Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

2nd Edition - October 12, 1998
  • Author: Donald Ortner
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080525631

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Description

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains
  • More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features
  • Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years
  • Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

Readership

Bioanthropologists, paleopathologists, physical anthropologists, and any professional or researcher working in anthropology and archeology

Table of Contents


  • 1. Introduction

    History of the First Edition

    History of the Second Edition

    Objectives of the Second Edition

    Format of the Book

    Acknowledgments for the First Edition

    Acknowledgments for the Second Edition

    Abbreviations

    A Brief History of Paleopathology

    Research in Paleopathology at the Smithsonian Institution

    2. The Biology of Skeletal Tissues

    Cellular Biology of Bone and Cartilage

    Bone Cells

    Cartilage Cells

    Types of Cartilage

    Growth and Development of Bone

    Modeling of Skeletal Tissue

    Types of Bone Tissue

    Remodeling of Skeletal Tissue

    Microscopic Bone Remodeling

    Activation

    Resorption

    Reversal

    Formation

    Quiescence

    Osteon Remodeling

    Bone Biochemistry and Mineral Homeostasis

    Growth and Development of the Spine

    Growth and Development of Teeth

    Vascular Conditions That Affect Bone Formation and Destruction

    3. Background Data in Paleopathology

    Data Basic to Paleopathological Analysis

    Age Determination

    Ethnic Determination

    Sex Determination

    Stature Determination

    Demographic Analysis

    Archeological Excavation and Documentation

    4. Methods Used in the Analysis of Skeletal Lesions

    Gross Study of Skeletal Lesions

    Distribution of Lesions within the Skeleton

    Types of Bone Abnormalities

    Types of Abnormalities Associated with Joints

    Radiological Study of Skeletal Lesions

    Microscopic Study of Skeletal Lesions

    5. Recent Advances in Bone, Dentin, and Enamel Biochemistry

    Introduction

    Mineralized Tissue Cell Biology

    The Mineral of Bone, Dentin, and Enamel

    Paleopathological Considerations

    The Collagens of Bones and Teeth

    Paleopathological Considerations

    The Noncollagenous Proteins of Bones and Teeth

    Paleopathological Considerations

    Growth, Turnover, and Aging

    Conclusions

    6. Light Microscopic Analysis in Skeletal Paleopathology

    The Need for Microscopic Analysis

    Materials and Methods

    Postmortem Changes

    General Comments on Proliferative Reactions

    Periosteal Reactions on Long Bones

    Polsters

    Grenzstreifen

    Meningeal Reactions

    Fracture of Skull Vault and Concomitant Phenomena

    Primary Inflammatory Processes of the Pericranium and Skull Vault

    Porotic Hyperostosis

    Pseudopathology

    Conclusions and Summary

    7. Theoretical Issues in Paleopathology

    Evolutionary Dynamics in The Human

    Response to Disease

    Scientific Nature of Paleopathology

    Diagnostic Issues in Paleopathology

    Inferences about the Health Status of a Population Based on Evidence of Skeletal Disease

    Limitations of Skeletal Evidence of Disease

    Female Immune Reactivity and Maternal Mortality

    Gender As a Factor in Malnutrition and Morbidity

    Hypothetical Models of Male and Female Immune Reactivity

    Male/Female Ratios in Infectious Disease

    Implications for Interpreting Evidence of Disease in Archeological Human Skeletons

    Implications for Research in Paleopathology

    Conclusions

    8. Trauma

    Introduction

    Fracture

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Dislocation

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Deformation

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Scalping

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Mutilation

    Trephination

    History

    Paleopathology

    Traumatic Problems Arising from Pregnancy

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Sincipital-T Mutilation

    Summary and Conclusions

    9. Infectious Diseases: Introduction, Biology, Osteomyelitis, Periostitis, Brucellosis, Glanders, and Septic Arthritis

    Introduction

    Humoral Versus Cellular Responses to Infectious Agents

    Vascular Changes in Response to Infectious Agents

    The Biology of Infection

    Osteomyelitis

    Pathology

    Hematogenous Osteomyelitis

    Changes in Individual Bones

    Paleopathology

    The Skull

    Postcranial Osteomyelitis

    Periostitis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Brucellosis

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Glanders

    Pathology

    Septic Arthritis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    10. Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis and Leprosy

    Tuberculosis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Leprosy

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    11. Infectious Diseases: Treponematosis and Other Bacterial Infectious Diseases

    Treponematosis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Leishmaniasis

    Pathology

    Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis

    Pathology

    Mycetoma (Maduromycosis)

    Pathology

    12. Infectious Diseases: Mycotic, Viral, and Multicelled Parasitic Diseases of the Human Skeleton

    Introduction

    Mycosis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Viral Infections

    Introduction

    Smallpox (Variola)

    Rubella

    Multicelled Parasitic Infections Echinococcosis

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Sarcoidosis

    Introduction

    Pathology

    13. Circulatory Disturbances

    Introduction

    Blood Supply of Bones

    Osteonecrosis

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease and Slipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Other Disorders Associated with Osteonecrosis

    Kehler's Diseases of the Tarsal Navicular Bone

    Freiberg's Disease of a Metatarsal Head

    Kienbeck's Disease of the Carpal Lunate Bone

    Other Diseases Associated with Trauma and Vascular Deficiency

    Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Osgood-Schlatter Disease of the Tibial Tubercle

    Hypertrophic (Pulmonary) Osteoarthropathy

    Aneurysmal Erosion

    14. Reticuloendothelial and Hematopoietic Disorders

    Introduction

    Reticuloendothelial Diseases

    Lipid Storage Diseases

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X)

    Hematopoietic Diseases

    Anemias

    Leukemia

    Myeloma

    15. MetabOlic Disorders

    Introduction

    Vitamin C Deficiency

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Rickets and Osteomalacia

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Hypophosphatasia

    Pathology

    Starvation

    Pathology

    Fluorosis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Osteopenia

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Localized Hyperostosis

    Pathology

    Generalized Hyperostosis with Pachydermia

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    16. Endocrine Disturbances

    Introduction

    Pituitary Disturbances

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Other Endocrine Disturbances

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    17. Miscellaneous Bone Diseases

    Introduction

    Paget's Disease

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Fibrous Dysplasia

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Neurofibromatosis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Myositis Ossificans Progressiva

    Pathology

    18. Congenital and Neuromechanical Abnormalities of the Skeleton

    Introduction

    Skull

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Spine

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Ribs and Sternum

    Pathology and Paleopathology

    Pelvis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Extremities

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    19. Skeletal Dysplasias and Related Diseases

    Introduction

    Defects in Endochondral Bone Formation

    Achondroplasia

    Mucopolysaccharidosis

    Defects in Intramembranous Bone Formation

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Cleidocranial Dysostosis

    Osteopetrosis

    Pyknodysostosis

    Metaphyseal Dysplasia (Pyle's Disease)

    Diaphyseal Sclerosis (Camurati-Engelmann's Disease)

    Melorheostosis (Left's Disease)

    Osteopoikilosis

    Osteopathia Striata

    20. Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of Bone

    Introduction

    Primary Benign Tumors

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Primary Malignant Bone Tumors

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Metastatic Tumors

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    21. Osteoarthritis and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    Introduction

    Osteoarthritis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (Dish)

    Pathology

    Paleopathology

    22. Erosive Arthropathies, Enthesopathies, and Miscellaneous Pathological Conditions of Joints

    Introduction

    Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Pathology

    Paleopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis

    Spondyloarthropathy

    General Pathology

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (Marie-Strtimpell's Disease)

    Psoriatic Arthritis

    Spondyloarthropathies Associated with Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Other Erosive Arthropathies

    Gout

    Ochronosis (Alkaptonuria)

    Neuropathic Arthropathy (Charcot's Joint)

    23. Dental Disease and Miscellaneous Pathol gical Conditions of Jaws

    Introduction

    Dental Disease

    Dental Caries

    Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    Disturbances in Dental Development

    Dental Trauma

    Dental Attrition

    Dental Discoloration

    Miscellaneous Pathological Conditions of Jaws

    Pathology

    Literature Cited

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 664
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2002
  • Published: October 12, 1998
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080525631

About the Author

Donald Ortner

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Anthropology; National Museum of Natural History; Smithsonian Institution