Indicators - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080166179, 9781483151397


1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry

Editors: Edmund Bishop
eBook ISBN: 9781483151397
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 756
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Indicators offers a comprehensive account of indicators and their applications in areas such as titrimetric analysis and the analysis of mineral waters. The theory and principles of visual indicators are discussed, along with acid-base indicators, indicators for non-aqueous acid-base titrations, and titrations with non-chelating ligands. Metallochromic indicators, adsorption indicators, oxidation-reduction indicators, and fluorescent and chemiluminescent indicators are also considered. This volume is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a brief history of indicators, including the contribution of Robert Boyle in the field. The different kinds of indicators are also described, along with developments in indicators in the nineteenth century. The next chapter deals with the theory and principles of visual indicators, followed by a discussion on acid-base indicators such as organic dyes, inorganic substances, compounds capable of fluorescence, and chemiluminescent systems. Subsequent chapters explore other varieties of indicators, including indicators for non-aqueous acid-base titrations, metallochromic indicators, and adsorption indicators, as well as oxidation-reduction indicators and fluorescent and chemiluminescent indicators. This book will be of interest to chemists.

Table of Contents


1. The History of Indicators

Previous Reviews of the History of Indicators

The Earliest History of Acid-base Indicators

Robert Boyle and Indicators


The Qualitative Application of Indicators to the Analysis of Mineral Waters

The Use of Indicators in Titrimetric Analyses

The Variety of Indicators

Development in the Nineteenth Century


2. Theory and Principles of Visual Indicators


The Structure of Titrimetric Analysis


Titrimetric Equilibria

Indicator Equilibria

The Relevance of Indicator and Titrimetric Equilibria

Choice of Correct Indicator

Titration Errors

The Examination of Indicators


3. Acid-Base Indicators

Organic Dyes as Color Indicators

The Theory of Ostwald

Chromophore Theory

Unified Ostwald's and Chromophore Theory

The Resonance Theory

The Transition Interval of the Indicators

The Influence of Experimental Conditions upon the Color Change of Indicators

Sensitivity of Indicators

Azo Indicators

Nitro Indicators





Triphenylmethane Dyes

Various Substances

Plant Extracts

Screened and Mixed Indicators

Examination of Indicators

End-point Indication of Neutralization Reactions with Color Indicators

Titration of Strong Acids with Strong Bases, and Vice Versa

Titration of Weak Acids with Strong Bases

Neutralization of Polybasic Acids and Mixtures of Acids

Titration of Weak Bases with Strong Acids

Neutralization of Polyacid Bases and Base Mixtures

Displacement Titrations

Titration in Two Phases

Colorimetric Determination of pH

Principle of the Measurements

Selection of the Proper Indicator

pH Measurement with Buffer Solutions

Determination of pH without Buffer Solutions

Errors in Colorimetric pH Determinations

Rapid pH Measurements with Universal Indicator Solutions and Indicator Papers

The Field of Application of Colorimetric pH Measurements

Inorganic Acid-base Indicators

Colloids as Acid-base Indicators

Dye Adsorbates as Acid-base Indicators

Acid-base Indicator Resins

Other Acid-base Indicators


4. Indicators for Non-Aqueous Acid-Base Titrations


Indicators for Acid-Base Titrations in the Lower Alcohols and in Aqueous-Organic Solvent Mixtures

Indicators for Titration of Bases in Non-aqueous Solvents

Indicators for Titration of Acids in Non-aqueous Solvents


5. Titrations with Non-chelating Ligands


Nitroprusside as Indicator

Diphenylcarbazone or Diphenylcarbazide as Indicator

Screened and Other Indicators


Cyanometric Titrations

The Cyanometric Determination of Nickel

Determination of Mercuric Salts


6. Metallochromic Indicators

6A. The Theory of Metal Indicators


1. The General Theory of Indicator Color Change

2. Side Reactions of the Indicator

3. Side Reactions of the Metal Ion

4. Side Reactions of the Metal-Indicator Complex

5. Indirectly Functioning Indicators

6. Indicator Error

7. Stepwise Titrations with Metal Indicators

8. Aspects of the Use of Metal Indicators


6B. Metal Indicators and Their Application

I. Introduction

II. The Structures of Metal Indicators

III. Classification of Indicators

IV. List of Metal Indicators

V. Values of Side Reaction Coefficients and Those of pMtrans

VI. Alphabetical List of Metal Indicators and Their Synonyms

7. Adsorption Indicators

Historical Survey

Classification and Short Characterization of Adsorption Indicators

Methods of Investigation of Adsorption Indicators

Theory of Adsorption Indicators

Applications of Adsorption Indicators

Applications of Adsorbate Indicators in Other Fields of Analytical Chemistry


8. Oxidation-Reduction Indicators

8A. Oxidation-Reduction Indicators of E'2 < 0.76 Volt

1. Introduction

2. Theoretical Aspects

3. Indigo Sulphonic Acids

4. Indophenols

5. Indoanalines and Indamines

6. Azines

7. Oxazines

8. Thiazines

9. Variamine Blues

10. Cacotheline and Brucine


12. Miscellaneous Indicators


8B. Oxidation-Reduction Indicators of High Formal Potential


Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

General Principles of Oxidation-Reduction Indicators

1. Benzidine, Its Precursors and Homologues and Their Derivatives

2. Triphenylmethane and Other Dyestuffs

3. The Diimine-Iron(II) and Related Chelate Complexes

4. Specific Action Indicators

5. Irreversible and Destruction Indicators

6. Miscellaneous Compounds

7. Mixed Indicators


9. Fluorescent Indicators


Fluorescent Acid-Base Indicators

Fluorescent Indicators in Precipitation Titrations

Fluorescent Indicators for Oxidation-Reduction Titrations

Fluorescent Indicators for Compleximetric Titrations


10. Chemiluminescent Indicators


Application of Chemiluminescent Indicators in Acid-Base Titrations

Lucigenine (Dimethyl Diacrydilium Dinitrate) as Chemiluminescent Acid-Base Indicator

Luminol (3-Aminophthalic Acid Hydrazide)

Lophine (2-4-5-Triphenylimidazole) as Acid-Base Indicator

Chemiluminescent Mixed Indicator

The Use of Chemiluminescent Indicators in Electron-Transfer (Redox) Titrations

Siloxene as a Redox Indicator

Lucigenine as Reversible Redox Indicator

Luminol as a Redox Indicator

Complexometric Titrations with the Use of Chemiluminescent Indicators

Precipitation Titrations with the Use of Chemiluminescent Indicators



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About the Editor

Edmund Bishop

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