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Immobilized Enzymes For Industrial Reactors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124923508, 9780323141321

Immobilized Enzymes For Industrial Reactors

1st Edition

Editor: Ralph Messing
eBook ISBN: 9780323141321
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 248
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Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Reactors aims to guide the engineer and scientist along the path toward the industrial application of immobilized enzymes. It is necessary to identify the hazards and pitfalls that will be encountered, not only in the initial research efforts, but also during the final engineering phases of a commercial program. Each contributing factor in an immobilized enzyme system will be scrutinized by the authors in an effort to accomplish the overall objectives. This book comprises 10 chapters, with the first being an introduction to and general history of immobilized enzymes. The next chapters go on to discuss basic enzymology; controlled-pore glasses for enzyme immobilization; carriers; immobilization by adsorption and inorganic bridge formation; immobilization by covalent attachment and by entrapment; characteristics of free vs. immobilized enzymes; immobilized coenzymes; design and operation of immobilized enzyme reactors; and applications of immobilized enzymes. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of chemistry and engineering.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Introduction and General History of Immobilized Enzymes

I. History of Enzymes

II. History of Immobilized Enzymes

III. The Proliferation of the Technology

IV. Reasons for Immobilizing Enzymes

V. Immobilization Techniques

VI. Proliferation of Carriers

VII. Reactors

VIII. Scope of the Technology

IX. Economic Considerations and Precautions

X. Enzyme Purity


Chapter 2. Basic Enzymology

I. Enzymes as Proteins

II. Enzymes as Catalysts

Effect of Time on Activity

Effect of Temperature on Activity

Effect of pH on Activity

Other Factors That Can Influence Activity

Effect of Substrate Concentration on Activity (Kinetic Expressions)

Effect of Inhibitors on Activity

Some Thermodynamic Considerations

III. Enzymes as Specific Catalysts


Chapter 3. Controlled-Pore Glasses for Enzyme Immobilization

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of Controlled-Pore Glasses

III. Surface Areas of Controlled-Pore Glasses

IV. Surface Properties of Porous Glass

V. Some Surface Reactions of Porous Glass


Diazomethane Reactions

Surface Fluorination

Chlorination of Surfaces

Surface Reactions with Ammonia

Reaction with Organosilicon Compounds

VI. Durability of Controlled-Pore Glass

VII. Physical Characteristics of Controlled-Pore Glasses

VIII. Summary


Chapter 4. Carriers

I. Carrier Morphology and Configuration

II. Microbial Considerations

III. Selecting a Carrier

IV. Carrier Regeneration

V. Optimizing the Carrier


Chapter 5. Immobilization by Adsorption and Inorganic Bridge Formation


I. Definition

II. Promising Applications

III. Theory, Mechanisms and Application Considerations

IV. Example of Immobilization by Adsorption

Inorganic Bridge Formation


Chapter 6. Immobilization by Covalent Attachment and by Entrapment

I. Methods for the Covalent Attachment of Enzymes to Water Insoluble Carriers

II. Methods for Covalent Attachment of Proteins to Inorganic Supports

III. Copolymerization of Proteins

IV. Proteins Immobilized by Intermolecular Cross-Linking

V. Entrapment of Proteins within Polymer Matrices

VI. Microencapsulation

VII. Ultrafiltration and Hollow-Fiber Devices


Chapter 7. Characteristics of Free vs. Immobilized Enzymes


Chapter 8. Immobilized Coenzymes


Chapter 9. Design and Operation of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

I. Introduction

II. Reactor Types

III. Immobilized Enzyme Reactor Performance

IV. Mass Transfer



V. Electrostatic Effects

VI. Backmixing

VII. Temperature

VIII. IME Activity Loss

IX. Heat Transfer

X. Pressure Drop

XI. IME Reactor Operating Strategy

XII. General Design Considerations for IME Systems

XIII. IME System Cost Estimate


Chapter 10. Applications of Immobilized Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Immobilized Enzyme Applications

Hydrolysis of Proteins

Cheese Manufacturing

Conversion of Cornstarch to Dextrose

Conversion of Dextrose to Fructose

Hydrolysis of Lactose in Whey

L-Amino Acid Acylase for Amino Acid Resolution

Analytical Applications

Biomedical Applications


Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1975
1st January 1975
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Ralph Messing

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