Indian Hygiene and Public Health - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483200682, 9781483225715

Indian Hygiene and Public Health

1st Edition

Authors: C. L. Dunn D. D. Pandya
eBook ISBN: 9781483225715
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1925
Page Count: 700
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Description

Indian Hygiene and Public Health is a handbook on hygiene and public health in India and covers topics ranging from the purification of water supply to the effects of impure air on hygiene and health. Collection and disposal of refuse, excreta, and sewage in Indian villages are also discussed, along with communicable diseases of the tropics and sanitary law in India.

Comprised of 18 chapters, this book first looks at the sources of water supply, sources of water pollution, and protection of well water supplies in India. The reader is then introduced to methods of purification of water supplies, including filtration methods and chemical methods such as the chlorine method and the ozone method. Subsequent chapters deal with air pollution and its health effects; practical application of the principles of ventilation; collection and disposal of refuse, excreta, and sewage in Indian villages; artificial water-logging and surface drainage; and diseases caused by adulteration of food. Meat inspection, personal and school hygiene, and disinfection are also taken into account.

This monograph will be of interest to medical health officers as well as students, workers, and officials in the fields of hygiene, sanitation, and public health.

Table of Contents


Chapter I. Water Supply

Sources of—Rain Water

Shallow Wells

Deep Wells

Artesian Wells

Sources of Pollution

Protection of Well Water Supplies

Pumps—Suction Pumps

Force Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

Chain Pumps

Pulsometers

Water Wheels

Hydraulic Rams

Tube Wells

Protection of Well Mouths

Examination of Suspected Sources of Pollution

Spring Water

Rivers, Streams and Lakes

Collecting Areas for Reservoirs

Tanks

Storage of Drinking Water in the Tropics

Diseases Due to Impure Water

Distribution of Water—Quantity

Sources and Cost of the Supply

Distribution

Erosion

Chapter II. The Purification of Water Supplies

Methods of Purification—On a large Scale—Clark's Process

Porter—Clark's Process

Houston's Excess Lime Method

Stanhope System

Maignen System

Spongy Iron

Magnetic Carbide of Iron

Polarite

Anderson's Process

Schumberg's Procesess

Chlorine

Copper Sulphate

Ozone

Ultra-Violet Rays—On a Email Scale—Maignen's Method

Nesfield's Method

Boiling

Distilling

Pasteur Chamberland and Berkefeld Filters

Filtration Methods on a Large Scale

Slow Sand Filtration

Roughing Filters

Puech-Chabal System

Rapid Filtration

Simple Storage

Air Lift System of Pumping

Chapter III. Air and Ventilation

Effects of Impure Air

Composition of Air

Pollution of Air

Ozone

Carbonic Acid Gas and Respiration

Personal Emanations

Putrefaction

Vitiation by the Products of Combustion

Vitiation by Industrial Occupations

Effects of Occupations on the Health

Anthrax in Wool

Ventilation

Diffusion of Gases

Internal Ventilation of Inhabited Rooms

Natural Ventilation

Montgolfier's Formula

Friction

Natural Ventilation in the Tropica

Artificial Ventilation

Practical Application of the Principles of Ventilation

Warming

Lighting

Chapter IV. The Disposal of Refuse

Removal of Street and Domestic Refuse

Methods of Disposal

Cremation

Reduction in the Amount of Refuse to be Collected

Collection and Disposal of Refuse in Villages

Chapter V. Disposal of Excreta

Conservancy

Quantity of Excreta Per Head

Domestic Conveniences

Public Latrines and Urinals

Temporary Public Latrines for Use at Fairs

Private Latrines for Fairs

Temporary Public Urinals for Use at Fairs

Removal of Excreta from Houses and Latrines

Receptacles

Night-Soil Carts

Pail Depots

Disposal of Excreta—Pitting

Trenching

Types of Trenches

Shallow

Deep

Thornhill System of Trenching

Poudrette

Fresh Night

Soil

Incineration

Removal of Slop Water and Trade Effluents

Disposal of Excretain Villages

Chapter VI. Disposal of Sewage

Water-Carriage System

Combined and Separate Systems

Calculation of the Discharge from Sewers

Shape

Friction

Materials

House Drainage

Slop Sinks

Soil Pipe

Water Flush Latrines

Shone System

Disposal of Sewage

Treatment of Crude Sewage

Treatment on Land

Broad Irrigation

Intermittent Downward Filtration

Sedimentation and Screening

Chemical Purification

Precipitation

A.B.C. Process

Sterilization of Sewage

Amines System

Hermite Process: Oxychloride Process

Biological Treatment

Scott-Moncrieff System

Contact-Beds

Septic Tank Treatment

Dibdin Slate-Beds

Colonel Ducat's Method

Aerating or Streaming Filters "Activated Sludge" Process

Purity and Standard of Sewage Effluents

Chapter VII. Sites, Sob-Soil and Surface Drainage

Sites

Low-Lying Areas

Artificial Water-Logging: Burrow Pits

Ruined Areas

Sub-Soil Drainage

Intercepting Drains

embankments

Canals

Cultivation

Pollution of the Sub-Soil Water

Surface Drainage

Separate System

Combined System

Removal of Surface Water by Surface Channels

Flushing of Surf Ace Drains

Erection Over Surface Drains

Disposal of Surface Waters

Chapter VIII Food Supply

Staple Diet

Meat

Fish

Fruits

Vegetables

Dietaries

Adulteration of food

Unsound Food

Unsound Grains

Diseases Produced by the Consumption of Unsound Grains

Storage of Food and their Exposure for sale

Milk Shops

Cow-Sheds

Sweet-Meats

Sale of Meat Slaughter-Houses

Chapter IX. Meat Inspection

Appearance of the Healthy Animal and its Organs in the Carcase

Appearance of the Muscles, Fat and Organs in Health and Disease

Specific Disease—Worms

Flukes

Round Worms

Parasites which may be Transmitted to Man by Eating Meat—Beef Bladder Worm

Hog Bladder Worm

Trichina Spiralis

Bacteria

Botulism

Chapter X. Communicable Diseases of the Tropics

Channels of Infection

Ticks

Bugs

Flies

Fleas

Lice

Mosquitoes

Trypanosomes

Spirochætæ

Malaria

Relapsing Fever

Kala-Azar

Cholera

Plague

Small-Pox

Tyhpoid Fevers

Dysenteries

Leprosy

Tuberculosis

Ankylostomiasis

Chapter XI. Disinfection

Sunlight

Burning

Dry Heat

Boiling

Steam Under Pressure

Superheated Steam

Chemical Disinfectants

Liquid Disinfectants

Perchloride of Mercury

Mercuric Iodide

Phenols

Chloride of Lime

Sodium Hypochlorite

Chloramine—T.

Halazone

Sulphate of Copper

Potassium Permanganate

Formalin

Chinosol

Standardization of Disinfectants

Rideal

Walker Method

Martin—Chick Method

Solid Disinfectants

Carbolic Powders

Staked Lime

Bleaching Powder

Soap—Gaseous Disinfectants

Formic Aldehyde

Sulphurous Acid

Chlorine

Hydrocyanic Acid Gas

Other Gases

Chapter XII. Housing and Town-Planning

Powers to Local Authorities

Construction of Hospitals

General Hospitals

Infectious Diseases Hospitals

Chapter XIII. Personal Hygiene

The Cleanliness of the Body—Washing

Baths

Lice as Common Parasites of Man

Care of the Hair

Teeth

Nails

Bowels

Eating

Sleep

Bed-Room

Exercise

Clothing

Various Materials for Colour of Clothing Materials

Boots

Chapter XIV. School Hygiene

School Premises

Lighting

Orientation

Ventilation

Clerestory Windows

Furniture

Floor Area and Cubic Space

Sanitary Conveniences

Water-Supply

Play Grounds

School Hours

Physical Training

Teaching of Hygiene in Schools

Medical Inspection of School Children

Chapter XV.

Climate and Meteorology

Causes of high Temperature

Circumstances which Modify High Temperatures

Thermometers

Atmospheric Pressure

Cyclonic System

Winds

Measurement of—Barometers

Atmospheric Humidity

Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer

Rainfall

Estimation of

Rain-Gauge

Fogs

Clouds

Climate and Public Health

Chapter XVI. Vital Statistics

Limits of Error

Poission's Formula

Arithmetical Mean

Mean Error

Probable Errors

Standard Deviation

Coefficient of variation

Coeificient of Correlation

Theory of Probability

Law of Population

Increment of life

Decrement of life

Effective Population

Specific Population

Marriage-Rate

Birth-Rate

Death-Rate

Influence of Birth-Rate Upon Death-Rate

Standard Death-Rate

Corrected Death-Rate

Comparative Mortality Figure

Infantile Mortality

Zymotic Death-Rate

Estimation of Population

Mean Age at Death—Expectation of Life at Birth

Probable Duration of Life

De Moivre's Hypothesis

Expectation of Life

Occupation and Mortality

Chapter XVII. Sanitary Law

The U.P. Munioipalities Act

Rules and Orders of Government Under Sections of the Municipalities Act Relating to Public Health

Duties of Medical Officers of Health

Water-Supply Rules

Disinfection of a Municipal Water-Supply

Infections Diseases

Instructions for the Prevention of the Spread of Cholera in Urban Areas

Rules Re

Disinfectants and Disinfection

Disinfectants for Water Supplies

Disinfection of Materials

Instructions as to the Registration and the Compilation of Births and Deaths

Inspection of Municipal Works and Institutions by Government Officers

Model Byelaws Under the Municipalities Act—Building Byelaws

Projection Byelaws

Byelaws for Drains, Privies and Cesspools

Water Supply Rules

Byelaws for the Registration of Births and Deaths

Dairy Byelaws

Byelaws for Regulation and Inspection of Places for the Manufacture, Preparation or Sale of Sweetmeats

Byelaws for the Regulation and Control of Bakeries

Byelaws for Controlling the Manufacture and Sale of aerated waters

Byelaws for the Regulation and Inspection of Slaughter-houses

Byelaws Regulating the Sale and Transport of Meat; Byelaws for Regulating Importation of Meat for Sale Into the Municipality

Byelaws for the Preparation of Dried Meat

Burial and Burning Ground Byelaws

Byelaws Regulating Offensive Trades

Byelaws for the Regulation of the Storing of Bones

Byelaws for Storing Hides or Skins and for Tanning

Byelaws in Respect of Places used for the Preparation and Storage of Gut

Byelaws for Regulating Brick and Lime Kilns

Byelaws Requiring the Licensing of Dogs

Byelaws for Regulating the Storing of Hay, Straw etc.

The Vaccination Act—Draft Rules under section 19 of the Act

The U. P. Prevention of Adulteration Act—Fees for Analysis

Rules as to the Appointment and Powers of Official Inspectors Instructions Regarding Collection and Despatch of Samples of Milk, Butter, Ghee, Edible Oils and Drugs

Epidemic Diseases Act.

Indian Factories Act.

Indian Penal Code—Public Health Sections—Criminal Procedure

Code—Public Nuisances.

The U. P. District Boards Act, 1922—Sections Relating to Public Health

Rules from the District Board Manual Relating to Public Health, Under the U. P. District Boards Act of 1906

Rules Concerning Public Health Staff Employed by District Boards Made Under the Act of 1922

General Powers and Duties of Boards in Matters Affecting Sanitation, Made Under the Act of 1906.

Manual of Government Orders. U. P.—Rules for the Management of Fairs

Measures to be Taken for the Prevention of the Spread of Cholera in the Rural Areas of the U. P.

The U. P. Town Areas Act

The U. P. Village Sanitation Act

Appendix I.—Useful Data—Weights and Measures

Rain-Water

Table of Contents of Wells in Gallons

Drainage

Gases

Conversion of Thermometer Scales

Barometer Scales

Appendix II.—Logarithms

Appendix III.—Type Design of Incinerators

(i) for Plains (Cheap Pattern)

(ii) for Hill Stations (Cheap Pattern)

(iii) for Plains with Fire Brick Lining

(iv) for Hill Stations with Fire Brick Lining

Appendix IV.—Standard of Appliances in Towns with Water-Borne System

Standard of Establishment for Municipalities with Water-Borne System

Standard of Appliances in Towns without Waterborne System

Standard of Establishment for Towns without Water-Borne System

Appendix V—Twenty-Seated Latrine

Appendix VI.—Examination Papers—for the Diploma in Public Health—for the License in Public Health

Details

No. of pages:
700
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2025
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483225715

About the Author

C. L. Dunn

D. D. Pandya