Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780125286282, 9780080525631

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

2nd Edition

Authors: Donald Ortner
eBook ISBN: 9780080525631
Hardcover ISBN: 9780125286282
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd December 2002
Page Count: 645
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Description

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains
  • More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features
  • Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years
  • Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

Readership

Bioanthropologists, paleopathologists, physical anthropologists, and any professional or researcher working in anthropology and archeology

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

History of the First Edition

History of the Second Edition

Objectives of the Second Edition

Format of the Book

Acknowledgments for the First Edition

Acknowledgments for the Second Edition

Abbreviations

A Brief History of Paleopathology

Research in Paleopathology at the Smithsonian Institution

2. The Biology of Skeletal Tissues

Cellular Biology of Bone and Cartilage

Bone Cells

Cartilage Cells

Types of Cartilage

Growth and Development of Bone

Modeling of Skeletal Tissue

Types of Bone Tissue

Remodeling of Skeletal Tissue

Microscopic Bone Remodeling

Activation

Resorption

Reversal

Formation

Quiescence

Osteon Remodeling

Bone Biochemistry and Mineral Homeostasis

Growth and Development of the Spine

Growth and Development of Teeth

Vascular Conditions That Affect Bone Formation and Destruction

3. Background Data in Paleopathology

Data Basic to Paleopathological Analysis

Age Determination

Ethnic Determination

Sex Determination

Stature Determination

Demographic Analysis

Archeological Excavation and Documentation

4. Methods Used in the Analysis of Skeletal Lesions

Gross Study of Skeletal Lesions

Distribution of Lesions within the Skeleton

Types of Bone Abnormalities

Types of Abnormalities Associated with Joints

Radiological Study of Skeletal Lesions

Microscopic Study of Skeletal Lesions

5. Recent Advances in Bone, Dentin, and Enamel Biochemistry

Introduction

Mineralized Tissue Cell Biology

The Mineral of Bone, Dentin, and Enamel

Paleopathological Considerations

The Collagens of Bones and Teeth

Paleopathological Considerations

The Noncollagenous Proteins of Bones and Teeth

Paleopathological Considerations

Growth, Turnover, and Aging

Conclusions

6. Light Microscopic Analysis in Skeletal Paleopathology

The Need for Microscopic Analysis

Materials and Methods

Postmortem Changes

General Comments on Proliferative Reactions

Periosteal Reactions on Long Bones

Polsters

Grenzstreifen

Meningeal Reactions

Fracture of Skull Vault and Concomitant Phenomena

Primary Inflammatory Processes of the Pericranium and Skull Vault

Porotic Hyperostosis

Pseudopathology

Conclusions and Summary

7. Theoretical Issues in Paleopathology

Evolutionary Dynamics in The Human

Response to Disease

Scientific Nature of Paleopathology

Diagnostic Issues in Paleopathology

Inferences about the Health Status of a Population Based on Evidence of Skeletal Disease

Limitations of Skeletal Evidence of Disease

Female Immune Reactivity and Maternal Mortality

Gender As a Factor in Malnutrition and Morbidity

Hypothetical Models of Male and Female Immune Reactivity

Male/Female Ratios in Infectious Disease

Implications for Interpreting Evidence of Disease in Archeological Human Skeletons

Implications for Research in Paleopathology

Conclusions

8. Trauma

Introduction

Fracture

Pathology

Paleopathology

Dislocation

Pathology

Paleopathology

Deformation

Pathology

Paleopathology

Scalping

Pathology

Paleopathology

Mutilation

Trephination

History

Paleopathology

Traumatic Problems Arising from Pregnancy

Pathology

Paleopathology

Sincipital-T Mutilation

Summary and Conclusions

9. Infectious Diseases: Introduction, Biology, Osteomyelitis, Periostitis, Brucellosis, Glanders, and Septic Arthritis

Introduction

Humoral Versus Cellular Responses to Infectious Agents

Vascular Changes in Response to Infectious Agents

The Biology of Infection

Osteomyelitis

Pathology

Hematogenous Osteomyelitis

Changes in Individual Bones

Paleopathology

The Skull

Postcranial Osteomyelitis

Periostitis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Brucellosis

Introduction

Pathology

Paleopathology

Glanders

Pathology

Septic Arthritis

Pathology

Paleopathology

10. Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis and Leprosy

Tuberculosis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Leprosy

Pathology

Paleopathology

11. Infectious Diseases: Treponematosis and Other Bacterial Infectious Diseases

Treponematosis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Leishmaniasis

Pathology

Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis

Pathology

Mycetoma (Maduromycosis)

Pathology

12. Infectious Diseases: Mycotic, Viral, and Multicelled Parasitic Diseases of the Human Skeleton

Introduction

Mycosis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Viral Infections

Introduction

Smallpox (Variola)

Rubella

Multicelled Parasitic Infections Echinococcosis

Introduction

Pathology

Paleopathology

Sarcoidosis

Introduction

Pathology

13. Circulatory Disturbances

Introduction

Blood Supply of Bones

Osteonecrosis

Introduction

Pathology

Necrosis of the Femoral Head

Pathology

Paleopathology

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease and Slipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Other Disorders Associated with Osteonecrosis

Kehler's Diseases of the Tarsal Navicular Bone

Freiberg's Disease of a Metatarsal Head

Kienbeck's Disease of the Carpal Lunate Bone

Other Diseases Associated with Trauma and Vascular Deficiency

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osgood-Schlatter Disease of the Tibial Tubercle

Hypertrophic (Pulmonary) Osteoarthropathy

Aneurysmal Erosion

14. Reticuloendothelial and Hematopoietic Disorders

Introduction

Reticuloendothelial Diseases

Lipid Storage Diseases

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X)

Hematopoietic Diseases

Anemias

Leukemia

Myeloma

15. MetabOlic Disorders

Introduction

Vitamin C Deficiency

Pathology

Paleopathology

Rickets and Osteomalacia

Introduction

Pathology

Paleopathology

Hypophosphatasia

Pathology

Starvation

Pathology

Fluorosis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Osteopenia

Introduction

Pathology

Paleopathology

Localized Hyperostosis

Pathology

Generalized Hyperostosis with Pachydermia

Pathology

Paleopathology

16. Endocrine Disturbances

Introduction

Pituitary Disturbances

Pathology

Paleopathology

Other Endocrine Disturbances

Introduction

Pathology

Paleopathology

17. Miscellaneous Bone Diseases

Introduction

Paget's Disease

Pathology

Paleopathology

Fibrous Dysplasia

Pathology

Paleopathology

Neurofibromatosis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Myositis Ossificans Progressiva

Pathology

18. Congenital and Neuromechanical Abnormalities of the Skeleton

Introduction

Skull

Pathology

Paleopathology

Spine

Pathology

Paleopathology

Ribs and Sternum

Pathology and Paleopathology

Pelvis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Extremities

Pathology

Paleopathology

19. Skeletal Dysplasias and Related Diseases

Introduction

Defects in Endochondral Bone Formation

Achondroplasia

Mucopolysaccharidosis

Defects in Intramembranous Bone Formation

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Cleidocranial Dysostosis

Osteopetrosis

Pyknodysostosis

Metaphyseal Dysplasia (Pyle's Disease)

Diaphyseal Sclerosis (Camurati-Engelmann's Disease)

Melorheostosis (Left's Disease)

Osteopoikilosis

Osteopathia Striata

20. Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of Bone

Introduction

Primary Benign Tumors

Pathology

Paleopathology

Primary Malignant Bone Tumors

Pathology

Paleopathology

Metastatic Tumors

Pathology

Paleopathology

21. Osteoarthritis and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

Introduction

Osteoarthritis

Pathology

Paleopathology

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (Dish)

Pathology

Paleopathology

22. Erosive Arthropathies, Enthesopathies, and Miscellaneous Pathological Conditions of Joints

Introduction

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Pathology

Paleopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis

Spondyloarthropathy

General Pathology

Ankylosing Spondylitis (Marie-Strtimpell's Disease)

Psoriatic Arthritis

Spondyloarthropathies Associated with Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Other Erosive Arthropathies

Gout

Ochronosis (Alkaptonuria)

Neuropathic Arthropathy (Charcot's Joint)

23. Dental Disease and Miscellaneous Pathol gical Conditions of Jaws

Introduction

Dental Disease

Dental Caries

Gingivitis and Periodontitis

Disturbances in Dental Development

Dental Trauma

Dental Attrition

Dental Discoloration

Miscellaneous Pathological Conditions of Jaws

Pathology

Literature Cited

Index

Details

No. of pages:
645
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2003
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080525631
Hardcover ISBN:
9780125286282

About the Author

Donald Ortner

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Anthropology; National Museum of Natural History; Smithsonian Institution

Reviews

"This book provides a detailed and integrated description of the paleopathology of the human skeleton...I strongly recommend this book also for basic scientists and clinicians interested in bone diseases since the study of skeletal paleopathology undoubtedly will broaden our understanding of bone biology." --WIENER MEDIZINISCHE WOCHENSCHRIFT

"This is a comprehensive book that is rare in its field. Highly recommended." --E-STREAMS, November 2003