The insulin resistance syndrome can be defined as insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and their associated co-morbidities. Clinically, the term insulin resistance syndrome describes a constellation of abnormalities such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes/hyperglycemia, and coronary artery disease.
Insulin is responsible for glucose uptake into the body cells and tissues. The response of the cells to insulin varies from individual to individual. In some individuals, the tissue response to insulin may be diminished. This means that even with adequate levels of insulin, the glucose uptake into the cells and tissues is not optimal. This results in a compensatory over-secretion of insulin from the pancreas. The
persistence of high levels of insulin in the blood or hyperinsulinemia is thought to be responsible for some of the abnormalities associated with this condition. However, the exact causal association of the condition with these disorders and the pathophysiology of their evolution are unclear.
The most common underlying mechanism proposed is increased free fatty acids from abdominal fat in individuals with central obesity. This leads to deranged insulin signaling, reduced muscular glucose uptake, increased triglyceride synthesis, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. A genetic basis of the disease as well as several other factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, leptin, Interleukin-6, and some adipokines have also been implicated.
Insulin resistance syndrome is of clinical significance because of its association with potentially debilitating conditions that contribute to long-term morbidity and even mortality of the individual. People with insulin resistance syndrome are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, polycystic ovarian disease, and fatty liver.
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Insulin Resistance and Its Epidemiology in India
Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Diseases
Role of Insulin Resistance in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Insulin Resistance
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