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Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123494504, 9781483258997

Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine

1st Edition

Editor: Gerald J. Hine
eBook ISBN: 9781483258997
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 670
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Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine discusses both the fundamentals and the developments of important instruments used in nuclear medicine. Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the field are presented together, with specific information on its applications. The book is divided into four parts. Part I deals with the fundamental concepts such as radioisotopes and labeled compounds; the establishment and maintenance of a radioisotope laboratory; and basic considerations in nuclear instrumentation. Part II covers topics such as Geiger-Muller and proportional counters, semiconductor detectors, and other systems for data accumulation and presentation. Part III concerns itself with measurements of biological samples, preparation of samples for liquid scintillation counting and involved equipment, and radiochromatographic counting techniques. Part IV tackles radioisotope measurements in vivo such as thyroid radioiodine uptake measurements, single and multiple detector systems for whole-body counting, and large organic scintillation detectors. The text is recommended for medical technologists and radiologists who would like to know more about the fundamentals, applications, and advances in the instrumentation involved in nuclear medicine.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors



Part I. Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 1. Radioisotopes and Labeled Compounds

I. Radiopharmaceutical Agents in Nuclear Medicine

II. Iodinated Compounds

III. Chromium

IV. Iron

V. Phosphorus

VI. Colloids: Gold-198 and Chromic Phosphate-32P

VII. Mercury

VIII. Selenium

IX. Cobalt


Chapter 2. The Radioisotope Laboratory in the General Hospital

I. Establishment of a Radioisotope Laboratory

II. Starting and Maintaining a Radioisotope Laboratory

III. Records and Economics of the Radioisotope Laboratory

IV. Frequently Performed Diagnostic Procedures

Supplementary Readings

Chapter 3. Basic Considerations in Nuclear Instrumentation

I. Statistics of Radioisotope Measurements

II. Radiation Detectors

III. Recording Instruments

IV. Selection of Equipment

Part II. Systems for Radiation Analysis

Chapter 4. Geiger-Muller and Proportional Counters

I. Counter Characteristics

II. Absorption of β Rays and Detection Efficiency for β Rays and Photons

III. Counter Systems and Applications


Chapter 5. Semiconductor Detectors

I. Detection Mechanism of Semiconductor Detectors

II. Detector Performance

III. Medical and Biological Applications


Chapter 6. Sodium Iodine Scintillators

I. Scintillation Characteristics

II. Growth of Single Nal(Tl) Crystals

III. Sodium Iodide as a γ-Ray Detector

IV. γ-Ray Spectroscopy


Chapter 7. Systems for Data Accumulation and Presentation

I. Preamplifiers

II. Amplifiers

III. Pulse-Height Analyzers

IV. High-Voltage Power Supplies

V. Pulse Storage

VI. Data Processing


Chapter 8. Radiation Safety Instruments

I. Dose-Rate Monitors and Survey Meters

II. Integrated Dose Indicators

III. Calibration of Instruments


Part III. Measurements of Biological Samples

Chapter 9. Preparation of Samples for Liquid Scintillation Counting

I. Scintillators

II. Solvents

III. Counting Solutions

IV. Quenching

V. Solubilizing Agents

VI. Measurement of 14CO2

VII. Combustion and Oxidation

VIII. Suspension Counting

IX. Counting Activity on Paper

X. Suspended Scintillators

XI. Measurement of Inorganic Elements

XII. Measurement of β,γ-Ray Emitters

XIII. Double-Label Counting

XIV. Triple-Label Counting


Chapter 10. Liquid Scintillation Counting Equipment

I. Light Conversion

II. Electronic Circuitry

III. Sample Counting

IV. Automation and Data Handling


Chapter 11. Radiochromatographic Counting Techniques

I. Types of Chromatographic Techniques

II. Paper and Thin-Layer Radiochromatography

III. Gas and Liquid Chromatography

IV. Electronic and Recording Systems


Chapter 12. γ-Ray Sample Counting

I. Sodium Iodide Well-Counters

II. Counters for Large Sample Volumes

III. Double Tracer Techniques

IV. Automation of Sample Counting


Chapter 13. Nuclear Activation Analysis

I. Sample Preparation

II. Activation Sensitivity

III. Methods of Analysis

IV. Clinical and Biological Applications

Supplementary Readings

Part IV. Radioisotope Measurements In Vivo

Chapter 14. Tyroid Radioiodine Uptake Measurements

I. Recommendations and Comments of Consultants for the International Atomic Energy Agency

II. Single-Detector Instruments

III. Multiple-Detector Instruments

IV. Limitations of Present Methods


Chapter 15. In Vivo Tracer Studies by External γ-Ray Counting

I. Fundamental Concepts of the Time-Concentration Curve

II. Recording of Radioisotope Dilution Curves

III. Determination of Organ Blood Flow by the Clearance of Radioactive Tracers from Circulating Blood

IV. Measurements of Organ Function by Accumulation or Disappearance Measurements


Chapter 16. Radioisotope Scanning

I. Scanning Instrumentation

II. Collimator Performance

III. Collimator-Detector Sensitivity

IV. Readout Systems


III. Double Tracer Techniques

IV. Automation of Sample Counting


Chapter 17. Multihole Collimators for Scanning

I. Collimator Properties

II. Collimator Structure

III. Evaluation and Comparison of Collimators


Chapter 18. Positron Scanning

I. Positron Emission and Annihilation

II. Instrument Design

III. Application to Brain Scanning


Chapter 19. Radioisotope Cameras

I. Stationary Devices for Translating Radioisotope Distribution into Visual Images

II. Description of Scintillation Camera

III. Image-Producing Collimators for Use with γ-Ray Emitters

IV. The Positron Camera: Coincidence Collimation of Annihilation Radiation from Positron Emitters

V. Recording Methods


Chapter 20. Single and Multiple Detector Systems for Whole-Body Counting

I. Principle of Whole-Body Counting

II. Design of Single and Multiple Nal(Tl) Detector Systems

III. Performance of Single and Multiple Nal(Tl) Detector Systems

IV. Calibration of Single and Multiple Nal(Tl) Detector Systems


Chapter 21. Large Organic Scintillation Detectors

I. Liquid and Plastic Scintillators

II. γ-Ray Absorption and Low-Z Detectors

III. The Los Alamos Liquid Human Counter

IV. 2π Multiple Plastic Counter

V. Small Animal Counters

VI. Arm Counters



I. Electron Range and Gamma-Ray Absorption

II. Application and Radiation Dose of Radioisotopes in Medicine

III. Manufacturers of Nuclear Instruments and Their Products

Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1967
1st January 1967
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Gerald J. Hine

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