Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy

Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy

Principles and Spectral Interpretation

1st Edition - May 25, 2011

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  • Author: Peter Larkin
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869845
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123870186

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Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques are used by chemists, environmental scientists, forensic scientists etc to identify unknown chemicals. In the case of an organic chemist these tools are part of an armory of techniques that enable them to conclusively prove what compound they have made, which is essential for those being used in medical applications. The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra. An extensive use of graphics is used to describe the basic principles of vibrational spectroscopy and the origins of group frequencies, with over 100 fully interpreted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra included and indexed to the relevant qualitative interpretation chapter. A final chapter with forty four unknown spectra and with a corresponding answer key is included to test the readers understanding. Tables of frequencies (peaks) for both infrared and Raman spectra are provided at key points in the book and will act as a useful reference resource for those involve interpreting spectra. This book provides a solid introduction to vibrational spectroscopy with an emphasis placed upon developing critical interpretation skills. Ideal for those using and analyzing IR and Raman spectra in their laboratories as well as those using the techniques in the field.

Key Features

  • Uniquely integrates discussion of IR and Raman spectra
  • Theory illustrated and explained with over 100 fully interpreted high quality FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra (4 cm-1 resolution)
  • Selected problems at the end of chapters and 44 unknown IR and Raman spectra to test readers understanding (with a corresponding answer key)


Individuals, advanced students, Academics and Professionals using InfraRed (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. Libraries of institutes where spectroscopy and structure determination is taught

Table of Contents

    • Dedication
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1. Historical Perspective: IR and Raman Spectroscopy
    • Chapter 2. Basic Principles
      • 1. Electromagnetic radiation
      • 2. Molecular motion/degrees of freedom
      • 3. Classical harmonic oscillator
      • 4. Quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator
      • 5. IR absorption process
      • 6. The Raman scattering process
      • 7. Classical description of the Raman effect
      • 8. Symmetry: IR and Raman active vibrations
      • 9. Calculating the vibrational spectra of molecules
    • Chapter 3. Instrumentation and Sampling Methods
      • 1. Instrumentation
      • 2. Sampling Methods for IR Spectroscopy
      • 3. Quantitative Analysis
    • Chapter 4. Environmental Dependence of Vibrational Spectra
      • 1. Solid, Liquid, Gaseous States
      • 2. Hydrogen Bonding
      • 3. Fermi Resonance
    • Chapter 5. Origin of Group Frequencies
      • 1. Coupled Oscillators
    • Chapter 6. IR and Raman Spectra-Structure Correlations
      • 1. X–H stretching group (X=O, S, P, N, Si, B)
      • 2. Aliphatic groups
      • 3. Conjugated aliphatics and aromatics
      • 4. Carbonyl groups
      • 5. C–O and C–N Stretches
      • 6. N=O and other Nitrogen containing compounds
      • 7. C-Halogen and C–S Containing compounds
      • 8. S=O, P=O, B–O/B–N and Si–O compounds
      • 9. Inorganics
    • Chapter 7. General Outline and Strategies for IR and Raman Spectral Interpretation
      • 1. Tools of the trade
      • 2. IR Sample preparation issues
      • 3. Overview of spectral interpretation
      • 4. Interpretation guidelines and major spectra–structure correlations
    • Chapter 8. Illustrated IR and Raman Spectra Demonstrating Important Functional Groups
      • 1. Aliphatic
      • 2. C=C Double bonds
      • 3. Triple bonds
      • 4. Aromatic rings
      • 5. Ketones, esters, and anhydrides
      • 6. Amides, ureas, and related compounds
      • 7. Alcohols
      • 8. Ethers
      • 9. Amines and amine salts
      • 10. C=N Compounds
      • 11. N=O Compounds
      • 12. Azo Compound
      • 13. Boronic acid compound
      • 14. Chlorine, bromine, and fluorine compounds
      • 15. Sulfur compounds
      • 16. Phosphorus compounds
      • 17. Siloxane Compounds
      • 18. Inorganic compounds
      • 19. Polymers and biopolymers
    • Chapter 9. Unknown IR and Raman Spectra
    • Appendix. IR/Raman Correlation Charts
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 230
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2011
  • Published: May 25, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869845
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123870186

About the Author

Peter Larkin

Peter J. Larkin leads Solvay's Spectroscopy and Materials Characterization group based in Stamford, Connecticut. He has more than 25 years of experience using IR, Raman, and NIR spectroscopy in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. This includes managing research groups in R&D environments as well as directing analytical method development, validation, and transfer teams. He specializes in IR and Raman spectral interpretation, spectroscopic chemometric analyses, early phase API and chemical development support, and process analytical techniques (PAT). Dr. Larkin received his PhD from the University of Pittsburgh in 1990 using resonance Raman and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy to study heme proteins. Since that time he has worked in analytical departments both in the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical industries. While at American Cyanamid/Cytec Industries in Stamford, CT, Larkin received comprehensive training in IR interpretation from Dr. Norman B. Colthup. He subsequently worked at Wyeth Pharmaceutical, had a brief stint with Pfizer, lead the solid state analysis group at Bristol-Myers Squibb, and now leads the spectroscopy and materials characterization group at Solvay.

Affiliations and Expertise

Spectroscopy and Materials Characterization Group, Technology Solutions, Solvay, Stamford, CT, USA

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