Intel Xeon Phi Processor High Performance Programming

Intel Xeon Phi Processor High Performance Programming

Knights Landing Edition

2nd Edition - May 31, 2016

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  • Authors: James Jeffers, James Reinders, Avinash Sodani
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128091944
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128091951

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Intel Xeon Phi Processor High Performance Programming is an all-in-one source of information for programming the Second-Generation Intel Xeon Phi product family also called Knights Landing. The authors provide detailed and timely Knights Landingspecific details, programming advice, and real-world examples. The authors distill their years of Xeon Phi programming experience coupled with insights from many expert customers — Intel Field Engineers, Application Engineers, and Technical Consulting Engineers — to create this authoritative book on theessentials of programming for Intel Xeon Phi products. Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processor High-Performance Programming is useful even before you ever program a system with an Intel Xeon Phi processor. To help ensure that your applications run at maximum efficiency, the authors emphasize key techniques for programming any modern parallel computing system whether based on Intel Xeon processors, Intel Xeon Phi processors, or other high-performance microprocessors. Applying these techniques will generally increase your program performance on any system and prepareyou better for Intel Xeon Phi processors.

Key Features

  • A practical guide to the essentials for programming Intel Xeon Phi processors
  • Definitive coverage of the Knights Landing architecture
  • Presents best practices for portable, high-performance computing and a familiar and proven threads and vectors programming model
  • Includes real world code examples that highlight usages of the unique aspects of this new highly parallel and high-performance computational product
  • Covers use of MCDRAM, AVX-512, Intel® Omni-Path fabric, many-cores (up to 72), and many threads (4 per core)
  • Covers software developer tools, libraries and programming models
  • Covers using Knights Landing as a processor and a coprocessor


Software engineers, High Performance and Super Computing developers, scientific researchers in need of high-performance computing resources

Table of Contents

  • Foreword

    • Extending the Sports Car Analogy to Higher Performance
    • What Exactly Is The Unfair Advantage?
    • Peak Performance Versus Drivable/Usable Performance
    • How Does The Unfair Advantage Relate to This Book?
    • Closing Comments


    • Sports Car Tutorial: Introduction for Many-Core Is Online
    • Parallelism Pearls: Inspired by Many Cores
    • Organization
    • Structured Parallel Programming
    • What’s New?

    Section I: Knights Landing


    Chapter 1: Introduction

    • Abstract
    • Introduction to Many-Core Programming
    • Trend: More Parallelism
    • Why Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processors Are Needed
    • Processors Versus Coprocessor
    • Measuring Readiness for Highly Parallel Execution
    • What About GPUs?
    • Enjoy the Lack of Porting Needed but Still Tune!
    • Transformation for Performance
    • Hyper-Threading Versus Multithreading
    • Programming Models
    • Why We Could Skip To Section II Now
    • For More Information

    Chapter 2: Knights Landing overview

    • Abstract
    • Overview
    • Instruction Set
    • Architecture Overview
    • Motivation: Our Vision and Purpose
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 3: Programming MCDRAM and Cluster modes

    • Abstract
    • Programming for Cluster Modes
    • Programming for Memory Modes
    • Query Memory Mode and MCDRAM Available
    • SNC Performance Implications of Allocation and Threading
    • How to Not Hard Code the NUMA Node Numbers
    • Approaches to Determining What to Put in MCDRAM
    • Why Rebooting Is Required to Change Modes
    • BIOS
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 4: Knights Landing architecture

    • Abstract
    • Tile Architecture
    • Cluster Modes
    • Memory Interleaving
    • Memory Modes
    • Interactions of Cluster and Memory Modes
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 5: Intel Omni-Path Fabric

    • Abstract
    • Overview
    • Performance and Scalability
    • Transport Layer APIs
    • Quality of Service
    • Virtual Fabrics
    • Unicast Address Resolution
    • Multicast Address Resolution
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 6: μarch optimization advice

    • Abstract
    • Best Performance From 1, 2, or 4 Threads Per Core, Rarely 3
    • Memory Subsystem
    • μarch Nuances (tile)
    • Direct Mapped MCDRAM Cache
    • Advice: Use AVX-512
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Section II: Parallel Programming


    Chapter 7: Programming overview for Knights Landing

    • Abstract
    • To Refactor, or Not to Refactor, That Is the Question
    • Evolutionary Optimization of Applications
    • Revolutionary Optimization of Applications
    • Know When to Hold’em and When to Fold’em
    • For More Information

    Chapter 8: Tasks and threads

    • Abstract
    • OpenMP
    • Fortran 2008
    • Intel TBB
    • hStreams
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 9: Vectorization

    • Abstract
    • Why Vectorize?
    • How to Vectorize
    • Three Approaches to Achieving Vectorization
    • Six-Step Vectorization Methodology
    • Streaming Through Caches: Data Layout, Alignment, Prefetching, and so on
    • Compiler Tips
    • Compiler Options
    • Compiler Directives
    • Use Array Sections to Encourage Vectorization
    • Look at What the Compiler Created: Assembly Code Inspection
    • Numerical Result Variations With Vectorization
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 10: Vectorization advisor

    • Abstract
    • Getting Started With Intel Advisor for Knights Landing
    • Enabling and Improving AVX-512 Code With the Survey Report
    • Memory Access Pattern Report
    • AVX-512 Gather/Scatter Profiler
    • Mask Utilization and FLOPs Profiler
    • Advisor Roofline Report
    • Explore AVX-512 Code Characteristics Without AVX-512 Hardware
    • Example — Analysis of a Computational Chemistry Code
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 11: Vectorization with SDLT

    • Abstract
    • What Is SDLT?
    • Getting Started
    • SDLT Basics
    • Example Normalizing 3d Points With SIMD
    • What Is Wrong With AOS Memory Layout and SIMD?
    • SIMD Prefers Unit-Stride Memory Accesses
    • Alpha-Blended Overlay Reference
    • Alpha-Blended Overlay With SDLT
    • Additional Features
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 12: Vectorization with AVX-512 intrinsics

    • Abstract
    • What Are Intrinsics?
    • AVX-512 Overview
    • Migrating From Knights Corner
    • AVX-512 Detection
    • Learning AVX-512 Instructions
    • Learning AVX-512 Intrinsics
    • Step-by-Step Example Using AVX-512 Intrinsics
    • Results Using Our Intrinsics Code
    • For More Information

    Chapter 13: Performance libraries

    • Abstract
    • Intel Performance Library Overview
    • Intel Math Kernel Library Overview
    • Intel Data Analytics Library Overview
    • Together: MKL and DAAL
    • Intel Integrated Performance Primitives Library Overview
    • Intel Performance Libraries and Intel Compilers
    • Native (Direct) Library Usage
    • Offloading to Knights Landing While Using a Library
    • Precision Choices and Variations
    • Performance Tip for Faster Dynamic Libraries
    • For More Information

    Chapter 14: Profiling and timing

    • Abstract
    • Introduction to Knight Landing Tuning
    • Event-Monitoring Registers
    • Efficiency Metrics
    • Potential Performance Issues
    • Intel VTune Amplifier XE Product
    • Performance Application Programming Interface
    • MPI Analysis: ITAC
    • HPCToolkit
    • Tuning and Analysis Utilities
    • Timing
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 15: MPI

    • Abstract
    • Internode Parallelism
    • MPI on Knights Landing
    • MPI Overview
    • How to Run MPI Applications
    • Analyzing MPI Application Runs
    • Tuning of MPI Applications
    • Heterogeneous Clusters
    • Recent Trends in MPI Coding
    • Putting it All Together
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 16: PGAS programming models

    • Abstract
    • To Share or Not to Share
    • Why use PGAS on Knights Landing?
    • Programming with PGAS
    • Performance Evaluation
    • Beyond PGAS
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 17: Software-defined visualization

    • Abstract
    • Motivation for Software-Defined Visualization
    • Software-Defined Visualization Architecture
    • OpenSWR: OpenGL Raster-Graphics Software Rendering
    • Embree: High-performance Ray Tracing Kernel Library
    • OSPRay: Scalable Ray Tracing Framework
    • Summary
    • Image Attributions
    • For More Information

    Chapter 18: Offload to Knights Landing

    • Abstract
    • Offload Programming Model—Using With Knights Landing
    • Processors Versus Coprocessor
    • Offload Model Considerations
    • OpenMP Target Directives
    • Concurrent Host and Target Execution
    • Offload Over Fabric
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 19: Power analysis

    • Abstract
    • Power Demand Gates Exascale
    • Power 101
    • Hardware-Based Power Analysis Techniques
    • Software-Based Knights Landing Power Analyzer
    • ManyCore Platform Software Package Power Tools
    • Running Average Power Limit
    • Performance Profiling on Knights Landing
    • Intel Remote Management Module
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Section III: Pearls


    Chapter 20: Optimizing classical molecular dynamics in LAMMPS

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgment
    • Molecular Dynamics
    • LAMMPS
    • Knights Landing Processors
    • LAMMPS Optimizations
    • Data Alignment
    • Data Types and Layout
    • Vectorization
    • Neighbor List
    • Long-Range Electrostatics
    • MPI and OpenMP Parallelization
    • Performance Results
    • System, Build, and Run Configurations
    • Workloads
    • Organic Photovoltaic Molecules
    • Hydrocarbon Mixtures
    • Rhodopsin Protein in Solvated Lipid Bilayer
    • Coarse Grain Liquid Crystal Simulation
    • Coarse-Grain Water Simulation
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 21: High performance seismic simulations

    • Abstract
    • High-Order Seismic Simulations
    • Numerical Background
    • Application Characteristics
    • Intel Architecture as Compute Engine
    • Highly-efficient Small Matrix Kernels
    • Sparse Matrix Kernel Generation and Sparse/Dense Kernel Selection
    • Dense Matrix Kernel Generation: AVX2
    • Dense Matrix Kernel Generation: AVX-512
    • Kernel Performance Benchmarking
    • Incorporating Knights Landing’s Different Memory Subsystems
    • Performance Evaluation
    • Mount Merapi
    • 1992 Landers
    • Summary and Take-Aways
    • For More Information

    Chapter 22: Weather research and forecasting (WRF)

    • Abstract
    • WRF Overview
    • WRF Execution Profile: Relatively Flat
    • History of WRF on Intel Many-Core (Intel Xeon Phi Product Line)
    • Our Early Experiences With WRF on Knights Landing
    • Compiling WRF for Intel Xeon and Intel Xeon Phi Systems
    • WRF CONUS12km Benchmark Performance
    • MCDRAM Bandwidth
    • Vectorization: Boost of AVX-512 Over AVX2
    • Core Scaling
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 23: N-Body simulation

    • Abstract
    • Parallel Programming for Noncomputer Scientists
    • Step-by-Step Improvements
    • N-Body simulation
    • optimization
    • Initial Implementation (Optimization Step 0)
    • Thread parallelism (optimization step 1)
    • Scalar Performance Tuning (Optimization Step 2)
    • Vectorization with SOA (optimization step 3)
    • Memory traffic (optimization step 4)
    • Impact of MCDRAM on Performance
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 24: Machine learning

    • Abstract
    • Convolutional Neural Networks
    • OverFeat-FAST Results
    • For More Information

    Chapter 25: Trinity workloads

    • Abstract
    • Out of the Box Performance
    • Optimizing MiniGhost OpenMP Performance
    • Summary
    • For More Information

    Chapter 26: Quantum chromodynamics

    • Abstract
    • LQCD
    • The QPhiX Library and Code Generator
    • Wilson-Dslash Operator
    • Configuring the QPhiX Code Generator
    • The Experimental Setup
    • Results
    • Conclusion
    • For More Information

Product details

  • No. of pages: 662
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2016
  • Published: May 31, 2016
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128091944
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128091951

About the Authors

James Jeffers

James Jeffers
Jim Jeffers was the primary strategic planner and one of the first full-time employees on the program that became Intel ® MIC. He served as lead SW Engineering Manager on the program and formed and launched the SW development team. As the program evolved, he became the workloads (applications) and SW performance team manager. He has some of the deepest insight into the market, architecture and programming usages of the MIC product line. He has been a developer and development manager for embedded and high performance systems for close to 30 years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Engineer and Visualization Lead, Intel Corporation

James Reinders

James Reinders
James Reinders is a senior engineer who joined Intel Corporation in 1989 and has contributed to projects including the world’s first TeraFLOP supercomputer (ASCI Red), as well as compilers and architecture work for a number of Intel processors and parallel systems. James has been a driver behind the development of Intel as a major provider of software development products, and serves as their chief software evangelist. James has published numerous articles, contributed to several books and is widely interviewed on parallelism. James has managed software development groups, customer service and consulting teams, business development and marketing teams. James is sought after to keynote on parallel programming, and is the author/co-author of three books currently in print including Structured Parallel Programming, published by Morgan Kaufmann in 2012.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director and Programming Model Architect, Intel Corporation

Avinash Sodani

Avinash Sodani is the chief architect of the Knights Landing Xeon Phi Processor. He has many years of experience architecting high end processors and previously was one of the architects for the first Core(tm) processor codenamed Nehalem.

Affiliations and Expertise

PhD, Senior Principal Engineer and Chief Architect of Knights Landing Processor, Intel

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