Indian Hygiene and Public Health

Indian Hygiene and Public Health

1st Edition - January 1, 1925

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  • Authors: C. L. Dunn, D. D. Pandya
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483225715

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Description

Indian Hygiene and Public Health is a handbook on hygiene and public health in India and covers topics ranging from the purification of water supply to the effects of impure air on hygiene and health. Collection and disposal of refuse, excreta, and sewage in Indian villages are also discussed, along with communicable diseases of the tropics and sanitary law in India. Comprised of 18 chapters, this book first looks at the sources of water supply, sources of water pollution, and protection of well water supplies in India. The reader is then introduced to methods of purification of water supplies, including filtration methods and chemical methods such as the chlorine method and the ozone method. Subsequent chapters deal with air pollution and its health effects; practical application of the principles of ventilation; collection and disposal of refuse, excreta, and sewage in Indian villages; artificial water-logging and surface drainage; and diseases caused by adulteration of food. Meat inspection, personal and school hygiene, and disinfection are also taken into account. This monograph will be of interest to medical health officers as well as students, workers, and officials in the fields of hygiene, sanitation, and public health.

Table of Contents


  • Chapter I. Water Supply

    Sources of—Rain Water

    Shallow Wells

    Deep Wells

    Artesian Wells

    Sources of Pollution

    Protection of Well Water Supplies

    Pumps—Suction Pumps

    Force Pumps

    Centrifugal Pumps

    Chain Pumps

    Pulsometers

    Water Wheels

    Hydraulic Rams

    Tube Wells

    Protection of Well Mouths

    Examination of Suspected Sources of Pollution

    Spring Water

    Rivers, Streams and Lakes

    Collecting Areas for Reservoirs

    Tanks

    Storage of Drinking Water in the Tropics

    Diseases Due to Impure Water

    Distribution of Water—Quantity

    Sources and Cost of the Supply

    Distribution

    Erosion

    Chapter II. The Purification of Water Supplies

    Methods of Purification—On a large Scale—Clark's Process

    Porter—Clark's Process

    Houston's Excess Lime Method

    Stanhope System

    Maignen System

    Spongy Iron

    Magnetic Carbide of Iron

    Polarite

    Anderson's Process

    Schumberg's Procesess

    Chlorine

    Copper Sulphate

    Ozone

    Ultra-Violet Rays—On a Email Scale—Maignen's Method

    Nesfield's Method

    Boiling

    Distilling

    Pasteur Chamberland and Berkefeld Filters

    Filtration Methods on a Large Scale

    Slow Sand Filtration

    Roughing Filters

    Puech-Chabal System

    Rapid Filtration

    Simple Storage

    Air Lift System of Pumping

    Chapter III. Air and Ventilation

    Effects of Impure Air

    Composition of Air

    Pollution of Air

    Ozone

    Carbonic Acid Gas and Respiration

    Personal Emanations

    Putrefaction

    Vitiation by the Products of Combustion

    Vitiation by Industrial Occupations

    Effects of Occupations on the Health

    Anthrax in Wool

    Ventilation

    Diffusion of Gases

    Internal Ventilation of Inhabited Rooms

    Natural Ventilation

    Montgolfier's Formula

    Friction

    Natural Ventilation in the Tropica

    Artificial Ventilation

    Practical Application of the Principles of Ventilation

    Warming

    Lighting

    Chapter IV. The Disposal of Refuse

    Removal of Street and Domestic Refuse

    Methods of Disposal

    Cremation

    Reduction in the Amount of Refuse to be Collected

    Collection and Disposal of Refuse in Villages

    Chapter V. Disposal of Excreta

    Conservancy

    Quantity of Excreta Per Head

    Domestic Conveniences

    Public Latrines and Urinals

    Temporary Public Latrines for Use at Fairs

    Private Latrines for Fairs

    Temporary Public Urinals for Use at Fairs

    Removal of Excreta from Houses and Latrines

    Receptacles

    Night-Soil Carts

    Pail Depots

    Disposal of Excreta—Pitting

    Trenching

    Types of Trenches

    Shallow

    Deep

    Thornhill System of Trenching

    Poudrette

    Fresh Night

    Soil

    Incineration

    Removal of Slop Water and Trade Effluents

    Disposal of Excretain Villages

    Chapter VI. Disposal of Sewage

    Water-Carriage System

    Combined and Separate Systems

    Calculation of the Discharge from Sewers

    Shape

    Friction

    Materials

    House Drainage

    Slop Sinks

    Soil Pipe

    Water Flush Latrines

    Shone System

    Disposal of Sewage

    Treatment of Crude Sewage

    Treatment on Land

    Broad Irrigation

    Intermittent Downward Filtration

    Sedimentation and Screening

    Chemical Purification

    Precipitation

    A.B.C. Process

    Sterilization of Sewage

    Amines System

    Hermite Process: Oxychloride Process

    Biological Treatment

    Scott-Moncrieff System

    Contact-Beds

    Septic Tank Treatment

    Dibdin Slate-Beds

    Colonel Ducat's Method

    Aerating or Streaming Filters "Activated Sludge" Process

    Purity and Standard of Sewage Effluents

    Chapter VII. Sites, Sob-Soil and Surface Drainage

    Sites

    Low-Lying Areas

    Artificial Water-Logging: Burrow Pits

    Ruined Areas

    Sub-Soil Drainage

    Intercepting Drains

    embankments

    Canals

    Cultivation

    Pollution of the Sub-Soil Water

    Surface Drainage

    Separate System

    Combined System

    Removal of Surface Water by Surface Channels

    Flushing of Surf Ace Drains

    Erection Over Surface Drains

    Disposal of Surface Waters

    Chapter VIII Food Supply

    Staple Diet

    Meat

    Fish

    Fruits

    Vegetables

    Dietaries

    Adulteration of food

    Unsound Food

    Unsound Grains

    Diseases Produced by the Consumption of Unsound Grains

    Storage of Food and their Exposure for sale

    Milk Shops

    Cow-Sheds

    Sweet-Meats

    Sale of Meat Slaughter-Houses

    Chapter IX. Meat Inspection

    Appearance of the Healthy Animal and its Organs in the Carcase

    Appearance of the Muscles, Fat and Organs in Health and Disease

    Specific Disease—Worms

    Flukes

    Round Worms

    Parasites which may be Transmitted to Man by Eating Meat—Beef Bladder Worm

    Hog Bladder Worm

    Trichina Spiralis

    Bacteria

    Botulism

    Chapter X. Communicable Diseases of the Tropics

    Channels of Infection

    Ticks

    Bugs

    Flies

    Fleas

    Lice

    Mosquitoes

    Trypanosomes

    Spirochætæ

    Malaria

    Relapsing Fever

    Kala-Azar

    Cholera

    Plague

    Small-Pox

    Tyhpoid Fevers

    Dysenteries

    Leprosy

    Tuberculosis

    Ankylostomiasis

    Chapter XI. Disinfection

    Sunlight

    Burning

    Dry Heat

    Boiling

    Steam Under Pressure

    Superheated Steam

    Chemical Disinfectants

    Liquid Disinfectants

    Perchloride of Mercury

    Mercuric Iodide

    Phenols

    Chloride of Lime

    Sodium Hypochlorite

    Chloramine—T.

    Halazone

    Sulphate of Copper

    Potassium Permanganate

    Formalin

    Chinosol

    Standardization of Disinfectants

    Rideal

    Walker Method

    Martin—Chick Method

    Solid Disinfectants

    Carbolic Powders

    Staked Lime

    Bleaching Powder

    Soap—Gaseous Disinfectants

    Formic Aldehyde

    Sulphurous Acid

    Chlorine

    Hydrocyanic Acid Gas

    Other Gases

    Chapter XII. Housing and Town-Planning

    Powers to Local Authorities

    Construction of Hospitals

    General Hospitals

    Infectious Diseases Hospitals

    Chapter XIII. Personal Hygiene

    The Cleanliness of the Body—Washing

    Baths

    Lice as Common Parasites of Man

    Care of the Hair

    Teeth

    Nails

    Bowels

    Eating

    Sleep

    Bed-Room

    Exercise

    Clothing

    Various Materials for Colour of Clothing Materials

    Boots

    Chapter XIV. School Hygiene

    School Premises

    Lighting

    Orientation

    Ventilation

    Clerestory Windows

    Furniture

    Floor Area and Cubic Space

    Sanitary Conveniences

    Water-Supply

    Play Grounds

    School Hours

    Physical Training

    Teaching of Hygiene in Schools

    Medical Inspection of School Children

    Chapter XV.

    Climate and Meteorology

    Causes of high Temperature

    Circumstances which Modify High Temperatures

    Thermometers

    Atmospheric Pressure

    Cyclonic System

    Winds

    Measurement of—Barometers

    Atmospheric Humidity

    Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer

    Rainfall

    Estimation of

    Rain-Gauge

    Fogs

    Clouds

    Climate and Public Health

    Chapter XVI. Vital Statistics

    Limits of Error

    Poission's Formula

    Arithmetical Mean

    Mean Error

    Probable Errors

    Standard Deviation

    Coefficient of variation

    Coeificient of Correlation

    Theory of Probability

    Law of Population

    Increment of life

    Decrement of life

    Effective Population

    Specific Population

    Marriage-Rate

    Birth-Rate

    Death-Rate

    Influence of Birth-Rate Upon Death-Rate

    Standard Death-Rate

    Corrected Death-Rate

    Comparative Mortality Figure

    Infantile Mortality

    Zymotic Death-Rate

    Estimation of Population

    Mean Age at Death—Expectation of Life at Birth

    Probable Duration of Life

    De Moivre's Hypothesis

    Expectation of Life

    Occupation and Mortality

    Chapter XVII. Sanitary Law

    The U.P. Munioipalities Act

    Rules and Orders of Government Under Sections of the Municipalities Act Relating to Public Health

    Duties of Medical Officers of Health

    Water-Supply Rules

    Disinfection of a Municipal Water-Supply

    Infections Diseases

    Instructions for the Prevention of the Spread of Cholera in Urban Areas

    Rules Re

    Disinfectants and Disinfection

    Disinfectants for Water Supplies

    Disinfection of Materials

    Instructions as to the Registration and the Compilation of Births and Deaths

    Inspection of Municipal Works and Institutions by Government Officers

    Model Byelaws Under the Municipalities Act—Building Byelaws

    Projection Byelaws

    Byelaws for Drains, Privies and Cesspools

    Water Supply Rules

    Byelaws for the Registration of Births and Deaths

    Dairy Byelaws

    Byelaws for Regulation and Inspection of Places for the Manufacture, Preparation or Sale of Sweetmeats

    Byelaws for the Regulation and Control of Bakeries

    Byelaws for Controlling the Manufacture and Sale of aerated waters

    Byelaws for the Regulation and Inspection of Slaughter-houses

    Byelaws Regulating the Sale and Transport of Meat; Byelaws for Regulating Importation of Meat for Sale Into the Municipality

    Byelaws for the Preparation of Dried Meat

    Burial and Burning Ground Byelaws

    Byelaws Regulating Offensive Trades

    Byelaws for the Regulation of the Storing of Bones

    Byelaws for Storing Hides or Skins and for Tanning

    Byelaws in Respect of Places used for the Preparation and Storage of Gut

    Byelaws for Regulating Brick and Lime Kilns

    Byelaws Requiring the Licensing of Dogs

    Byelaws for Regulating the Storing of Hay, Straw etc.

    The Vaccination Act—Draft Rules under section 19 of the Act

    The U. P. Prevention of Adulteration Act—Fees for Analysis

    Rules as to the Appointment and Powers of Official Inspectors Instructions Regarding Collection and Despatch of Samples of Milk, Butter, Ghee, Edible Oils and Drugs

    Epidemic Diseases Act.

    Indian Factories Act.

    Indian Penal Code—Public Health Sections—Criminal Procedure

    Code—Public Nuisances.

    The U. P. District Boards Act, 1922—Sections Relating to Public Health

    Rules from the District Board Manual Relating to Public Health, Under the U. P. District Boards Act of 1906

    Rules Concerning Public Health Staff Employed by District Boards Made Under the Act of 1922

    General Powers and Duties of Boards in Matters Affecting Sanitation, Made Under the Act of 1906.

    Manual of Government Orders. U. P.—Rules for the Management of Fairs

    Measures to be Taken for the Prevention of the Spread of Cholera in the Rural Areas of the U. P.

    The U. P. Town Areas Act

    The U. P. Village Sanitation Act

    Appendix I.—Useful Data—Weights and Measures

    Rain-Water

    Table of Contents of Wells in Gallons

    Drainage

    Gases

    Conversion of Thermometer Scales

    Barometer Scales

    Appendix II.—Logarithms

    Appendix III.—Type Design of Incinerators

    (i) for Plains (Cheap Pattern)

    (ii) for Hill Stations (Cheap Pattern)

    (iii) for Plains with Fire Brick Lining

    (iv) for Hill Stations with Fire Brick Lining

    Appendix IV.—Standard of Appliances in Towns with Water-Borne System

    Standard of Establishment for Municipalities with Water-Borne System

    Standard of Appliances in Towns without Waterborne System

    Standard of Establishment for Towns without Water-Borne System

    Appendix V—Twenty-Seated Latrine

    Appendix VI.—Examination Papers—for the Diploma in Public Health—for the License in Public Health

Product details

  • No. of pages: 700
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1925
  • Published: January 1, 1925
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483225715

About the Authors

C. L. Dunn

D. D. Pandya

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