Industrial Oil Crops

Industrial Oil Crops

1st Edition - February 23, 2016

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  • Editors: Thomas McKeon, Doulgas Hayes, David Hildebrand, Randall Weselake
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128053850
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781893997981

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Industrial Oil Crops presents the latest information on important products derived from seed and other plant oils, their quality, the potential environmental benefit, and the latest trends in industrial uses. This book provides a comprehensive view of key oil crops that provide products used for fuel, surfactants, paints and coatings, lubricants, high-value polymers, safe plasticizers and numerous other products, all of which compete effectively with petroleum-derived products for quality and cost. Specific products derived from oil crops are a principle concern, and other fundamental aspects of developing oil crops for industrial uses are also covered. These include improvement through traditional breeding, and molecular, tissue culture and genetic engineering contributions to breeding, as well as practical aspects of what is needed to bring a new or altered crop to market. As such, this book provides a handbook for developing products from renewable resources that can replace those currently derived from petroleum. Led by an international team of expert editors, this book will be a valuable asset for those in product research and development as well as basic plant research related to oil crops.

Key Features

  • Up-to-date review of all the key oilseed crops used primarily for industrial purposes
  • Highlights the potential for providing renewable resources to replace petroleum derived products
  • Comprehensive chapters on biodiesel and polymer chemistry of seed oil
  • Includes chapters on economics of new oilseed crops, emerging oilseed crops, genetic modification and plant tissue culture technology for oilseed improvement


Product developers, formulators, and analytical scientists in the fuels, biofuels, surfactants, paints and coatings, lubricants, polymers, and plastics industries

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Editor Biographies
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. Introduction to Industrial Oil Crops
      • Introduction
      • What Is an Industrial Oil Crop?
      • Why Do We Care About Industrial Seed Oils?
      • Where Do Industrial Oils Come From?
      • How Are Industrial Oil Crops Improved?
      • Genetic Engineering of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
      • Genetic Engineering of Oil Biosynthesis
      • Technical and Social Issues Related to Plant Genetic Engineering
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2. Biodiesel and Its Properties
      • Introduction
      • Historical Background
      • Biodiesel Production
      • Biodiesel Analysis
      • Biodiesel Properties
      • Disclaimer
    • Chapter 3. Polymeric Products Derived From Industrial Oils for Paints, Coatings, and Other Applications
      • Introduction
      • Preparation of New Monomers From Unsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
      • Preparation of Polyols From Unsaturated Fatty Acids
      • Conjugated Oils as Coatings: Direct Free Radical Polymerization
      • Cationic Polymerization of Unsaturated Oils
      • Metathesis Polymerization of Unsaturated Oils
      • Vulcanization of Polyunsaturated Oils
      • Estolides and Polycondensation Products From Hydroxy Fatty Acids
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)
      • Introduction
      • Agronomy
      • Castor Breeding
      • Ricin and RCA
      • Ricin Detection
      • Castor Seed Allergen
      • Processing
      • Castor Oil Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • Castor Oil Production and Applications
      • Miscellaneous Uses of the Castor Plant
      • Summary
    • Chapter 5. Brassica spp. Oils
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of Brassica Oilseed Species and Industrial Uses of Their Oils
      • Production of Brassica Oilseed Species
      • Breeding of Brassica Oilseed Species
      • Brassica Seed Oil as a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
      • Chemical Modification of Brassica Oils for Other Industrial Applications
      • Genetic Engineering of Brassica Oilseed Species to Produce Industrial Oils
      • Closing Comments
    • Chapter 6. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)
      • Introduction
      • Differentiation of Fiber Flax and Oilseed Flax
      • Flax Genetics and Breeding
      • Flaxseed Oil
      • Closing Comments
    • Chapter 7. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica)
      • Origin and History
      • Crambe Botany
      • Seed Composition
      • Crambe as an Industrial Oil Crop
      • Crambe Cultivation
      • Genetic Resources and Conventional Breeding
      • Crambe Improvement Using Gene Technology
      • Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 8. Camelina (Camelina sativa)
      • Introduction
      • Camelina Production as an Oil Seed Crop
      • Camelina Oil Composition and Stability
      • Camelina Meal Quality and Uses in Livestock
      • Antinutritive Compounds in Camelina Meal
      • Camelina Genome
      • Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Camelina
      • Outcrossing Potential for Camelina
      • Genetically Engineering Camelina Fatty Acid Composition
      • Increasing the Agronomic Potential of Camelina
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 9. Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
      • Introduction
      • Botany, Cultivation and Production
      • Yields and Production
      • Coconut Oil
      • Emerging Applications
      • Premium Grade Monolaurin and HIV/AIDS
    • Chapter 10. Tung (Vernicia fordii and Vernicia montana)
      • Introduction
      • The History of Tung in the United States: The Tung Belt
      • Research on Tung
      • Tung’s Demise in the United States
      • Industrial Utilization of Tung Oil
      • Tung Trees Meet the Molecular Age
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11. Emerging Industrial Oil Crops
      • Introduction
      • Chapter 11.1. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.)
      • Chapter 11.2. Cuphea (Cuphea spp.)
      • Chapter 11.3. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
      • Chapter 11.4. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.)
      • Chapter 11.5. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)
      • Chapter 11.6. Lesquerella (Physaria spp.)
      • Chapter 11.7. Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba)
      • Chapter 11.8. Pennycress (Thlapsi spp.)
      • Chapter 11.9. Perilla (Perilla frutescens)
      • Chapter 11.10. Pili (Canarium ovatum)
      • Chapter 11.11. Epilogue
    • Chapter 12. Successful Commercialization of Industrial Oil Crops
      • Introduction
      • Grow
      • Make
      • Sell
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 13. Applications of Doubled Haploidy for Improving Industrial Oilseeds
      • Introduction
      • DH Methodology
      • Brassica Species
      • Other Cruciferous Species
      • Apiaceae Species
      • Compositae Species
      • Other Species
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 14. Genetic Transformation of Crops for Oil Production
      • Introduction
      • Multipurpose and Technical Oils
      • Oils—An Essential Dietary Requirement for Humans
      • Plant Oils as an Alternate to Petroleum—Biofuels
      • Oilseed Crop Platforms for Animal Feedstock
      • Conventional Methods of Oil Crop Improvement
      • Recombinant DNA Technology—Methods and Tools for Obtaining Transgenic Plants
      • Genetic Transformation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Development
      • Soybean
      • Oil Palm
      • Rapeseed
      • Castor
      • Sunflower
      • Cotton
      • Flax
      • Maize
      • Jatropha
      • Camelina
      • Transgenic Oil Crops—Means and Challenges
      • Development of Clean Marker-Free Transgenic Plants
      • Targeted Genome Engineering for Locus-Specific Modifications
      • The Debate on GM Crops
      • Oil Crops of the Future
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15. Engineering Oil Accumulation in Vegetative Tissue
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Acyl-Lipid Metabolism in Developing Seeds and Leaves
      • Transcription Factors Promote Increased Triacylglycerol Production in Vegetative Tissue
      • Increasing the Availability of Building Blocks for Triacylglycerol Assembly by Modifying Enzyme Action
      • Increasing Triacylglycerol Assembly
      • Decreasing Triacylglycerol Turnover
      • Multigene Strategies for Increasing Triacylglycerol Content in Vegetative Tissue
      • Enriching Leaf Triacylglycerol in Industrially Useful Fatty Acids
      • Engineering C4 High-Biomass Plants to Produce Triacylglycerol in Vegetative Tissue
      • Conclusion
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 474
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2016
  • Published: February 23, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128053850
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781893997981

About the Editors

Thomas McKeon

Dr Tom McKeon is a research chemist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. He received his PhD in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. His research area is the biochemistry of castor oil biosynthesis and he is involved in aspects of agronomy, toxin detection and chemurgy of castor to promote its reintroduction as a US crop. Dr McKeon is active as a member and biotechnology division Board member of the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) and served on the AOCS Governing Board and numerous committees. He serves as a co-organizer of the USDA-ARS sponsored US-Japan Natural Resources (UJNR) Food and Agriculture Panel. He is also a Board member of the International Society for Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, has served as Guest Editor for the ISBAB special issues of New Biotechnology and as Editor of Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology (BAB) published by Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Regional Research Center, Albany, California, USA

Doulgas Hayes

Douglas G. Hayes is a professor of biosystems engineering at the University of Tennessee. Professor Hayes has previously served as a faculty member in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. He also hold an Adjunct professorship in the University of Tennessee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular engineering, guest professorships at Wuhan Polytechnic University and Jinan University in China, and is a UT-Oak Ridge National Laboratory Joint Faculty. Professor Hayes is a Senior Associate Editor (SAE) for the Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society and an AE for Journal of Surfactants and Detergents. He has served the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) as an officer for the Biotechnology Division (Chair from 2014 to 2015), was Chair of the AOCS Professional Educator Common Interest Group (2013–18) and is a member at large for the AOCS Governing Board (since 2017). He has published over 65 articles in peer-reviewed publications, 15 book chapters, and one edited book. His research interests include surfactants, soft matter, and biobased chemicals and materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

David Hildebrand

Dr. David Hildebrand is Professor in the Department of Plan and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky. He earned his PhD in Plant Breeding and Genetics from the University of Illinois. His research interests are in plant biochemistry and genetics and the application of biotechnology to crop improvement with particular emphasis on food, lipid, and oil quality, new uses of agricultural commodities, and plant pest defense. He has served as Associate Editor for the Journal of American Oil Chemists' Society since 1999 and as Associate Editor of Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology since 2009. He holds five patents and is the author of more than 150 peer-reviewed publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Plant Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Randall Weselake

Randall J. Weselake is a professor and Tier I Canada Research Chair in Agricultural Lipid Biotechnology in the Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science at the University of Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). Since 1987, when he was a research associate at the National Research Council of Canada in Saskatoon, Randall’s research has focused on the biochemistry and molecular biology of storage lipid metabolism in Brassica napus and other oil crops. Recently, he served as scientific director of the Alberta Innovates Phytola Center, which specializes in oilseed innovations, including research on the development of industrial oil crops. From 2007 to 2013, Randall was leader of the “Bioactive Oils Program” funded by AVAC Ltd., and from 2006 to 2011, he was co-leader of the Genome Canada/Genome Alberta project “Designing Oilseeds for Tomorrow’s Markets”. From 1989 to 2004, Randall was with the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Lethbridge (Alberta, Canada), serving as chair from 1996 to 1999. His doctoral research in plant biochemistry was conducted at the University of Manitoba and Grain Research Laboratory of the Canadian Grain Commission. Randall is joint editorin-chief of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) Lipid Library, associate editor for Lipids, and editor for Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. Randall has published more than 160 papers in refereed journals and books and is editor of the book Teaching Innovations in Lipid Science, which was published by the Taylor & Francis Group of the CRC Press and the AOCS Press. He is a fellow of both the AOCS and the International Society of Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Agricultural Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

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