Infectious Disease in Aquaculture - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857090164, 9780857095732

Infectious Disease in Aquaculture

1st Edition

Prevention and Control

Editors: B Austin
eBook ISBN: 9780857095732
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090164
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016336
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 25th April 2012
Page Count: 560
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition


Part I: Immune responses in fish and shellfish and their implications for disease control

Chapter 1: The innate and adaptive immune system of fish


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Overview of immune cells and organs in fish

1.3 Fish innate immune response

1.4 An overview of the adaptive immune response in fish

1.5 Immune regulation: the cytokine network in fish

1.6 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Crustacean immune responses and their implications for disease control


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Cellular defence

2.3 Hematopoiesis

2.4 Defence against viruses

2.5 Pattern recognition in crustaceans

2.6 The prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade

2.7 Coagulation

2.8 Antimicrobial proteins

2.9 Future trends and conclusions

Chapter 3: Immune responses in molluscs and their implications for disease control


3.1 Introduction

3.2 The molluscan immune system

3.3 Disease control in bivalves

3.4 Conclusions

3.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 4: Stress and resistance to infectious diseases in fish


4.1 Introduction: disease is not just the presence of pathogens

4.2 Fish immune and stress responses

4.3 Individual variability and population level effects

4.4 Conclusions

Part II: Advances in disease diagnostics, veterinary drugs and vaccines

Chapter 5: Advances in diagnostic methods for mollusc, crustacean and finfish diseases


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Mollusc disease diagnostic methods

5.3 Crustacean disease diagnostic methods

5.4 Finfish disease diagnostic methods

5.5 Future trends

Chapter 6: Quality assurance in aquatic disease diagnostics


6.1 Introduction

6.2 The importance of valid and reliable aquatic disease diagnosis and the role of quality assurance systems

6.3 Sampling submission and handling for aquatic disease diagnosis

6.4 The importance of assay performance in aquatic disease diagnosis

6.5 Validation of quality assurance systems for aquatic diagnostic facilities

6.6 Interpreting and reporting results under a quality assurance system

6.7 Accreditation and auditing of disease diagnostic laboratories

6.8 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Antibiotics in aquaculture: reducing their use and maintaining their efficacy


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial diseases in aquatic animals

7.3 The use of antibiotics in aquaculture

7.4 Efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in aquaculture

7.5 Laboratory detection of clinical resistance

7.6 The Clinical and Laboratory Science Institute (CLSI) approach to susceptibility testing in aquaculture

7.7 Questions concerning the CLSI approach

7.8 Future trends: the way forward for susceptibility testing

7.9 Conclusions

7.10 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Considerations for the use of anti-parasitic drugs in aquaculture


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Factors in successful treatment with anti-parasitic drugs

8.3 Trigger points for treatment with anti-parasitic drugs in aquaculture

8.4 Future trends

Chapter 9: Developments in vaccination against fish bacterial disease


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Methods of administration of vaccines for fish

9.3 Determination of effectiveness of the vaccines

9.4 Vaccine composition

9.5 Mode of action of vaccines

9.6 Conclusions

Chapter 10: Developments in adjuvants for fish vaccines


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Fish immune responses: implications for the development of vaccines and adjuvants

10.3 Oil-adjuvanted fish vaccines

10.4 Vaccines adjuvanted with substances other than oil

10.5 Future trends and conclusions

10.6 Acknowledgements

Part III: Development of specific pathogen-free populations and novel approaches for disease control

Chapter 11: Development of specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp stocks and their application to sustainable shrimp farming


11.1 Introduction

11.2 A historical perspective on the concept of domesticated specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp

11.3 The development of Litopenaeus vannamei as the dominant species in the Americas

11.4 The adaptation of the specific pathogen-free (SPF) concept to domesticated shrimp stocks

11.5 Maintenance of specific pathogen-free (SPF) status: disease surveillance and control programs

11.6 Conclusions

11.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 12: The role of risk analysis in the development of biosecurity programmes for the maintenance of specific pathogen-free populations


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Aquaculture disease risk analysis

12.3 Application of risk analysis to surveillance and biosecurity strategies

12.4 Constraints and future trends

12.5 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Developments in genomics relevant to disease control in aquaculture


13.1 Introduction

13.2 The genomics toolbox in comparative immunology

13.3 Genomics in finfish disease control

13.4 Genomics in shellfish and crustacean disease control

13.5 Future trends

Chapter 14: Bacteria and bacteriophages as biological agents for disease control in aquaculture


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Isolation of bacteria for biocontrol

14.3 Antagonistic activity of bacterial agents

14.4 Colonization and persistence within the host

14.5 Considerations for the design of pathogen challenge tests

14.6 Safety of bacterial biocontrol agents and perspectives on future development

14.7 Biocontrol using bacteriophages

14.8 Strengths and challenges to phage biocontrol

14.9 Future trends

Chapter 15: Managing the microbiota in aquaculture systems for disease prevention and control


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Control strategies against diseases

15.3 The microbial maturation concept

15.4 Manipulating type and number of bacteria: probiotics and prebiotics

15.5 Managing bacterial activity by means of quorum sensing (QS)

15.6 Host–microbe interactions affecting host health in aquaculture: the need for knowledge

15.7 Conclusions

15.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 16: Natural antimicrobial compounds for use in aquaculture


16.1 Introduction: microbial diseases in aquaculture

16.2 Current problems in microbial disease control

16.3 Public health and ethical issues relating to the use of antibiotics for disease control in aquaculture

16.4 Alternative antimicrobial compounds

16.5 Origin of alternative antimicrobials

16.6 Plant antimicrobials

16.7 Possible mode of action of herbal antimicrobials

16.8 Routes of administration of antimicrobial herbal extracts to fish and shrimps

16.9 Conclusions

Chapter 17: The potential for antimicrobial peptides to improve fish health in aquaculture


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Strategies for preventing disease in fish

17.3 Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)

17.4 The potential role of antimicrobial peptides in preventing and treating fish diseases

17.5 Future trends and conclusions

17.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 18: Advances in non-chemical methods for parasite prevention and control in fish


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Principles of disease management without chemicals

18.3 Preventative measures

18.4 Disease management

18.5 Interventions for parasite prevention and control in fish

18.6 Conclusions



With an ever increasing demand for seafood that cannot be met by capture fisheries alone, growing pressure is being placed on aquaculture production. However, infectious diseases are a major constraint. Infectious disease in aquaculture: prevention and control brings together a wealth of recent research on this problem and its effective management.

Part one considers the innate and adaptive immune responses seen in fish and shellfish together with the implications of these responses for disease control. The specific immune response of molluscs and crustaceans is considered in depth, along with the role of stress in resistance to infection. Advances in disease diagnostics, veterinary drugs and vaccines are discussed in part two, with quality assurance, the use and effects of antibiotics and anti-parasitic drugs in aquaculture, and developments in vaccination against fish are explored. Part three focuses on the development of specific pathogen-free populations and novel approaches for disease control. Specific pathogen free shrimp stocks, developments in genomics and the use of bacteria and bacteriophages as biological agents for disease control are explored, before the management and use of natural antimicrobial compounds.

With its distinguished editor and expert team of contributors, Infectious disease in aquaculture: prevention and control provides managers of aquaculture facilities and scientists working on disease in aquaculture with a comprehensive and systematic overview of essential research in the prevention and control of infectious disease.

Key Features

  • Collates a wealth of recent research on infectious disease and its effective management in aquaculture production
  • Considers the innate and adaptive immune responses seen in fish and shelfish and the implications for disease control
  • Discusses advances in disease diagnostics, veterinary drugs and vaccines


Industry and government officials in the food fish industry, fish pathologists, veterinarians and health experts.


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About the Editors

B Austin Editor

Brian Austin is the Director of the Institute of Aquaculture and Professor of Microbiology at the University of Stirling. He is internationally-known for his research on infectious disease in aquaculture.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Stirling, UK