Immobilized Enzymes For Industrial Reactors

Immobilized Enzymes For Industrial Reactors

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Editor: Ralph Messing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141321

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Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Reactors aims to guide the engineer and scientist along the path toward the industrial application of immobilized enzymes. It is necessary to identify the hazards and pitfalls that will be encountered, not only in the initial research efforts, but also during the final engineering phases of a commercial program. Each contributing factor in an immobilized enzyme system will be scrutinized by the authors in an effort to accomplish the overall objectives. This book comprises 10 chapters, with the first being an introduction to and general history of immobilized enzymes. The next chapters go on to discuss basic enzymology; controlled-pore glasses for enzyme immobilization; carriers; immobilization by adsorption and inorganic bridge formation; immobilization by covalent attachment and by entrapment; characteristics of free vs. immobilized enzymes; immobilized coenzymes; design and operation of immobilized enzyme reactors; and applications of immobilized enzymes. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of chemistry and engineering.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Chapter 1. Introduction and General History of Immobilized Enzymes

    I. History of Enzymes

    II. History of Immobilized Enzymes

    III. The Proliferation of the Technology

    IV. Reasons for Immobilizing Enzymes

    V. Immobilization Techniques

    VI. Proliferation of Carriers

    VII. Reactors

    VIII. Scope of the Technology

    IX. Economic Considerations and Precautions

    X. Enzyme Purity


    Chapter 2. Basic Enzymology

    I. Enzymes as Proteins

    II. Enzymes as Catalysts

    Effect of Time on Activity

    Effect of Temperature on Activity

    Effect of pH on Activity

    Other Factors That Can Influence Activity

    Effect of Substrate Concentration on Activity (Kinetic Expressions)

    Effect of Inhibitors on Activity

    Some Thermodynamic Considerations

    III. Enzymes as Specific Catalysts


    Chapter 3. Controlled-Pore Glasses for Enzyme Immobilization

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparation of Controlled-Pore Glasses

    III. Surface Areas of Controlled-Pore Glasses

    IV. Surface Properties of Porous Glass

    V. Some Surface Reactions of Porous Glass


    Diazomethane Reactions

    Surface Fluorination

    Chlorination of Surfaces

    Surface Reactions with Ammonia

    Reaction with Organosilicon Compounds

    VI. Durability of Controlled-Pore Glass

    VII. Physical Characteristics of Controlled-Pore Glasses

    VIII. Summary


    Chapter 4. Carriers

    I. Carrier Morphology and Configuration

    II. Microbial Considerations

    III. Selecting a Carrier

    IV. Carrier Regeneration

    V. Optimizing the Carrier


    Chapter 5. Immobilization by Adsorption and Inorganic Bridge Formation


    I. Definition

    II. Promising Applications

    III. Theory, Mechanisms and Application Considerations

    IV. Example of Immobilization by Adsorption

    Inorganic Bridge Formation


    Chapter 6. Immobilization by Covalent Attachment and by Entrapment

    I. Methods for the Covalent Attachment of Enzymes to Water Insoluble Carriers

    II. Methods for Covalent Attachment of Proteins to Inorganic Supports

    III. Copolymerization of Proteins

    IV. Proteins Immobilized by Intermolecular Cross-Linking

    V. Entrapment of Proteins within Polymer Matrices

    VI. Microencapsulation

    VII. Ultrafiltration and Hollow-Fiber Devices


    Chapter 7. Characteristics of Free vs. Immobilized Enzymes


    Chapter 8. Immobilized Coenzymes


    Chapter 9. Design and Operation of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    I. Introduction

    II. Reactor Types

    III. Immobilized Enzyme Reactor Performance

    IV. Mass Transfer



    V. Electrostatic Effects

    VI. Backmixing

    VII. Temperature

    VIII. IME Activity Loss

    IX. Heat Transfer

    X. Pressure Drop

    XI. IME Reactor Operating Strategy

    XII. General Design Considerations for IME Systems

    XIII. IME System Cost Estimate


    Chapter 10. Applications of Immobilized Enzymes

    I. Introduction

    II. Immobilized Enzyme Applications

    Hydrolysis of Proteins

    Cheese Manufacturing

    Conversion of Cornstarch to Dextrose

    Conversion of Dextrose to Fructose

    Hydrolysis of Lactose in Whey

    L-Amino Acid Acylase for Amino Acid Resolution

    Analytical Applications

    Biomedical Applications


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 248
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141321

About the Editor

Ralph Messing

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