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Industrial Process Scale-up - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444642103, 9780444642844

Industrial Process Scale-up

2nd Edition

A Practical Innovation Guide from Idea to Commercial Implementation

Author: Jan Harmsen
Paperback ISBN: 9780444642103
eBook ISBN: 9780444642844
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 17th May 2019
Page Count: 142
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Industrial Process Scale-up: A Practical Innovation Guide from Idea to Commercial Implementation, Second Edition helps industrial process innovators in research, development and commercial start-ups assess the risks of commercial-scale implementation, also providing them with practical guidelines and methods to reduce the risks to acceptable levels. In addition, the book can be used in cooperation with industrial R&D people and academic researchers to shape open innovation programs, and in education as a reference book. This updated edition has the latest literature and has been expanded with a scale-up of pharmaceutical processes and their history in both academia and the process industries.

Key Features

  • Offers easily accessible, step-by-step and concise guidelines for industrial process scale-up
  • Explains each stage of the innovation funnel, from research, development, demonstration and commercial implementation for any process type and branch
  • Based on industrial experiences and practices that reduce the risks of commercial scale implementation of new processes to acceptable levels and reduce cost and time of process innovation


Engineering students, researchers in chemical engineering, process developers, process designers, and R&D managers in process industries for Oil and Gas, Bulk/Fine Chemicals, Biotechnology, Biomass conversion, Ore processing, Metals, Food and Pharmaceuticals

Table of Contents

1 Industrial Scale up Content and Context

1.1 Purpose and Set-up

1.2 Scale-up Definition Methodology and Risks

1.2.1 Scale-up Definition

1.2.2 Scale-up Methodology

1.2.3 Stage-gate Innovation Method

1.2.4 Scale-up and Design role

1.2.5. Scale-up Behavior and Risks

1.3 Process industry Systems

1.3.1 Value and Life Cycle Chains

1.3.2 Industrial Complexes

1.3.3 Processes

1.3.4 Unit Operations

1.3.5 Major Process Equipment

1.3.6 Dispersed System Level

1.3.7 Chemistry Level

1.4 Partners and Stakeholders for Innovation

2 Discovery Stage

2.1 Obtaining Process Ideas

2.1.1 Obtaining Ideas in General

2.1.2 Obtaining New Process Routes

2.2 Assessing Process Ideas

2.2.1 Assessing and Ranking many Ideas

2.2.2 Technology Readiness Level method

2.3 Process Design Sketch

2.3.1 Process Concept Design Essentials

2.3.2 Reference Case for Comparison

2.4 Proof of Principle

2.5 Discovery Stage-gate Evaluation

2.5.1 Discovery Stage-gate Purpose

2.5.2 Reporting Discovery Stage

2.6 Pitfalls Discovery Stage

3 Concept Stage

3.1 Detailed Assessment of Ideas

3.1.1 New Process Routes Assessments

3.1.2 Detailed Assessment Best Ideas

3.1.3 Co-operation with External Innovation Partners

3.2 Identifying Potential Showstoppers

3.3 Proof of Concept

3.4 Concept Design

3.4.1 Purpose Concept Design

3.4.2 Concept Design

3.4.3 Break-through Concept Design by Function Integration

3.4.4. Process Modelling and Simulation

3.4.5 Essential Property Determination

3.4.6 Concept Stage Reporting

3.5 Concept Stage-gate Evaluation

3.6 Pitfalls Concept Stage

4 Feasibility Stage

4.1 Purpose of Feasibility Stage

4.2 Process Equipment Scale-up

4.2.1 Introduction to Process Equipment Type Selection

4.2.2 Critical Performance Phenomena Overview Critical Performance Phenomena Feed Distribution Residence time distribution Mixing Shear Rate Distribution Mass transfer Heat transfer Impulse transfer

4.2.3 Process Equipment Scale-up Methods Overview Process Equipment Scale-up Methods Brute Force Scale-Up and Scale-Down Model-Based Scale-Up Empirical Scale-Up Hybrid Model-Empirical Scale-up Dimensionless numbers Scale-up Direct Scale-Up

4.2.4 Scale-up Characteristics Process Equipment Tpes

4.2.5 Process Equipment Type Selection in View of Reliable Large Scale Performance

4.2.6 Historic Case of Process Equipment Type Selection Shell Gas-To-Liquid Development

4.3 Process Scale-up by Design

4.3.1 Purpose Commercial Scale Design in Feasibility Stage

4.3.2 Design Choices in View of Development Cost.

4.3.3 Design Base

4.3.4 Purchasing a Complete Process Technology

4.4 Risk Assessment for Decision Mini-Pant

4.4.1 Mini-plant Choice

4.4.2. Mini-plant Cost Estimate

4.5 Decision on Integrated Down-Scaled pilot plant

4.5.1 Pilot Plant Purposes

4.5.2 Decision on having a Pilot Plant

4.5.3 Industry Project Statistics of not having a Pilot Plant.

4.5.4 Value of Information Approach for Development Plan Decisions

4.5.5 Pilot Plant design

4.5.6 Pilot Plant Cost Estimate

4.6 Decision and Design of Cold-Flow Test Units

4.7 Feasibility Stage Study Pharmaceuticals Agrochemicals and Fine Chemicals

4.7.1 Pharmaceuticals Feasibility Stage

4.7.2 Agrochemicals Feasibility Stage

4.7.3 Fine chemicals Feasibility stage: Unit Operations Choices in View of Scale-up

4.8 Planning for Concurrent Development and Commercial Scale Design

4.9 Feasibility Stage-gate Evaluation

4.10 Pitfalls Feasibility Stage

5 Development Stage

5.1 Mini-Plant Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Testing

5.2 Pilot Plant Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Testing

5.3 Cold-Flow Plant Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Testing

5.4 Front End Engineering Design (FEED)

5.5 Development Stage-Gate Reporting and Evaluation

5.6 Pitfalls Development Stage

6 Scale-up from Existing Pilot Plant

6.1 Scale-up from Existing Pilot Plant to Existing Commercial Scale Process

6.1.1 Scale-up Continuous Process from Existing Pilot Plant to Existing Process

6.1.2 Scale-up for Batch Process from Pilot Plant to Existing Commercial Scale Process

6.2 Scale-up from Existing Pilot Plant to New Process

7 Implementation Stage

7.1 Introduction to Implementation Stage

7.2 Rationale Demonstration Scale Decision

7.3 Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction

7.3.1 Contractor selection

7.3.2 Detailed Design

7.3.3 Procurement, Construction and Commissioning

7.4 Start-Up Commercial Processes

7.4.1 Start-Up Time Prediction Start-up time Merrow Industry Correlation Critical Success Factors Reducing Start-up time Fulfilling critical success factors Start-up time and Critical Success Factors Shell GTL Case

7.5 Pitfalls Implementation Stage

8 Industrial Scale-Up Cases

8.1 Liquid- Liquid Extractive Reaction by Taguchi model-based product quality control

8.2 Start-up Bulk Chemical Product Conventional Process

8.3 Start-up Conventional Process in South Korea

8.4 Purchasing Novel Process

8.5 Polymerization Process

8.6 Wastewater Novel Design and Implementation

8.7 Carilon Engineering Polymer: New Product, Process, Market and Strategy Change

8.8 Purchasing a Commercially Proven Rotating Filter

8.9 Fermentation Scale-up

8.10 Fine chemicals Discovery stage

8.11 Summary of Learning points from Industrial Cases


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2019
17th May 2019
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Jan Harmsen

Jan Harmsen

Dr. Jan Harmsen is currently Director of Harmsen Consultancy B.V. From 1996 to 2010 he was Principal Process Developer, Shell Technology Center Amsterdam. After thirty-three years of industrial experience in exploratory research, development, process design, and chemicals manufacturing, ir. Harmsen now successfully works as an independent consultant on innovation with sustainable development in view. He has published three books with Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harmsen Consultancy B.V., The Netherlands

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