Industrial and Process Furnaces

Industrial and Process Furnaces

Principles, Design and Operation

3rd Edition - November 26, 2022

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  • Authors: Peter Mullinger, Barrie Jenkins
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323916295
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323984911

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Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, Design and Operation, Third Edition continues to provide comprehensive coverage on all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. New to this edition are sections on production, handling and utilization of alternative fuels such as biomass, hydrogen and various wastes, modeling of the process, combustion and heat transfer, their benefits, advantages and limitations, mitigation and removal of CO2 , the role of solar and other renewable energy, recent research, and the practical approach of the Whyalla steelworks for harnessing solar energy for sustainable steelmaking, hydrogen and as a "clean fuel". The book also includes a discussion on the limitations of hydrogen supply owing to fresh water supply constraints, the difficulty of storing and transporting hydrogen, and the current sociopolitical impetus of CO2.

Key Features

  • Covers the manufacture and utilization of hydrogen as a clean fuel
  • Includes process modeling and expands on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with a special focus on flames and burners, costs, efficiencies and future trends
  • Expands on future trends, including sociopolitical impacts on CO2 emissions and control


Professional engineers (chemical, mechanical, power, process, HVAC, environmental), designers, production staff who use heat and combustion as part of a process. Advanced students of Chemical, Mechanical and Power Engineering (as a reference) dealing with energy conversion/thermal engineering. Environmental (air quality) inspectors and policy makers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction 


    1.1 What is a Furnace? 

    1.2 Where are Furnaces Used? Brief Review of Current Furnace Applications and Technology 

    1.3 Drivers for Improved Efficiency and reduced emissions 

    1.4 Concluding Remarks 



    Chapter 2. The Combustion Process 


    2.1 Simple Combustion Chemistry 

    2.2 Combustion Calculations 

    2.3 Chemical Reaction Kinetics 

    2.4 The Physics of Combustion 

    Nomenclature for Chapter 2 

    References for Chapter 2 


    Chapter 3. Fuels for Furnaces 


    3.1 Gaseous Fuels including the gasification of biomass, manufacture and application of hydrogen with types and applications of fuel cells  

    3.2 Liquid Fuels 

    3.3 Solid Fuels  

    3.4 Biomass derived fuels 

    3.5 Waste Fuels 

    3.6 Choice of Fuel 

    3.7 Safety 

    3.8 Emissions 



    Fuels Bibliography 


    Chapter 4. An Introduction to Heat Transfer in Furnaces 


    4.1 Conduction 

    4.2 Convection 

    4.3 Radiation 

    4.4 Electrical Heating 




    Chapter 5. Flames and Burners for Furnaces 


    5.1 Types of Flame 

    5.2 Function of a Burner and Basics of Burner Design 

    5.3 Gas Burners, including burners for hydrogen and mild combustion 

    5.4 Oil Burners 

    5.5 Pulverised Coal Burners 

    5.6 Burners for waste based fuels 

    5.7 Furnace Aerodynamics 

    5.8 Combustion System Scaling 

    5.9 Furnace Noise 

    Nomenclature for Chapter 5 

    References for Chapter 5 


    Chapter 6. Process, Combustion and Heat Transfer Modelling 


    6.1 Physical Modelling 

    6.2 Mathematical Modelling including process modelling using ASPEN, Matlab, etc including advantages and limitations CFD modelling including latest developments 

    6.3 Application of Modelling to Furnace Design 




    Chapter 7. Fuel Handling Systems 


    7.1 Gas Valve Trains 

    7.2 Fuel Oil Handling Systems 

    7.3 Pulverised Coal Handling and Firing Systems 

    7.4 Waste Fuel Handling 


    References for Chapter 7 

    Applicable Codes and Standards 


    Chapter 8. Furnace Control and Safety 


    8.1 Process Control 

    8.2 Furnace Instrumentation 

    8.3 Flue Gas Analysis 

    8.4 Combustion Control 

    8.5 Ensuring Furnace Safety 

    8.6 Burner Management Systems 



    Certification and Testing Organisations 


    Chapter 9. Furnace Efficiency 


    9.1 Furnace Performance Charts 

    9.2 Mass and Energy Balances 

    9.3 Energy Conversion 

    9.4 Heat Recovery Equipment 

    9.5 Identifying Efficiency Improvements 

    Nomenclature for Chapter 9 



    Chapter 10. Emissions and Environmental Impact 


    10.1 Formation of Carbon Monoxide 

    10.2 Formation of Nitrogen Oxides 

    10.3 Formation of Sulphur Oxides 

    10.4 Formation of Intermediate Combustion Products 

    10.5 Particulate Emissions 

    10.6 Environmental Control of Emissions including CO2 mitigation and removal 



    Chapter 11. Furnace Construction and Materials 


    11.1 Basic Performance Requirements of the Furnace Structure 

    11.2 Basic Construction Methods 

    11.3 Practical Engineering Considerations in the Use of Refractories 

    11.4 Ceramic Refractory Materials 

    11.5 Heat Resisting and Refractory metals 

    11.6 Practical Engineering Considerations in the Use of High Temperature Metals 

    11.7 Concluding Remarks 


    Selection of Relevant Standards 

    Advisory Organisations 

    Appendix 11A 


    Chapter 12. Furnace Design Methods 


    12.1 Introduction 

    12.2 Conceptual Design 

    12.3 Furnace Sizing 

    12.4 Burner Selection 

    12.5 Detailed Analysis and Validation of the Furnace Design 

    12.6 Furnace Instrumentation and Controls 

    Nomenclature for Chapter 12 



    Chapter 13. Economic Evaluation 


    13.1 Cost Accounting 

    13.2 Distinction Between Capital and Revenue 

    13.3 Profit and Profitability 

    13.4 Financial Ratios 

    13.5 Project Costing 

    13.6 Investment Evaluation 

    13.7 Determining Financial Benefits 

    13.8 Post Project Analysis 



    Chapter 14. Selected Examples of Real Furnace Applications 


    14.1 Design of a New Burner for a Lime Sludge Kiln 

    14.2 Optimising Flash Furnace Design 

    14.3 Contribution to the Design of a New Reforming Process for Fuel Cell Applications 

    14.4 Resolving Tube Internal Coking and Premature Tube Failure in a Refinery Heater 

    14.5 Unsuccessful Attempts to Resolve Severe Problems with a Preheater Cement Kiln 

    14.6 Investigation and Elimination of Coal Firing System Problems 

    14.7 Concluding Remarks on Implementation 



    Chapter 15. Future Trends and Concluding Remarks 


    15.1 Trends in New Materials 

    15.2 Trends in Furnace Emissions and Fuels for Furnaces 

    15.3 Prospects for Alternative Electrical Energy as a Power Source 

    15.4 Potential role of solar and other renewable forms of energy 

    15.5 The potential role of hydrogen as a “clean fuel” storing and transporting hydrogen, limitations of hydrogen supply owing to fresh water supply constraints 

    15.6 The Whyalla Steelworks approach to harnessing solar energy for sustainable steelmaking  

    15.7 Trends in Furnace Controls 

    15.8 New Applications for Furnaces 

    15.9 Concluding Remarks 


Product details

  • No. of pages: 718
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2022
  • Published: November 26, 2022
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323916295
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323984911

About the Authors

Peter Mullinger

Peter Mullinger
Peter Mullinger held senior management roles with both equipment suppliers and end users before joining the University of Adelaide as Associate Professor in 1999. Now semi-retired, he continues to teach process design and process safety.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Research Fellow, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, North Adelaide, SA, Australia

Barrie Jenkins

Barrie Jenkins
Barrie Jenkins has held senior technical management roles in industry and academia. He currently advises major energy users and continues to lecture at a number of Universities. He is currently Engineering Director at Origen Power Ltd.

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineering Director, Origen Powers Ltd., London, and Consulting Engineers, High Wycombe, UK

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