Insect Molecular Genetics

Insect Molecular Genetics

An Introduction to Principles and Applications

3rd Edition - April 9, 2013

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  • Author: Marjorie Hoy
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158740
  • eBook ISBN: 9780240821313

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Description

Insect Molecular Genetics, Third Edition, summarizes and synthesizes two rather disparate disciplines—entomology and molecular genetics. This volume provides an introduction to the techniques and literature of molecular genetics; defines terminology; and reviews concepts, principles, and applications of these powerful tools. The world of insect molecular genetics, once dominated by Drosophila, has become much more diverse, especially with the sequencing of multiple arthropod genomes (from spider mites to mosquitoes). This introduction includes discussion of honey bees, mosquitoes, flour beetles, silk moths, fruit flies, aphids, house flies, kissing bugs, cicadas, butterflies, tsetse flies and armyworms. This book serves as both a foundational text and a review of a rapidly growing literature. With fully revised and updated chapters, the third edition will be a valuable addition to the personal libraries of entomologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists.

Key Features

  • Up-to-date references to important review articles, websites, and seminal citations in the disciplines
  • Well crafted and instructive illustrations integral to explaining the techniques of molecular genetics
  • Glossary of terms to help beginners learn the vocabulary of molecular biology

Readership

Advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, faculty and researchers that need a primer of molecular genetics as it relates to entomology. Libraries at institutions with strong programs in entomology, pest control, biological control, insect pathology, and molecular genetics

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Third Edition

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    Goals

    Organization

    Acknowledgments

    Part I: Genes and Genome Organization in Eukaryotes

    Chapter 1. DNA, Gene Structure, and DNA Replication

    1.1 Overview

    1.2 DNA is the Hereditary Material: A Brief History

    1.3 The Central Dogma

    1.4 The “RNA World” Came First?

    1.5 The Molecular Structure of DNA

    1.6 The Molecular Structure of RNA

    1.7 The Double Helix

    1.8 Complementary Base Pairing is Fundamental

    1.9 DNA Exists in Several Forms

    1.10 Genes

    1.11 The Genetic Code for Protein-Coding Genes is a Triplet and is Degenerate

    1.12 Gene Organization

    1.13 Efficient DNA Replication is Essential

    1.14 DNA Replication is Semiconservative

    1.15 Replication Begins at Replication Origins

    1.16 DNA Replication Occurs Only in the 5′ to 3′ Direction

    1.17 Replication of DNA Requires an RNA Primer

    1.18 Ligation of Replicated DNA Fragments

    1.19 DNA Replication during Mitosis in Eukaryotes

    1.20 Telomeres at the End: A Solution to the Loss of DNA during Replication

    1.21 DNA Replication Fidelity and DNA Repair

    1.22 Mutations in the Genome

    1.23 Common Genetic Terminology

    1.24 Independent Assortment and Recombination during Sexual Reproduction

    General References

    References Cited

    Chapter 2. Transcription, Translation, and Regulation of Eukaryotic DNA

    2.1 Overview

    2.2 Introduction

    2.3 RNA Synthesis is Gene Transcription

    2.4 Transcription Involves Binding, Initiation, Elongation, and Termination

    2.5 RNA Transcripts of Protein-Coding Genes

    2.6 RNA of Protein-Coding Genes Must Be Modified and Processed in Eukaryotes

    2.7 Splicing Out the Introns

    2.8 Translation Involves Protein Synthesis

    2.9 RNA Surveillance: Damage Control

    2.10 Import and Export from the Nucleus

    2.11 Transport of Proteins within the Cytoplasm

    2.12 mRNA Stability

    2.13 Chaperones and the Proteosome

    2.14 RNA Silencing or Interference and miRNAs

    2.15 Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes

    2.16 Insulators and Boundaries

    2.17 Chromosome or Gene Imprinting in Insects

    2.18 Eukaryotic Genomes and Evolution

    References Cited

    Chapter 3. Nuclear and Extranuclear DNA in Insects

    3.1 Overview

    3.2 Introduction

    3.3 C-Value Paradox: Is it Real?

    3.4 Repetitive DNA is Common in Insects

    3.5 Composition of Insect DNA

    3.6 Chromosomes are DNA Plus Proteins

    3.7 Packaging Long, Thin DNA Molecules into Tiny Spaces

    3.8 Structure of the Nucleus

    3.9 Euchromatin and Heterochromatin

    3.10 Centromeres

    3.11 Telomeres

    3.12 Chromosomes during Mitosis and Meiosis

    3.13 Chromosome Damage

    3.14 Polyteny

    3.15 Chromosomal Puffing

    3.16 B Chromosomes

    3.17 Sex Chromosomes

    3.18 Extranuclear Inheritance in Mitochondrial Genes

    3.19 Transposable Elements are Ubiquitous Agents that Alter Genomes

    References Cited

    Chapter 4. Genetic Systems, Genome Evolution, and Genetic Control of Embryonic Development in Insects

    4.1 Overview

    4.2 Introduction

    4.3 Genetic Systems in Insects

    4.4 Endopolyploidy is Common in Somatic Tissues of Arthropods

    4.5 Genetics of Insects Other than D. melanogaster

    4.6 Dynamic Insect Genomes

    4.7 B Chromosomes

    4.8 Unique-Sequence DNA in the Nucleus

    4.9 Middle-Repetitive DNA in the Nucleus

    4.10 Highly Repetitive DNA

    4.11 Producing Large Amounts of Protein in a Short Time: Gene Amplification and Gene Duplication

    4.12 Multiple Genomes in or on Insects: What is the “Biological Individual”?

    4.13 Insect Development

    4.14 Dissecting Development with D. melanogaster Mutants

    4.15 Interactions During Development

    4.16 Similarities and Differences in Development in Other Insects

    4.17 Evo-Devo and the Revolution in Developmental Studies

    References Cited

    Part II: Molecular Genetic Techniques

    Chapter 5. Some Basic Tools: How to Cut, Paste, Copy, Measure, Visualize, and Clone DNA

    5.1 Overview

    5.2 Introduction to a Basic Molecular Biology Experiment

    5.3 Extracting DNA from Insects

    5.4 Precipitating Nucleic Acids

    5.5 Shearing DNA

    5.6 Cutting DNA with Restriction Endonucleases

    5.7 Joining DNA Molecules

    5.8 Growth, Maintenance, and Storage of E. coli

    5.9 Plasmids for Cloning in E. coli

    5.10 Transforming E. coli with Plasmids

    5.11 Purifying Plasmid DNA from E. coli

    5.12 Electrophoresis in Agarose or Acrylamide Gels

    5.13 Detecting, Viewing, and Photographing Nucleic Acids in Gels

    5.14 Identifying Specific DNA by Southern Blot Analysis

    5.15 Labeling DNA or RNA Probes

    5.16 Removing DNA from Agarose Gels after Electrophoresis

    5.17 Restriction-Site Mapping

    General References

    References Cited

    Chapter 6. Some Additional Tools for the Molecular Biologist

    6.1 Overview

    6.2 Introduction

    6.3 The Perfect Genomic Library

    6.4 cDNA Cloning

    6.5 Enzymes Used in Molecular Biology Experiments

    6.6 Isolating a Specific Gene from a Library if Whole-Genome Sequencing is Not Done

    6.7 Labeling Probes by a Variety of Methods

    6.8 Baculovirus Vectors Express Foreign Polypeptides in Insect Cells

    6.9 Expression Microarray Analysis

    General References

    References Cited

    Chapter 7. DNA Sequencing and the Evolution of the “-Omics”

    7.1 Overview

    7.2 Introduction

    7.3 The Dideoxy or Chain-Termination (Sanger) Method

    7.4 The Maxam and Gilbert Sequencing Method

    7.5 Shotgun Strategies for Genomes

    7.6 Sequencing DNA by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    7.7 Automated Sanger Sequencers

    7.8 Analyzing DNA Sequence Data

    7.9 DNA-Sequence Data Banks

    7.10 A Brief History of the Drosophila Genome Project

    7.11 Next-Generation Sequencing Methods and Beyond

    7.12 Bioinformatics

    7.13 Genome Analyses of Other Arthropods

    7.14 Transposable Elements (TEs) as Agents of Genome Evolution

    7.15 Transcriptomics

    7.16 Metagenomics

    7.17 Proteomics: Another “-Omic”

    7.18 Functional Genomics

    7.19 Structural Genomics—Another New Horizon?

    7.20 Comparative Genomics

    7.21 Interactomes or Reactomes

    7.22 The Post-Genomic Era: Systems Genetics

    General References

    References Cited

    Chapter 8. DNA Amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction: Molecular Biology Made Accessible

    8.1 Overview

    8.2 Introduction

    8.3 The Basic Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    8.4 Some Modifications of the PCR

    8.5 Some Research Applications

    8.6 Multiple Displacement Amplification: Another Method to Amplify DNA

    8.7 Concluding Remarks

    References Cited

    Chapter 9. Transposable-Element Vectors and Other Methods to Genetically Modify Drosophila and Other Insects

    9.1 Overview

    9.2 Introduction

    9.3 P Elements and Hybrid Dysgenesis

    9.4 P-Element Structure Varies

    9.5 Transposition Method of P Elements

    9.6 Origin of P Elements in D. melanogaster

    9.7 P Vectors and Germ-Line Transformation

    9.8 Using P-Element Vectors

    9.9 Transformation of Other Insects with P Vectors

    9.10 Evolution of Resistance to P Elements

    9.11 Using P to Drive Genes into Populations

    9.12 Relationship of P to Other Transposable Elements (TEs)

    9.13 Other TEs Can Transform D. melanogaster

    9.14 Improved Transformation Tools for Drosophila

    9.15 TE Vectors to Transform Insects other than Drosophila

    9.16 Cross Mobilization of TE Vectors

    9.17 Conversion of Inactive TE Vectors to Activity

    9.18 Suppression of Transgene Expression

    9.19 Other Transformation Methods

    9.20 Conclusions

    General References

    References Cited

    Part III: Applications in Entomology

    Chapter 10. Sex Determination in Insects

    10.1 Overview

    10.2 Introduction

    10.3 Costs and Benefits of Sexual Reproduction

    10.4 Sex Determination Involves Soma and Germ-Line Tissues

    10.5 Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster

    10.6 Are Sex-Determination Mechanisms Diverse?

    10.7 A Single Model?

    10.8 Meiotic Drive Can Distort Sex Ratios

    10.9 Hybrid Sterility

    10.10 Medea in Tribolium

    10.11 Cytoplasmic Agents Distort Normal Sex Ratios

    10.12 Paternal Sex-Ratio Chromosomes and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Nasonia

    10.13 Male Killing in the Coccinellidae

    10.14 Sex and the Sorted Insects

    10.15 Conclusion

    References Cited

    Chapter 11. Molecular Genetics of Insect Behavior

    11.1 Overview

    11.2 Introduction

    11.3 The Insect Nervous System

    11.4 Traditional Genetic Analyses of Behavior

    11.5 Molecular-Genetic Analyses of Insect Behavior

    11.6 Symbionts and Insect Behavior

    11.7 Human Neurodegenerative Diseases and Addictions in Drosophila

    11.8 High-Throughput Ethomics

    11.9 Systems Genetics of Complex Traits in Drosophila

    11.10 Social Behavior in Bees and Ants

    11.11 Conclusions

    References Cited

    Chapter 12. Molecular Systematics and the Evolution of Arthropods

    12.1 Overview

    12.2 Introduction

    12.3 Controversies in Molecular Systematics and Evolution

    12.4 Molecular Methods for Molecular Systematics and Evolution

    12.5 Targets of DNA Analysis

    12.6 Steps in Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA Sequence Data

    12.7 The Universal Tree of Life

    12.8 The Fossil Record of Arthropods

    12.9 Molecular Analyses of Arthropod Phylogeny

    12.10 Molecular Evolution and Speciation

    12.11 Some Conclusions

    Relevant Journals

    References Cited

    Chapter 13. Insect Population Ecology and Molecular Genetics

    13.1 Overview

    13.2 Introduction

    13.3 What is Molecular Ecology?

    13.4 Collecting Arthropods in the Field for Analysis

    13.5 Molecular Ecological Methods

    13.6 Analysis of Molecular Data

    13.7 Case Studies in Molecular Ecology and Population Biology

    13.8 Applied Pest Management

    Relevant Journals

    References Cited

    Chapter 14. Genetic Modification of Pest and Beneficial Insects for Pest-Management Programs

    14.1 Overview

    14.2 Introduction

    14.3 Why Genetically Modify Insects?

    14.4 Why Use Molecular-Genetic Methods?

    14.5 What Genetic Modification Methods are Available?

    14.6 Methods to Deliver Exogenous Nucleic Acids into Arthropod Tissues

    14.7 What Genes are Available?

    14.8 Why are Regulatory Signals Important?

    14.9 How are Modified Arthropods Identified?

    14.10 How to Deploy Genetically Modified Pest and Beneficial Arthropods

    14.11 Potential Risks Associated with Releases of Genetically Modified Arthropods

    14.12 Permanent Releases of Genetically Modified Arthropods into the Environment

    14.13 Regulatory Issues: Releases of Genetically Modified Arthropods

    14.14 Conclusions

    References Cited

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 838
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: April 9, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158740
  • eBook ISBN: 9780240821313

About the Author

Marjorie Hoy

Marjorie A. Hoy, Ph.D., is an eminent scholar in the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida (UF) and was elected as Fellow in 1996. She is internationally recognized for her research that uses genetic tools to improve biological control in agricultural crops, including classical biological control in citrus. She released a transgenic strain of Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in 1996 and helped define some of the risk issues associated with releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment. Hoy was born in Kansas City, KS in 1941. She attended the University of Kansas for her B.A. as a National Merit scholar and Elizabeth M. Watkins scholar, graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1963. She obtained the M.S. (1966) and Ph.D. (1972) from the University of California–Berkeley (UCB). After completing the Ph.D., she worked at the Connecticut Agricultural Station and the U.S. Forest Service on genetic improvement of natural enemies of the gypsy moth. In 1976, she returned to UCB as an assistant professor and is an emeritus full professor. Her project on genetic improvement of M. occidentalis demonstrated, for the first time, that a laboratory-selected natural enemy could be deployed effectively in an IPM program in CA almond orchards. In 1992, she accepted an endowed chair (Davies, Fischer and Eckes professor of biological control) at UF, where she teaches courses in agricultural acarology, insect molecular genetics, and bioterrorism. Hoy’s laboratory conducts basic and applied research on natural enemies and recently sequenced the transcriptome and genome of the predatory mite M. occidentalis. She pioneered the use of genetics to develop improved natural enemies of pest insects and mites. Hoy has published more than 350 scientific papers and has completed the third edition of her textbook Insect Molecular Genetics. In 2011, she published Agricultural Acarology: Introduction to Integrated Mite Management. Books edited include Biological Control in Agricultural IPM Systems, Biological Control of Pests by Mites, and Recent Advances in Knowledge of the Phytoseiidae.

Affiliations and Expertise

Insitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA

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