Inhaled Particles VI - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080341859, 9781483159782

Inhaled Particles VI

1st Edition

Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop on Lung Dosimetry Organised by the British Occupational Hygiene Society in Co-Operation with the Commission of the European Communities, Cambridge, 2–6 September 1985

Editors: J. Dodgson R. I. Mccallum M. R. Bailey
eBook ISBN: 9781483159782
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1988
Page Count: 1244
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Description

Inhaled Particles VI contains the proceedings of an international symposium and workshop on lung dosimetry, organized by the British Occupational Hygiene Society in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities and held at Cambridge on September 2-6, 1985. The symposium presents results of research on the entry, destiny, and effects of respired particles, with emphasis on mechanisms and dose-response relationships. This book contains, in three separate parts, 84 papers from the symposium, 34 workshop papers, and 20 poster presentations. Parts 1 and 2 are further divided into sections. Section 1 presents several papers concerning the influence of breathing pattern and activity on regional deposition of inhaled particles. Section 2 shows comparative studies of aerosol deposition in experimental animals and humans. Subsequent sections explore the mineral content of lungs to differing exposures; biological effects of dusts; hazard parameters; dust measurement; exposure of workers to vermiculite and attapulgite; effects of dust exposure in the coal mining industry; and effects of silica dust exposure. Other topics of significance include toxicity of artificial mineral fibers and utility of magnetopneumography as a non-invasive investigational test.

Table of Contents


Preface

Part 1: Inhaled Particles Symposium

Section 1: Particle Inhalation and Deposition

Influence of Breathing Mode and Activity Level on the Regional Deposition of Inhaled Particles and Implications for Regulatory Standards

Tracheobronchial Deposition Predictions for Infants, Children and Adolescents

Effects of Airway Branching Patterns on Particle Deposition in the Lungs

Validation of an In Vivo Aerosol Probe Technique by Measurements of Deposition and Morphometry in Excised Human Lungs

Deposition of Monodisperse Insoluble Aerosol Particles in the 0.005 to 0.2 μm Size Range within the Human Respiratory Tract

Section 2: Deposition, Clearance and Retention

Regional Deposition of Inhaled Monodisperse Coarse and Fine Aerosol Particles in Small Laboratory Animals

Monte Carlo Model for Aerosol Deposition in Human Lungs

Particle Deposition in Volumetric Regions of the Human Respiratory Tract

Modeling an Aerosol Dispersion Test for Detecting Early Airway Changes

Deposition of 0.02-2 µm Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract: Effects of Variations in Respiratory Pattern

Flow Limitation on Expiration Induces Central Particle Deposition and Disrupts Effective Flow of Airway Mucus

Particle Clearance from the Lungs: Assessment of Effects Due to Inhaled Irritants

Analyses of Particles in the Lung Free Cell, Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodal, and Pleural Space Compartments Following their Deposition in the Lung as Related to Lung Clearance Mechanisms

Overloading of Lung Clearance during Chronic Exposure of Experimental Animals to Particles

Size-Dependent Lymphatic Short Term Clearance of Amosite Fibers in the Lung

Clearance of TC-99M DTPA Aerosol from Coalminers' Lungs

Section 3: Dust in Lungs

Mineral Particles in Airway Walls in the Lungs of Long-Term Chrysotile Miners

Biological Estimation of Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Asbestos

The Significance of the Selective Retention of Mineral Dusts

Estimation of Amphibole Exposure from Asbestos Body and Macrophage Counts in Sputum—A Survey in Vermiculite Miners

Chrysotile and Crocidolite Asbestos Pulmonary Fiber Concentrations and Dimensions After Inhalation and Clearance in Fischer 344 Rats

Assessment by Analytical Microscopy of the Total Lung Fiber Burden in Mesothelioma Patients Matched with Four other Pathological Series

Inhaled Manual Metal Arc and Shieldgas Stainless and Mild Steel Welding Fumes in Rat Lung

Section 4: Biological Reactions to Dust

Effects of Inhaled Oxidant and Acid Air Pollutant Combinations on Nasal and Trachel Tissues in Exercising Rats

Comparative Investigation of Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Activity of Airborne Particulate Matter from Polluted Areas Using Human and Rodent Tissue Culture Cells

Assessment of Lung Injury Produced by Particulate Emissions of Space Heaters Burning Automotive Waste Oil

Comparison of Responses and Deposition Following Human Exposures via Oral or Nasal Inhalation of Sulphuric Acid Aerosols

The Pathology of Slate Workers' Pneumoconiosis in North Wales and Vermont

Comparative In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Relative Pathogenicity of Mineral Dusts

Suppression of Inhaled Particle Cytotoxicity by Pulmonary Surfactant and Re-Toxification by Phospholipase: Distinguishing Properties of Quartz and Kaolin

Inflammatory Cell Recruitment as a Measure of Mineral Dust Toxicity

Immunological Consequences of Mineral Dust Inhalation

Effect of Coffee and Tea Dust in Industrial Workers

Section 5: Hazard Parameters

Relationships between Retained Amphibole Fibers and Fibrosis in Human Lung Tissue Specimens

Application of Fiber Retention and Carcinogenicity Curves to Fiber Size Distributions of Asbestos

Animal Experiments with Chemically Treated Fibers

Comparison of the Size Distributions of Occupational Asbestos and Man-Made Mineral Fibers Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy

Physical Characterization and Aerodynamic Behavior of Plate-like Particles

Aerodynamic Properties of Different Crystal forms of Hexamethylmelamine

Section 6: Dust Measurement

Agglomeration of Coalmine Dust and its Effect on Respirable Dust Sampling

Particle Size-Selective Sampling in the Workplace: Rationale and Recommended Techniques

The ISO and ACGIH Standardized Size Fractions and their Relation to Human Deposition Data

On the Biologically-Relevant Sampling of Airborne Particles

Characteristics of Airborne Particles Associated with Animal Allergy in Laboratory Workers

Identification and Quantification of Mould Spores by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): Analysis of Filter Samples Collected in Norwegian Saw Mills

Section 7: Epidemiology—Fibrous Dusts

Mortality of Vermiculite Miners Exposed to Tremolite

Radiological Changes in Vermiculite Workers Exposed to Tremolite

A Cross-Sectional Study of U.S. Attapulgite Workers

Mortality among Persons Mining and Milling Attapulgite Clay

HM Naval Bases: Mesothelioma and Time Since First Employment

Environmental Airborne Asbestos Pollution and Pleural Plaques in Corsica

Possible Effects of the Introduction of the 1969 Asbestos Regulations

Section 8: Epidemiology—Coal and Diesel

The Geographical Distribution of Mortality Ascribed to Certain Pneumoconioses during 1968-78 and Related Industries in England and Wales

Criteria for Long-Term Dust Standards on the Basis of Personal Dust Exposure Records

The Influence of Exposure Variability on Doseresponse Relationships

The MRC Questionnaire on Symptoms of Bronchitis. A Comparison with Medical Diagnoses and Lung Function

Differences between Long-Term Participants and Non-Responders in a Study of Coalminers' Respiratory Health and Exposure to Dust

Interstitial Fibrosis in Coalworkers—Experience in Wales and West Virginia

The Relationship between Radiographic and Pathological Appearances of Progressive Massive Fibrosis

Reproducibility of a Radiographic Classification of Progressive Massive Fibrosis

Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Progressive Massive Fibrosis (PMF) in Miners and Ex-Miners

Effects of Particle Size of Coalmine Dusts in Experimental Anthraco-Silicosis: I. Influence of Size of Mineral Composition and Surface Properties of Dusts from Same Origin

Effects of Particle of Size Coalmine Dusts in Experimental Anthraco-Silicosis: II. Retention and Penetration of the Dust

Effects of Particle Size of Coalmine Dusts in Experimental Anthracosilicosis: III. Tissue Reactions in Lymph Nodes

Compared In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Coalmine Dusts. Relationship with Mineralogical Composition

The Effect of Quartz Content on the Pathogenicity of Coalmine Dusts

Effects of Exposure to Diesel Emissions among Coalminers: A Prospective Evaluation

Pulmonary Retention of Inhaled Submicron Particles in Rats: Diesel Exhaust Exposures and Lung Retention Model

Relationships of Lung Structural and Functional Changes to Accumulation of Diesel Exhaust Particles

Section 9: Epidemiology—Silica

Factors Affecting Latency of Silicosis development in North Carolina

Temporal Patterns of Silica Dust Exposure and Lung Dimensions in Relation to Silicosis

Progression of Silicosis in Relation to Silica Dust Exposure

A 50 Year Survey and Follow-up of Silicosis in an Industrial Country: Mineral Exposure and Pneumoconiosis

Pulmonary Function in Silicosis

Section 10: Man-Made Mineral Fibers

Problems in Assessing Airborne Man-Made Mineral Fiber Concentrations in Relation to Epidemiology

Mortality among a Cohort of Man-Made Mineral Fibers (MMMF) Production Workers in Seven Countries: Extension of the Follow-up until 1982

Querschnittsuntersuchung Zur Frage Gesundheitlicher Beeinträchtigungen Des Bronchopulmonalen Systems Durch Den Umgang Mit Künstlichen Mineralfasern

Respiratory Health of Man-Made Mineral Fibers Production Workers: Results of an Epidemiological Survey in France

Chronic Inhalation Toxicology of Fibrous Glass in Rats and Monkeys

Effect of Chemical Composition on Pulmonary Clearance of Man-Made Mineral Fibers

Section 11: Magnetopneumography

Magnetic Iron Dust as a Probe of Particle Clearance, Phagocytosis and Particle Cytotoxicity in the Lungs

Lung Macrophage Function Evaluated Using Magnetic Aerosols

Magnetopneumographic Study of Human Alveolar Clearance in Health and Disease

Magnetopneumography and its Application to Occupational Hygiene

Part 2: Workshop on Lung Dosimetry

Editors' Preface

Introduction

New Approaches to Respiratory Tract Dosimetry Modeling for Inhaled Radionuclides

Session W1. Assessment of Lung Doses to Workers from Inhaled Radioactive Particles

The Effect of Particle Collection Statistics on the Estimation of Exposure to Airborne Contamination

Evaluation of the Probability Distribution of Intake from a Single Measurement on a Personal Air Sampler

Particle Size Distribution of Yellowcake in a Brazilian Uranium Mill

an Assessment of the Estimated Thorium Lung Burdens of 130 Miners in a Rare-Earth and Iron Mine in China

The Distribution of Inhaled Uranium Dust in the Human Thorax

The Impact of Upgraded In Vivo Lung Measurement Capability on an Internal Dosimetry Program

Factors Affecting the Assessment of Lung Deposits of Transuranics

A Comparison of Long-Term Retention of Plutonium Oxide in Lung Based on Excretion Data with Observed Lung Burdens at Autopsy

Session W2. Deposition and Clearance of Inhaled Particles in Relation to Lung Dosimetry

A Modeling Study of Regional Deposition of Inspired Aerosols with Reference to Dosimetric Assessments

Mass Deposition from Inspired Polydisperse Aerosols

Regional Deposition of 2.5 to 5.0 µm Polystyrene Microspheres Inhaled by Women

Influence of the Growth of Salt Aerosol Particles on Deposition in the Lung

Deposition and Clearance of 141Ce in the Respiratory Tract Following Inhalation of 141CeO2 in Rats

Effect of Age on the Metabolism of Inhaled Beryllium Fluoride in Rats

24-h and 48-h Retention of 5 µm Polystyrene Particles in Relationship to Lung Function and Inhalation Flow Rate

an Interspecies Comparison of the Translocation of Material from Lung to Blood

Transport of Intratracheally Injected 241Pu and 241Am Hydroxide Polymers in Rat Lung: Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Autoradiographic Studies

Effect of External Irradiation on the Clearance and Fate of Transuranic Oxides Deposited in Rat Lung

The Effect of Alpha Irradiation on Retention of Particles in the Rat Lung

The Induction of Nuclear Abnormalities in the Alveolar Macrophages of Mouse Lung after Inhalation of 239PuO2

Session W3. Lung Dosimetry

Regional Human Lung Dose Following Inhalation of Radioactive Particles at Ages One Month to Adulthood

A Dosimetric Model for Particles in the Respiratory Tract above the Trachea

Nonuniform Particle Deposition on Tracheobronchial Airways: Implications for Lung Dosimetry

The Significance of Enhanced Radionuclide Deposition at Bronchial Bifurcations

Age Dependent Hit Probabilities for Lung Cancer Induction Following Exhalation of Ingested Radon

Local Alpha Dose from Uranium Bearing Particles in Lungs of Former Miners and Millers

Autopsy Studies of the Microdistribution of α-active Nuclides in Lung Tissue

Specific Energy Distributions for Alpha Emitters in the Dog Lung

Session W4. Effects of Inhaled Radioactive Particles

High LET Radiation Effects in Lung Tissue

The Sensitivity of Three Diploid Human Cell Lines to Alpha-Irradiation

Organs and Cells at Risk After Inhalation of Insoluble Beta-Emitting Radionuclides: Lessons from Experimental Studies

Respiratory System Risk Estimation for Inhaled Radionuclides Utilizing Lognormal Response Surfaces

Inhalation Carcinogenesis of Fine Particles of Plutonium Oxide Formed from the Combustion of A Plutonium-Magnesium Alloy. Comparison to Pure Micrometric PuO2

Summary and Concluding Remarks

Part 3: Poster Presentations

Poster Program

Aerosol Deposition in Man—Theory and Experiment

Theoretical Deposition of Fibrous Particles in the Respiratory Tract of Humans and Rats

Oral Deposition of Monodisperse Aerosols in Humans during Natural Oronasal Breathing

Particle Clearance from Human Lung

The Clearance of Particles of Colloidal Gold from Subpleural Alveoli

Lung Burden of Nickel Oxide (Green) Following Long-Term Inhalation by Rats

Quantitative X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Chrysotile and Crocidolite by the Silver Membrane Filter Method: Application to Asbestos-Cement Bulk Samples

Automated Asbestos Measurement by the Manchester Asbestos Program, and its Extension to Low Concentration Samples

Comparison of Rules A and B According to NIOSH New Method 7400 for Counting Asbestos Fibers

In Vitro Co-Effects of Chrysotile Fibers and Benzo(a)Pyrene on Morphological Transformation of Rat Pleural Mesothelial Cells

Immunomodulation Induced by Quartz Dust in Animals and Effect of Antisilicotic Treatment

Effects of Particle Size of Coal Mine Dusts in Experimental Anthracosilicosis. In Vitro Studies on Human Macrophages

Combining X-Ray Diffraction and Electron Diffraction in Chemical Compound Analysis of Metal Aerosols

Chrysotile and Tremolite Content of Quebec Miners

Mineral Particles in the Lungs of Urban Male Cigarette Smokers

Asbestos Fibers in Lung Tissue from Chrysotile Production and Textile Workers. Preliminary Report

Factors Affecting Prevalence of Mucus Hypersecretion and Airflow Obstruction in the Coal Industry of New South Wales, Australia

Lung Function of Coal Miners. Results of an Epidemiological Study in Three German Coal Mines

Radiographic Studies and Pathology of Various Kinds of Pneumoconiosis in China

Environmental Assessment of Diesel Emissions in Underground Coal Mines

Effects of Diesel Equipment Usage on Prevalence of Chronic Bronchitis, Lung Carcinoma and Ischaemic Heart Disease in Coal Workers

List of Participants

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
1244
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1988
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483159782

About the Editor

J. Dodgson

R. I. Mccallum

M. R. Bailey