Impacts and Insights of the Gorkha Earthquake

Impacts and Insights of the Gorkha Earthquake

1st Edition - September 12, 2017

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  • Editors: Dipendra Gautam, Hugo Filipe Pinheiro Rodrigues
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128128084
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128128091

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Impacts and Insights of Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal offers a practical perspective on disaster risk management using lessons learned and considerations from the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, which was the worst disaster to hit Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. Using a holistic approach to examine seismicity, risk perception and intervention, the book serves as a detailed case study to improve disaster resilience globally, including social, technical, governmental and institutional risk perception, as well as scientific understanding of earthquake disasters. Covering the details of the Gorkha earthquake, including damage mapping and recovery tactics, the book offers valuable insights into ways forward for seismologists, earthquake researchers and engineers and policy-makers.

Key Features

  • Includes the latest status of seismic risk, risk perception, to-date interventions and historical scenarios in Nepal
  • Examines details of Gorkha earthquake, including geo-seismicity, damage statistics, casualties, effect on cultural heritage, gender-risk mechanics, case studies of social institutions, urban-risk mechanics, rural-risk mechanics, resilience dimensions, social institutions in risk management, stories of resilience and failures and a critical review of efficacy of interventions in risk mitigation
  • Offers future insights and ways forward in terms of risk reduction studies, socio-cultural dimensions of risk management, scientific intervention and policy making, implementation of existing frameworks and endorsement of resilient practices for Nepal
  • Includes damage mapping in all affected areas


Disaster risk reduction professionals/researchers; structural earthquake engineers/researchers, anthropological researchers; Planners/policy makers, interdisciplinary researchers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Revisiting Major Historical Earthquakes in Nepal: Overview of 1833, 1934, 1980, 1988, 2011, and 2015 Seismic Events
    Hemchandra Chaulagain, Dipendra Gautam and Hugo Rodrigues

    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Historic Earthquakes in Nepal
    1.3 Revisiting Strong to Major Earthquakes in Nepal
    1.4 Earthquake Impacts in Nepal: Multidisciplinary Perspectives
    1.5 Final Remarks

    Chapter 2 Seismotectonic and Engineering Seismological Aspects of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake
    Rajesh Rupakhety

    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Seismotectonics and Seismicity
    2.3 Source Models and the Rupture Process 
    2.4 Spatiotemporal Distribution of Aftershocks
    2.5 Ground Motion Characteristics
    2.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 3 Seismic Performance of Buildings in Nepal After the Ghorka Earthquake
    Humberto Varum, Rakesh Dumaru, André Furtado, André R. Barbosa, Dipendra Gautam and Hugo Rodrigues

    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
    3.3 Performance of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings
    3.4 Vernacular and Rural Constructions
    3.5 Other Building Types
    3.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 4 Response and Rehabilitation of Historic Monuments After the Gorkha Earthquake
    Kai Weise, Dipendra Gautam and Hugo Rodrigues

    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 The Previous Earthquake: 1934 Great Nepal Bihar Earthquake
    4.3 Preparing for the Next Events
    4.4 The 2015 Gorkha Earthquake: Immediate Response
    4.5 Initial Assessment and PDNA
    4.6 Challenges of Establishing a Rehabilitation Strategy
    4.7 Post Disaster Recovery Framework and Ongoing Rehabilitation
    4.8 Structural Damage Assessments after Gorkha Earthquake
    4.9 Implementation Procedures: The Checklist
    4.10 Comparison to the Chauk Earthquake in Bagan
    4.11 Overview of Lessons to Be Learned
    4.12 Conclusion

    Chapter 5 Risk Management, Response, Relief, Recovery, Reconstruction, and Future Disaster Risk Reduction
    Amod M. Dixit, Surya N. Shrestha, Ramesh Guragain, Bishnu H. Pandey, Khadga S. Oli, Sujan R. Adhikari, Surya P. Acharya, Ganesh K. Jimee, Bijay K. Upadhyaya, Surya B. Sangachhe, Nisha Shrestha, Suman Pradhan, Ranjan Dhungel, Pramod Khatiwada, Ayush Baskota, Achyut Poudel, Maritess Tandingan, Niva U. Mathema, Bhuwaneshwori Parajuli, Gopi K. Basyal, Suresh Chaudhary, Govinda R. Bhatta and Narayan Marasini

    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Decades of Earthquake Risk Management Efforts in Nepal
    5.3 The Gorkha Earthquake: Impact and Response
    5.4 Reconstruction
    5.5 Future Disaster Risk Reduction for Nepal
     5.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 6 Improving the Nepalese Building Code Based on Lessons Learned From the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha Earthquake
    Uddhav Karmacharya, Vítor Silva, Svetlana Brzev and Luís Martins

    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 The Reinforced Concrete Building Portfolio in Nepal
    6.3 Earthquake Damage Observations
    6.4 Assessment of the Seismic Vulnerability
    6.5 Proposed Wall Index for Nepal
    6.6 Final Remarks

    Chapter 7 Past and Future of Earthquake Risk Reduction Policies and Intervention in Nepal
    Dipendra Gautam

    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Earthquake Risk Reduction Policies and Interventions in Nepal: Overview and Critiques
    7.3 The Way Forward
    7.4 Final Remarks

Product details

  • No. of pages: 194
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: September 12, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128128084
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128128091

About the Editors

Dipendra Gautam

Dipendra Gautam is a researcher in structural earthquake engineering. He has published more than 30 papers and refereed book chapters in top-tier journals and edited volumes. He works in the range of structural earthquake engineering including structural dynamics, seismic vulnerability and reliability analysis, sustainable structural engineering, vernacular seismic resistant construction technologies, risk assessment, among others. He has experience in working after 2011 Eastern Nepal earthquake, 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence, and 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Hugo Filipe Pinheiro Rodrigues

Hugo Rodrigues is Senior Lecturer at the School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal, teaching several topics related with Structural Analysis, Building Pathology and Rehabilitation. He received his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the University of Aveiro in 2012. His experience in Seismic analysis, having participated as a team member in research and development projects, specialized consultancy studies ordered by several public institutions and companies regarding the assessment of seismic risk. His major research interests are Building Rehabilitation, Structural Health Monitoring and Seismic Safety including experimental and numerical activities. Research member of the RIsks and Sustainability in COnstruction (RISCO). He has co-authored more than 60 publications in top-tier peer-reviewed journals and contributed to more than 100 publications at national and international meetings.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Raghu P. Mon Jul 02 2018

    Impacts and Insights of the Gorkha Earthquake

    Nicely compiled book for structural engineers, risk reduction practitioners, and policy makers.

  • Ganesh B. Mon Jul 02 2018

    Impacts and Insights of the Gorkha Earthquake

    Equivalent to the account of 1934 earthquake in eastern Nepal.

  • Dipendra G. Mon Jul 02 2018

    Impacts and Insights of the Gorkha Earthquake

    A comprehensive account of Gorkha earthquake.