Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine

Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine

1st Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Editor: Gerald J. Hine
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258997

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Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine discusses both the fundamentals and the developments of important instruments used in nuclear medicine. Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the field are presented together, with specific information on its applications. The book is divided into four parts. Part I deals with the fundamental concepts such as radioisotopes and labeled compounds; the establishment and maintenance of a radioisotope laboratory; and basic considerations in nuclear instrumentation. Part II covers topics such as Geiger-Muller and proportional counters, semiconductor detectors, and other systems for data accumulation and presentation. Part III concerns itself with measurements of biological samples, preparation of samples for liquid scintillation counting and involved equipment, and radiochromatographic counting techniques. Part IV tackles radioisotope measurements in vivo such as thyroid radioiodine uptake measurements, single and multiple detector systems for whole-body counting, and large organic scintillation detectors. The text is recommended for medical technologists and radiologists who would like to know more about the fundamentals, applications, and advances in the instrumentation involved in nuclear medicine.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors



    Part I. Fundamental Concepts

    Chapter 1. Radioisotopes and Labeled Compounds

    I. Radiopharmaceutical Agents in Nuclear Medicine

    II. Iodinated Compounds

    III. Chromium

    IV. Iron

    V. Phosphorus

    VI. Colloids: Gold-198 and Chromic Phosphate-32P

    VII. Mercury

    VIII. Selenium

    IX. Cobalt


    Chapter 2. The Radioisotope Laboratory in the General Hospital

    I. Establishment of a Radioisotope Laboratory

    II. Starting and Maintaining a Radioisotope Laboratory

    III. Records and Economics of the Radioisotope Laboratory

    IV. Frequently Performed Diagnostic Procedures

    Supplementary Readings

    Chapter 3. Basic Considerations in Nuclear Instrumentation

    I. Statistics of Radioisotope Measurements

    II. Radiation Detectors

    III. Recording Instruments

    IV. Selection of Equipment

    Part II. Systems for Radiation Analysis

    Chapter 4. Geiger-Muller and Proportional Counters

    I. Counter Characteristics

    II. Absorption of β Rays and Detection Efficiency for β Rays and Photons

    III. Counter Systems and Applications


    Chapter 5. Semiconductor Detectors

    I. Detection Mechanism of Semiconductor Detectors

    II. Detector Performance

    III. Medical and Biological Applications


    Chapter 6. Sodium Iodine Scintillators

    I. Scintillation Characteristics

    II. Growth of Single Nal(Tl) Crystals

    III. Sodium Iodide as a γ-Ray Detector

    IV. γ-Ray Spectroscopy


    Chapter 7. Systems for Data Accumulation and Presentation

    I. Preamplifiers

    II. Amplifiers

    III. Pulse-Height Analyzers

    IV. High-Voltage Power Supplies

    V. Pulse Storage

    VI. Data Processing


    Chapter 8. Radiation Safety Instruments

    I. Dose-Rate Monitors and Survey Meters

    II. Integrated Dose Indicators

    III. Calibration of Instruments


    Part III. Measurements of Biological Samples

    Chapter 9. Preparation of Samples for Liquid Scintillation Counting

    I. Scintillators

    II. Solvents

    III. Counting Solutions

    IV. Quenching

    V. Solubilizing Agents

    VI. Measurement of 14CO2

    VII. Combustion and Oxidation

    VIII. Suspension Counting

    IX. Counting Activity on Paper

    X. Suspended Scintillators

    XI. Measurement of Inorganic Elements

    XII. Measurement of β,γ-Ray Emitters

    XIII. Double-Label Counting

    XIV. Triple-Label Counting


    Chapter 10. Liquid Scintillation Counting Equipment

    I. Light Conversion

    II. Electronic Circuitry

    III. Sample Counting

    IV. Automation and Data Handling


    Chapter 11. Radiochromatographic Counting Techniques

    I. Types of Chromatographic Techniques

    II. Paper and Thin-Layer Radiochromatography

    III. Gas and Liquid Chromatography

    IV. Electronic and Recording Systems


    Chapter 12. γ-Ray Sample Counting

    I. Sodium Iodide Well-Counters

    II. Counters for Large Sample Volumes

    III. Double Tracer Techniques

    IV. Automation of Sample Counting


    Chapter 13. Nuclear Activation Analysis

    I. Sample Preparation

    II. Activation Sensitivity

    III. Methods of Analysis

    IV. Clinical and Biological Applications

    Supplementary Readings

    Part IV. Radioisotope Measurements In Vivo

    Chapter 14. Tyroid Radioiodine Uptake Measurements

    I. Recommendations and Comments of Consultants for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    II. Single-Detector Instruments

    III. Multiple-Detector Instruments

    IV. Limitations of Present Methods


    Chapter 15. In Vivo Tracer Studies by External γ-Ray Counting

    I. Fundamental Concepts of the Time-Concentration Curve

    II. Recording of Radioisotope Dilution Curves

    III. Determination of Organ Blood Flow by the Clearance of Radioactive Tracers from Circulating Blood

    IV. Measurements of Organ Function by Accumulation or Disappearance Measurements


    Chapter 16. Radioisotope Scanning

    I. Scanning Instrumentation

    II. Collimator Performance

    III. Collimator-Detector Sensitivity

    IV. Readout Systems


    III. Double Tracer Techniques

    IV. Automation of Sample Counting


    Chapter 17. Multihole Collimators for Scanning

    I. Collimator Properties

    II. Collimator Structure

    III. Evaluation and Comparison of Collimators


    Chapter 18. Positron Scanning

    I. Positron Emission and Annihilation

    II. Instrument Design

    III. Application to Brain Scanning


    Chapter 19. Radioisotope Cameras

    I. Stationary Devices for Translating Radioisotope Distribution into Visual Images

    II. Description of Scintillation Camera

    III. Image-Producing Collimators for Use with γ-Ray Emitters

    IV. The Positron Camera: Coincidence Collimation of Annihilation Radiation from Positron Emitters

    V. Recording Methods


    Chapter 20. Single and Multiple Detector Systems for Whole-Body Counting

    I. Principle of Whole-Body Counting

    II. Design of Single and Multiple Nal(Tl) Detector Systems

    III. Performance of Single and Multiple Nal(Tl) Detector Systems

    IV. Calibration of Single and Multiple Nal(Tl) Detector Systems


    Chapter 21. Large Organic Scintillation Detectors

    I. Liquid and Plastic Scintillators

    II. γ-Ray Absorption and Low-Z Detectors

    III. The Los Alamos Liquid Human Counter

    IV. 2π Multiple Plastic Counter

    V. Small Animal Counters

    VI. Arm Counters



    I. Electron Range and Gamma-Ray Absorption

    II. Application and Radiation Dose of Radioisotopes in Medicine

    III. Manufacturers of Nuclear Instruments and Their Products

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 670
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258997

About the Editor

Gerald J. Hine

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