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Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128036754, 9780128037041

Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI

1st Edition

From Technology to Application in Research and Medicine

Editors: Mitchell Albert Francis Hane
eBook ISBN: 9780128037041
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128036754
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th November 2016
Page Count: 332
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Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI: Theory and Applications in Research and Medicine is the first comprehensive volume published on HP gas MRI. Since the 1990’s, when HP gas MRI was invented by Dr. Albert and his colleagues, the HP gas MRI field has grown dramatically. The technique has proven to be a useful tool for diagnosis, disease staging, and therapy evaluation for obstructive lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis.

HP gas MRI has also been developed for functional imaging of the brain and is presently being developed for molecular imaging, including molecules associated with lung cancer, breast cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. Taking into account the ongoing growth of this field and the potential for future clinical applications, the book pulls together the most relevant and cutting-edge research available in HP gas MRI into one resource.

Key Features

  • Presents the most comprehensive, relevant, and accurate information on HP gas MRI
  • Co-edited by the co-inventor of HP gas MRI, Dr. Albert, with chapter authors who are the leading experts in their respective sub-disciplines
  • Serves as a foundation of understanding of HP gas MRI for researchers and clinicians involved in research, technology development, and clinical use with HP gas MRI
  • Covers all hyperpolarized gases, including helium, the gas with which the majority of HP gas MRI has been conducted


Scientists and clinicians involved in research, technology development, and clinical use with HP gas MRI. It may also be appropriate for scientists, clinicians and radiologists in the larger field of medical imaging who have an interest in advanced MRI techniques. In addition, it may be appropriate for undergraduate, graduate, and medical students doing course work in radiology, MR imaging, biomedical engineering, and physiology

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. MRI Acquisition Techniques

  • Abstract
  • Nonequilibrium Magnetization
  • High Diffusivity
  • Relaxation Times and Partial Pressure of Oxygen
  • Design Considerations for GRE Imaging
  • 129Xe Gas Exchange and Uptake
  • Closing Remarks
  • References

Chapter 2. The Physics of Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • HP Gases: Properties and Considerations
  • Methods for Generating HP Gases
  • HP Gases: Summary and Outlook
  • References

Chapter 3. Dynamic Imaging of Lung Ventilation and Gas Flow With Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • MRI Methodology
  • Physical Considerations for Dynamic Imaging
  • Clinical and Physiological Applications of Dynamic HP Gas MRI
  • References

Chapter 4. Persistence of Ventilation Defects in Asthmatics

  • Abstract
  • HP Gas MRI of the Normal Lung
  • HP Gas MRI in Asthma
  • Variable Versus Persistent Ventilation Defects
  • Appearance of Ventilation Defects Over Time
  • Effect of Bronchoconstricting Agent
  • Effect of Bronchodilators
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 5. Hyperpolarized 3He Gas MRI Studies of Pulmonary Disease

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Emphysema
  • Airway Disease
  • 3He MRI: Relationship to Outcomes
  • Future Directions
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 6. Pediatric Imaging and Cystic Fibrosis

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • HP Gas MRI Technique and Special Considerations in Children
  • Pediatric Applications of HP Gas MRI
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Lung Growth
  • Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 7. Hyperpolarized Gas MRI of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathogenesis of RILI
  • Application of Hyperpolarized 3HE MRI to RILI
  • Application of Hyperpolarized 129XE MRI to RILI
  • Discussion and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Chapter 8. Development and Application of Mouse Imaging Using Hyperpolarized Xenon

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Continuous Production and Delivery of HP 129Xe Gas
  • Some Features of HP 129Xe MR Signal
  • Gas-Phase 129Xe MRI
  • Dissolved-Phase 129Xe MR Measurements
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 9. Quantitative Ventilation Imaging Using Hyperpolarized Gas and Multibreath Imaging Sequences

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Quantitative Ventilation Metrics
  • An Overview of Quantitative Ventilation Imaging Methods
  • Hyperpolarized 3He/129Xe Imaging of Specific/Fractional Ventilation
  • Overview of Quantitative Imaging Using HP Gas
  • Animal Models
  • Human Imaging
  • Measurement Reproducibility and Validity
  • A Multiparameter Sequence for Lung Function Imaging
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 10. PAO2 Mapping Using HP Gas MRI

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical and Technical Development
  • PAO2 as a Clinical Marker
  • References

Chapter 11. Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Dissolved-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Measurement of Pulmonary Gas Exchange and Uptake by 129Xe Spectroscopy
  • Indirect Imaging of Dissolved-Phase 129Xe
  • Direct Imaging of Dissolved-Phase 129Xe
  • Conclusions and Outlook
  • References

Chapter 12. Lung Morphometry With HP Gas Diffusion MRI: From Theoretical Models to Experimental Measurements

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Diffusion of HP Gases in Lung Airspaces
  • Weibel Geometrical Model of Lung Acinar Airways
  • Anisotropic Diffusion of Gas in Acinar Airways: Microscopically Anisotropic—Macroscopically Isotropic Model
  • Phenomenological Theory of Anisotropic Diffusion in Acinar Airways
  • Accuracy Analysis: Effects of Acinar Airways Branching and Distribution of Geometrical Parameters
  • Validation of Lung Morphometry Technique
  • Applications of In Vivo Lung Morphometry Technique
  • 3He Gas T2* Transverse Relaxation Properties
  • ADC Measurements in Lungs
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter 13. CT and MRI Gas Ventilation Imaging of the Lungs

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • CT Assessment of Lung Ventilation
  • Newer CT Methods to Assess Lung Ventilation
  • CT Gas Ventilation Imaging of the Lungs
  • MRI Hyperpolarized Gas Ventilation Imaging of the Lungs
  • MRI Nonpolarized Gas Ventilation Imaging of the Lungs
  • Oxygen-Enhanced MRI Ventilation Imaging of the Lungs
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 14. Hyperpolarized Gas MRI of the Lung in Asthma

  • Abstract
  • Asthma and the Role of Imaging
  • Obstructive Physiology in Asthma
  • Asthma Mechanisms and Phenotypes
  • Meaning of Ventilation Defects in Asthma
  • Role of HP Gas MRI in the Study of Asthma Phenotypes
  • Future Work and Outlook
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Chapter 15. Oxygen-Enhanced MR Imaging for Lung: Basics and Clinical Applications

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 16. Brain Imaging Using Hyperpolarized Xenon MRI

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Existing Brain Imaging Techniques
  • Spectral Properties of 129Xe
  • 129Xe Brain Imaging
  • Neurovascular Pathologies
  • HP Xenon as a Functional Imaging Modality
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 17. Xenon Biosensor HyperCEST MRI

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Indirect Imaging and Spectroscopy Detection Through Saturation Transfer
  • CEST Detection: Special Considerations for Hyperpolarized 129Xe Versus 1H
  • Xenon Hosts
  • Sensor Design—Targeting Options
  • Probing Microenvironments
  • Saturation Schemes and Image Encoding
  • Outlook
  • References

Chapter 18. Pulmonary Imaging Using 19F MRI of Inert Fluorinated Gases

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Properties of Inert Fluorinated Gases
  • Static Breath-Hold Imaging
  • Dynamic Imaging
  • Gravitational Distribution of Ventilation
  • Diffusion Imaging
  • V/Q Measurement
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Chapter 19. Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation (SQUARE) Contrast in Pulmonary MRI With Hyperpolarized 83Kr

  • Abstract
  • 83Kr—A Spin I=9/2 Isotope
  • Hyperpolarized 83Kr, Quadrupolar Relaxation, and the Apparent Polarization, Papp
  • Why it All Matters—Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation of HP 83Kr
  • The HP 83Kr Ventilation System and Initial Pulmonary Measurements
  • Detailed NMR Spectroscopic Measurements of 83Kr T1 Relaxation as a Function of Inhalation Volume
  • HP 83Kr SQUARE T1 Contrast of an Animal Model of Emphysema
  • Perspectives for Clinical Applications of 83Kr MRI
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Chapter 20. Overview & Future Directions

  • Abstract
  • Conclusion
  • References


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
17th November 2016
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editors

Mitchell Albert

Dr Albert is the Lakehead University (LU)/Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute (TBRRI) Research Chair and Professor of Chemistry at LU. He co-invented the hyperpolarized (HP) gas MRI technology, and has been an ongoing pioneer in developing and applying HP gas MRI to new applications in research and preclinical settings. Dr Albert received a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Stony Brook, and served as a Professor at Harvard Medical School and the University of Massachusetts Medical School prior to joining the faculty at LU/TBRRI.

Dr Albert has published over 100 peer-reviewed papers and holds a 1.0 field-weighted citation impact, an H-index of 18, and 15% of his work appears in the top 10% most cited journals worldwide. His collaboration is International with 47.4% of his work co-authored by researchers in other countries.

He is a leader in next-generation outgrowths of HP gas MRI: HP xenon functional MRI (xenon fMRI), HP xenon biosensor MR molecular imaging, and fluorine-19 lung MRI of inert fluorinated gases. For his contributions to the field of HP gas MRI, Dr Albert received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers from U.S. President William Clinton in 1998.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Chair and Professor, Lakehead University (LU)/Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute (TBRRI), Ontario, Canada

Francis Hane

Francis Hane

Dr Hane is a post-doctoral fellow at TBRRI. He earned a Ph.D. in Biophysics from the University of Waterloo. He has contributed numerous conference talks and poster presentations. His doctoral work examined the role of metals and aggregation inhibitors on amyloid-ß, the protein implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. The discoveries are important in understanding the very initial stages of the Alzheimer’s disease cascade.

Dr Hane has published 20 peer-reviewed papers and carries a 1.42 field-weighted citation impact, H-index of 5, with 30.8% of his work appearing in the top 10% most cited journals worldwide. 33.3% of his collaboration has been International, co-authored by researchers in other countries.

Since completing his PhD, Dr Hane trained as a post-doctoral fellow under the supervision of Dr Albert. Dr Hane is presently working on developing new applications of HP gas MRI, including molecular imaging of amyloid oligomers for early detection or Alzheimer’s disease using HP xenon biosensor MRI, in collaboration with Dr Albert at TBRRI. Dr Hane is an expert on HP gas MRI molecular probes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute (TBRRI), Ontario, Canada

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