in Data Center Networks
      • 7.7 Further Reading
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
    • Chapter 8. Congestion Control in Ethernet Networks
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Differences between Switched Ethernet and IP Networks
      • 8.3 Objectives of the Quantum Congestion Notification Algorithm
      • 8.4 Quantum Congestion Notification Algorithm Description
      • 8.5 Quantum Congestion Notification Stability Analysis
      • 8.6 Further Reading
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Emerging Topics in Congestion Control
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Machine Learning and Congestion Control: Project Remy
      • 9.3 Software Defined Networks and Congestion Control
      • 9.4 The Google Congestion Control (GCC) Algorithm
      • Appendix 9.A Kalman Filtering
      • References
      • Suggested Reading
  • Index


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© Morgan Kaufmann 2015
Morgan Kaufmann
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About the Author

Subir Varma

Subir has over twenty years of experience in the technology industry, during which he has held leadership positions for large companies such as IBM and Sprint, as well several Silicon Valley based start-ups. At IBM he was part of the design team for IBM’s next generation broadband architecture and his contribution to improving the performance of IBM’s host based protocol stack led to an IBM Outstanding Innovation Award. He served as Director of Systems Architecture at Cable Modem pioneer Hybrid Networks where his design for the Medium Access Control protocol enabled the company to establish an early lead in the MMDS metro area wireless space. While at Hybrid, he also took part in the drafting of the DOCSIS Cable Model specification. He was the co-founder and CTO/VP of Engineering at Aperto Networks, a pioneer in the Broadband Wireless space, where he was the Chief Designer of its Packetwave line of products. His work at Aperto led to the creation of the industry’s leading wireless access system, that was 5+ years ahead of the rest of the competition. Subsequently through his chairing of the IEEE 802.16 MAC standards group, this design had a big influence on the WiMAX specification, which in turn influenced the design of LTE, which is the leading cellular wireless protocol in use today. Most recently Subir was part of the Office of the CTO at Tellabs where he led the company's architectural efforts in the area of broadband wireless gateways. Among the projects that he contributed to, included a design for an LTE-WiFi Gateway and a Software Define Networking based architecture for the LTE packet core.

Subir holds 45 patents which along with his other publications, have been cited over 800 times. His most cited works are in the areas of Congestion Control, Packet Scheduling/BW Management, Mobility and Medium Access Control. His graduate work on Fork-Join and Re-sequencing queueing systems has found recent applications in the areas of RAID systems, vertical search engines and parallel databases. Subir holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park and a B.Tech. in Electrical Engineering from IIT Kanpur, India.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director,Catapulse Technology Associates, Palo Alto, CA


"…algorithms are presented in detail and insights on their operation are discussed in a clear manner, making the book very useful to people that are interested in the algorithmic aspects and are willing to skip the technical analysis. As such, the book is useful to advances undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to practicing engineers and scientists, and to researchers."  - Leonidas Georgiadis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki


"I think this book distinguishes itself very well in the way it first approaches and then dives into the topic of congestion control.... There is a whole range of algorithms and traffic domains and trying to make sense of so many areas in a coherent manner is a daunting task.  The book approaches this challenge in a  top down fashion which works out very well in the end....All the content is there that is needed to make anyone interested a reasonable expert in the area." -Ashish Gupta, Senior Software Engineer, Google Inc.

Ratings and Reviews